Azure Confidential Ledger client library for .NET - Version 1.0.0-beta.1

Azure Confidential Ledger provides a service for logging to an immutable, tamper-proof ledger. As part of the Azure Confidential Computing portfolio, Azure Confidential Ledger runs in SGX enclaves. It is built on Microsoft Research's Confidential Consortium Framework.

Source code | Package (NuGet)

Getting started

This section should include everything a developer needs to do to install and create their first client connection very quickly.

Install the package

Install the Confidential Ledger client library for .NET with NuGet:

dotnet add package Azure.Storage.ConfidentialLedger --prerelease


  • An Azure subscription.
  • A running instance of Azure Confidential Ledger.
  • A registered user in the Confidential Ledger with Administrator privileges.

Authenticate the client

Using Azure Active Directory

This document demonstrates using [DefaultAzureCredential][default_cred_ref] to authenticate to the Confidential Ledger via Azure Active Directory. However, any of the credentials offered by the Azure.Identity will be accepted. See the Azure.Identity documentation for more information about other credentials.

Using a client certificate

As an alternative to Azure Active Directory, clients may choose to use a client certificate to authenticate via mutual TLS.

Create a client

DefaultAzureCredential will automatically handle most Azure SDK client scenarios. To get started, set environment variables for the AAD identity registered with your Confidential Ledger.

export AZURE_CLIENT_ID="generated app id"
export AZURE_CLIENT_SECRET="random password"
export AZURE_TENANT_ID="tenant id"

Then, DefaultAzureCredential will be able to authenticate the ConfidentialLedgerClient.

Constructing the client also requires your Confidential Ledger's URL and id, which you can get from the Azure CLI or the Azure Portal. When you have retrieved those values, please replace instances of "my-ledger-id" and "" in the examples below

Because Confidential Ledgers use self-signed certificates securely generated and stored in an SGX enclave, the certificate for each Confidential Ledger must first be retrieved from the Confidential Ledger Identity Service.

Uri identityServiceUri = "<the identity service uri>";
var identityClient = new ConfidentialLedgerIdentityServiceClient(identityServiceUri, new Identity.DefaultAzureCredential());

// Get the ledger's  TLS certificate for our ledger.
string ledgerId = "<the ledger id>"; // ex. "my-ledger" from ""
Response response = identityClient.GetLedgerIdentity(ledgerId);

// extract the ECC PEM value from the response.
var eccPem = JsonDocument.Parse(response.Content)

// construct an X509Certificate2 with the ECC PEM value.
X509Certificate2 ledgerTlsCert = new X509Certificate2(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(eccPem));

Now we can construct the ConfidentialLedgerClient with a transport configuration that trusts the ledgerTlsCert.

// Create a certificate chain rooted with our TLS cert.
X509Chain certificateChain = new();
certificateChain.ChainPolicy.RevocationMode = X509RevocationMode.NoCheck;
certificateChain.ChainPolicy.RevocationFlag = X509RevocationFlag.ExcludeRoot;
certificateChain.ChainPolicy.VerificationFlags = X509VerificationFlags.AllowUnknownCertificateAuthority;
certificateChain.ChainPolicy.VerificationTime = DateTime.Now;
certificateChain.ChainPolicy.UrlRetrievalTimeout = new TimeSpan(0, 0, 0);

// Define a validation function to ensure that the ledger certificate is trusted by the ledger identity TLS certificate.
bool CertValidationCheck(HttpRequestMessage httpRequestMessage, X509Certificate2 cert, X509Chain x509Chain, SslPolicyErrors sslPolicyErrors)
    bool isChainValid = certificateChain.Build(cert);
    if (!isChainValid) return false;

    var isCertSignedByTheTlsCert = certificateChain.ChainElements.Cast<X509ChainElement>()
        .Any(x => x.Certificate.Thumbprint == ledgerTlsCert.Thumbprint);
    return isCertSignedByTheTlsCert;

// Create an HttpClientHandler to use our certValidationCheck function.
var httpHandler = new HttpClientHandler();
httpHandler.ServerCertificateCustomValidationCallback = CertValidationCheck;

// Create the ledger client using a transport that uses our custom ServerCertificateCustomValidationCallback.
var options = new ConfidentialLedgerClientOptions { Transport = new HttpClientTransport(httpHandler) };
var ledgerClient = new ConfidentialLedgerClient(TestEnvironment.ConfidentialLedgerUrl, new DefaultAzureCredential(), options);

Key concepts

Ledger entries

Every write to Confidential Ledger generates an immutable ledger entry in the service. Writes are uniquely identified by transaction ids that increment with each write.

