适用于 Azure 应用程序网关的 Azure 安全基线Azure security baseline for Azure Application Gateway

Azure 应用程序网关的 Azure 安全基线包含可帮助你改善部署安全状况的建议。The Azure Security Baseline for Azure Application Gateway contains recommendations that will help you improve the security posture of your deployment.

此服务的基线摘自 Azure 安全基准版本 1.0,其中提供了有关如何根据我们的最佳做法指导保护 Azure 上的云解决方案的建议。The baseline for this service is drawn from the Azure Security Benchmark version 1.0, which provides recommendations on how you can secure your cloud solutions on Azure with our best practices guidance.

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线概述For more information, see the Azure security baselines overview.

网络安全性Network security

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:网络安全For more information, see Security control: Network security.

1.1:保护虚拟网络中的 Azure 资源1.1: Protect Azure resources within virtual networks

指导:请确保所有虚拟网络 Azure 应用程序网关子网部署都应用了网络安全组 (NSG),且具有针对应用程序受信任端口和源的网络访问控制。Guidance: Ensure that all Virtual Network Azure Application Gateway subnet deployments have a network security group (NSG) applied with network access controls specific to your application's trusted ports and sources. 虽然 Azure 应用程序网关上支持网络安全组,但必须遵守某些限制和要求,以使 NSG 和 Azure 应用程序网关按预期运行。While network security groups are supported on Azure Application Gateway, there are some restrictions and requirements that must be adhered to in order for your NSG and Azure Application Gateway to function as expected.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.2:监视和记录虚拟网络、子网和 NIC 的配置与流量1.2: Monitor and log the configuration and traffic of virtual networks, subnets, and NICs

指导:对于与 Azure 应用程序网关子网关联的网络安全组 (NSG),启用 NSG 流日志,并将日志发送到存储帐户以进行流量审核。Guidance: For the network security groups (NSGs) associated with your Azure Application Gateway subnets, enable NSG flow logs and send logs into a Storage Account for traffic audit. 还可以将 NSG 流日志发送到 Log Analytics 工作区,并使用流量分析来提供有关 Azure 云中流量流的见解。You may also send NSG flow logs to a Log Analytics Workspace and use Traffic Analytics to provide insights into traffic flow in your Azure cloud. 流量分析的优势包括能够可视化网络活动、识别热点、识别安全威胁、了解流量流模式,以及查明网络不当配置。Some advantages of Traffic Analytics are the ability to visualize network activity and identify hot spots, identify security threats, understand traffic flow patterns, and pinpoint network misconfigurations.

注意:在某些情况下,与 Azure 应用程序网关子网关联的 NSG 流日志不会显示已允许的流量。Note: There are some cases where NSG flow logs associated with your Azure Application Gateway subnets won't show traffic that has been allowed. 如果配置与以下情况匹配,则 NSG 流日志中不会显示允许的流量:If your configuration matches following scenario, you won't see allowed traffic in your NSG flow logs:

  • 已部署了应用程序网关 v2You've deployed Application Gateway v2
  • 应用程序网关子网上有 NSGYou have an NSG on the application gateway subnet
  • 已在该 NSG 上启用了 NSG 流日志You've enabled NSG flow logs on that NSG

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.3:保护关键 Web 应用程序1.3: Protect critical web applications