Response postResponse = ledgerClient.PostLedgerEntry(
        new { contents = "Hello world!" }));

postResponse.Headers.TryGetValue(ConfidentialLedgerConstants.TransactionIdHeaderName, out string transactionId);
Console.WriteLine($"Appended transaction with Id: {transactionId}");

Since Confidential Ledger is a distributed system, rare transient failures may cause writes to be lost. For entries that must be preserved, it is advisable to verify that the write became durable. Note: It may be necessary to call GetTransactionStatus multiple times until it returns a "Committed" status.

Response statusResponse = ledgerClient.GetTransactionStatus(transactionId);

string status = JsonDocument.Parse(statusResponse.Content)

Console.WriteLine($"Transaction status: {status}");


State changes to the Confidential Ledger are saved in a data structure called a Merkle tree. To cryptographically verify that writes were correctly saved, a Merkle proof, or receipt, can be retrieved for any transaction id.

Response receiptResponse = ledgerClient.GetReceipt(transactionId);
string receiptJson = new StreamReader(receiptResponse.ContentStream).ReadToEnd();



While most use cases will involve one ledger, we provide the sub-ledger feature in case different logical groups of data need to be stored in the same Confidential Ledger.

        new { contents = "Hello from Chris!", subLedgerId = "Chris' messages" }));

        new { contents = "Hello from Allison!", subLedgerId = "Allison's messages" }));

When no sub-ledger id is specified on method calls, the Confidential Ledger service will assume a constant, service-determined sub-ledger id.

Response postResponse = ledgerClient.PostLedgerEntry(
        new { contents = "Hello world!" }));
postResponse.Headers.TryGetValue(ConfidentialLedgerConstants.Headers.TransactionId, out string transactionId);
string subLedgerId = JsonDocument.Parse(statusResponse.Content)

// Provide both the transactionId and subLedgerId.
Response getBySubledgerResponse = ledgerClient.GetLedgerEntry(transactionId, subLedgerId);

string contents = JsonDocument.Parse(getBySubledgerResponse.Content)

Console.WriteLine(contents); // "Hello world!"

// Now just provide the transactionId.
getBySubledgerResponse = ledgerClient.GetLedgerEntry(transactionId);

string subLedgerId2 = JsonDocument.Parse(getBySubledgerResponse.Content)

Console.WriteLine($"{subLedgerId} == {subLedgerId2}");

Ledger entries are retrieved from sub-ledgers. When a transaction id is specified, the returned value is the value contained in the specified sub-ledger at the point in time identified by the transaction id. If no transaction id is specified, the latest available value is returned.

Response firstPostResponse = ledgerClient.PostLedgerEntry(
    RequestContent.Create(new { contents = "Hello world 0" }));
    RequestContent.Create(new { contents = "Hello world 1" }));
Response subLedgerPostResponse = ledgerClient.PostLedgerEntry(
    RequestContent.Create(new { contents = "Hello world sub-ledger 0" }),
    "my sub-ledger");
    RequestContent.Create(new { contents = "Hello world sub-ledger 1" }),
    "my sub-ledger");

firstPostResponse.Headers.TryGetValue(ConfidentialLedgerConstants.Headers.TransactionId, out string transactionId);

// The ledger entry written at the transactionId in firstResponse is retrieved from the default sub-ledger.
Response getResponse = ledgerClient.GetLedgerEntry(transactionId);
string firstEntryContents = JsonDocument.Parse(getResponse.Content)

Console.WriteLine(firstEntryContents); // "Hello world 0"

// This will return the latest entry available in the default sub-ledger.
getResponse = ledgerClient.GetCurrentLedgerEntry();
string latestDefaultSubLedger = JsonDocument.Parse(getResponse.Content)