指导:在关键 Web 应用程序前部署 Azure Web 应用程序防火墙 (WAF),以对传入的流量进行额外的检查。Guidance: Deploy Azure Web Application Firewall (WAF) in front of critical web applications for additional inspection of incoming traffic. Web 应用程序防火墙 (WAF) 是(Azure 应用程序网关的)一项服务功能,可以对 Web 应用程序进行集中保护,避免其受到常见攻击和漏洞的伤害。Web Application Firewall (WAF) is a service (feature of Azure Application Gateway) that provides centralized protection of your web applications from common exploits and vulnerabilities. Azure WAF 通过检查入站 Web 流量来阻止攻击(例如 SQL 注入、跨站点脚本、恶意软件上传和 DDoS 攻击),从而帮助保护 Azure 应用服务 Web 应用的安全。Azure WAF can help secure your Azure App Service web apps by inspecting inbound web traffic to block attacks such as SQL injections, Cross-Site Scripting, malware uploads, and DDoS attacks. WAF 基于 OWASP(开放 Web 应用程序安全项目)核心规则集 3.1(仅限 WAF_v2)、3.0 和 2.2.9 中的规则。WAF is based on rules from the OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) core rule sets 3.1 (WAF_v2 only), 3.0, and 2.2.9.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.4:拒绝与已知恶意的 IP 地址进行通信1.4: Deny communications with known malicious IP addresses

指导:在与 Azure 应用程序网关的生产实例相关联的 Azure 虚拟网络上启用 DDoS 标准保护,以防范 DDoS 攻击。Guidance: Enable DDoS Standard protection on your Azure Virtual Networks associated with your production instances of Azure Application Gateway to guard against DDoS attacks. 使用 Azure 安全中心的集成式威胁情报功能拒绝与已知的恶意 IP 地址通信。Use Azure Security Center Integrated Threat Intelligence to deny communications with known malicious IP addresses.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.5:记录网络数据包1.5: Record network packets

指导:对于与 Azure 应用程序网关子网关联的网络安全组 (NSG),启用 NSG 流日志,并将日志发送到存储帐户以进行流量审核。Guidance: For the network security groups (NSGs) associated with your Azure Application Gateway subnets, enable NSG flow logs and send logs into a Storage Account for traffic audit. 还可以将 NSG 流日志发送到 Log Analytics 工作区,并使用流量分析来提供有关 Azure 云中流量流的见解。You may also send NSG flow logs to a Log Analytics Workspace and use Traffic Analytics to provide insights into traffic flow in your Azure cloud. 流量分析的优势包括能够可视化网络活动、识别热点、识别安全威胁、了解流量流模式,以及查明网络不当配置。Some advantages of Traffic Analytics are the ability to visualize network activity and identify hot spots, identify security threats, understand traffic flow patterns, and pinpoint network misconfigurations.

注意:在某些情况下,与 Azure 应用程序网关子网关联的 NSG 流日志不会显示已允许的流量。Note: There are some cases where NSG flow logs associated with your Azure Application Gateway subnets won't show traffic that has been allowed. 如果配置与以下情况匹配,则 NSG 流日志中不会显示允许的流量:If your configuration matches following scenario, you won't see allowed traffic in your NSG flow logs:

  • 已部署了应用程序网关 v2You've deployed Application Gateway v2
  • 应用程序网关子网上有 NSGYou have an NSG on the application gateway subnet
  • 已在该 NSG 上启用了 NSG 流日志You've enabled NSG flow logs on that NSG

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.6:部署基于网络的入侵检测/入侵防护系统 (IDS/IPS)1.6: Deploy network based intrusion detection/intrusion prevention systems (IDS/IPS)

指导:在关键 Web 应用程序前部署 Azure Web 应用程序防火墙 (WAF),以对传入的流量进行额外的检查。Guidance: Deploy Azure Web Application Firewall (WAF) in front of critical web applications for additional inspection of incoming traffic. Web 应用程序防火墙 (WAF) 是(Azure 应用程序网关的)一项服务功能,可以对 Web 应用程序进行集中保护,避免其受到常见攻击和漏洞的伤害。Web Application Firewall (WAF) is a service (feature of Azure Application Gateway) that provides centralized protection of your web applications from common exploits and vulnerabilities. Azure WAF 通过检查入站 Web 流量来阻止攻击(例如 SQL 注入、跨站点脚本、恶意软件上传和 DDoS 攻击),从而帮助保护 Azure 应用服务 Web 应用的安全。Azure WAF can help secure your Azure App Service web apps by inspecting inbound web traffic to block attacks such as SQL injections, Cross-Site Scripting, malware uploads, and DDoS attacks. WAF 基于 OWASP(开放 Web 应用程序安全项目)核心规则集 3.1(仅限 WAF_v2)、3.0 和 2.2.9 中的规则。WAF is based on rules from the OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) core rule sets 3.1 (WAF_v2 only), 3.0, and 2.2.9.