Console.WriteLine($"The latest ledger entry from the default sub-ledger is {latestDefaultSubLedger}"); //"Hello world 1"

// The ledger entry written at subLedgerTransactionId is retrieved from the sub-ledger 'sub-ledger'.
subLedgerPostResponse.Headers.TryGetValue(ConfidentialLedgerConstants.TransactionIdHeaderName, out string subLedgerTransactionId);
getResponse = ledgerClient.GetLedgerEntry(subLedgerTransactionId, "my sub-ledger");
string subLedgerEntry = JsonDocument.Parse(getResponse.Content)

Console.WriteLine(subLedgerEntry); // "Hello world sub-ledger 0"

// This will return the latest entry available in the sub-ledger.
getResponse = ledgerClient.GetCurrentLedgerEntry("my sub-ledger");
string latestSubLedger = JsonDocument.Parse(getResponse.Content)

Console.WriteLine($"The latest ledger entry from the sub-ledger is {latestSubLedger}"); // "Hello world sub-ledger 1"
Ranged queries

Ledger entries in a sub-ledger may be retrieved over a range of transaction ids.

ledgerClient.GetLedgerEntries(fromTransactionId: "2.1", toTransactionId: "4.5");

User management

Users are managed directly with the Confidential Ledger instead of through Azure. New users may be AAD-based or certificate-based.

string newUserAadObjectId = "<some AAD user or service princpal object Id>";
    RequestContent.Create(new { assignedRole = "Reader" }));

Confidential consortium and enclave verifications

One may want to validate details about the Confidential Ledger for a variety of reasons. For example, you may want to view details about how Microsoft may manage your Confidential Ledger as part of Confidential Consortium Framework governance, or verify that your Confidential Ledger is indeed running in SGX enclaves. A number of client methods are provided for these use cases.

Response consortiumResponse = ledgerClient.GetConsortiumMembers();
string membersJson = new StreamReader(consortiumResponse.ContentStream).ReadToEnd();

// Consortium members can manage and alter the Confidential Ledger, such as by replacing unhealthy nodes.

// The constitution is a collection of JavaScript code that defines actions available to members,
// and vets proposals by members to execute those actions.
Response constitutionResponse = ledgerClient.GetConstitution();
string constitutionJson = new StreamReader(constitutionResponse.ContentStream).ReadToEnd();


// Enclave quotes contain material that can be used to cryptographically verify the validity and contents of an enclave.
Response enclavesResponse = ledgerClient.GetEnclaveQuotes();
string enclavesJson = new StreamReader(enclavesResponse.ContentStream).ReadToEnd();


Microsoft Azure Attestation Service is one provider of SGX enclave quotes.

Thread safety

We guarantee that all client instance methods are thread-safe and independent of each other (guideline). This ensures that the recommendation of reusing client instances is always safe, even across threads.

Additional concepts

Client options | Accessing the response | Long-running operations | Handling failures | Diagnostics | Mocking | Client lifetime


Coming Soon...


Response values returned from Confidential Ledger client methods are Response objects, which contain information about the http response such as the http Status property and a Headers object containing more information about the failure.

Setting up console logging

The simplest way to see the logs is to enable the console logging. To create an Azure SDK log listener that outputs messages to console use AzureEventSourceListener.CreateConsoleLogger method.

// Setup a listener to monitor logged events.
using AzureEventSourceListener listener = AzureEventSourceListener.CreateConsoleLogger();

To learn more about other logging mechanisms see [here][logging].

Next steps

For more extensive documentation on Azure Confidential Ledger, see the API reference documentation. You may also read more about Microsoft Research's open-source Confidential Consortium Framework.


This project welcomes contributions and suggestions. Most contributions require you to agree to a Contributor License Agreement (CLA) declaring that you have the right to, and actually do, grant us the rights to use your contribution. For details, visit [][cla].

This project has adopted the [Microsoft Open Source Code of Conduct][coc]. For more information see the [Code of Conduct FAQ][coc_faq] or contact [][coc_contact] with any additional questions or comments.