另外,Azure 市场上还提供了多种市场选项,它们均包含 IDS/IPS 功能,例如 Barracuda WAF for Azure。Alternatively, there are multiple marketplace options like the Barracuda WAF for Azure that are available on the Azure Marketplace which include IDS/IPS features.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.7:管理发往 Web 应用程序的流量1.7: Manage traffic to web applications

指导:为 Web 应用程序部署 Azure 应用程序网关,并为受信任的证书启用 HTTPS/SSL。Guidance: Deploy Azure Application Gateway for web applications with HTTPS/SSL enabled for trusted certificates.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.8:最大程度地降低网络安全规则的复杂性和管理开销1.8: Minimize complexity and administrative overhead of network security rules

指导:在网络安全组或 Azure 防火墙中使用虚拟网络服务标记来定义网络访问控制。Guidance: Use Virtual Network Service Tags to define network access controls on Network Security Groups or Azure Firewall. 创建安全规则时,可以使用服务标记代替特定的 IP 地址。You can use service tags in place of specific IP addresses when creating security rules. 在规则的相应源或目标字段中指定服务标记名称(例如 GatewayManager),可以允许或拒绝相应服务的流量。By specifying the service tag name (e.g., GatewayManager) in the appropriate source or destination field of a rule, you can allow or deny the traffic for the corresponding service. Microsoft 会管理服务标记包含的地址前缀,并会在地址发生更改时自动更新服务标记。Microsoft manages the address prefixes encompassed by the service tag and automatically updates the service tag as addresses change.

对于与 Azure 应用程序网关子网关联的网络安全组 (NSG),必须为应用程序网关 v1 SKU 在 TCP 端口 65503-65534 上允许传入 Internet 流量,为 v2 SKU 在 TCP 端口 65200-65535 上允许传入 Internet 流量,并将目标子网设为 Any,将源设为 GatewayManager 服务标记。For the network security groups (NSGs) associated with your Azure Application Gateway subnets, you must allow incoming Internet traffic on TCP ports 65503-65534 for the Application Gateway v1 SKU, and TCP ports 65200-65535 for the v2 SKU with the destination subnet as Any and source as GatewayManager service tag. 此端口范围是进行 Azure 基础结构通信所必需的。This port range is required for Azure infrastructure communication. 这些端口受 Azure 证书的保护(处于锁定状态)。These ports are protected (locked down) by Azure certificates. 外部实体(包括这些网关的客户)无法在这些终结点上通信。External entities, including the customers of those gateways, can't communicate on these endpoints.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.9:维护网络设备的标准安全配置1.9: Maintain standard security configurations for network devices

指导:定义并实现与 Azure 应用程序网关部署相关的网络设置的标准安全配置。Guidance: Define and implement standard security configurations for network settings related to your Azure Application Gateway deployments. 在“Microsoft.Network”命名空间中使用 Azure Policy 别名创建自定义策略,以审核或强制实施 Azure 应用程序网关、Azure 虚拟网络和网络安全组的网络配置。Use Azure Policy aliases in the "Microsoft.Network" namespace to create custom policies to audit or enforce the network configuration of your Azure Application Gateways, Azure Virtual Networks, and network security groups. 还可以利用内置策略定义。You may also make use of built-in policy definition.

还可以使用 Azure 蓝图,通过在单个蓝图定义中打包关键环境项目(例如 Azure 资源管理器模板、Azure 基于角色的访问控制 (Azure RBAC) 和策略)来简化大规模的 Azure 部署。You may also use Azure Blueprints to simplify large-scale Azure deployments by packaging key environment artifacts, such as Azure Resource Manager templates, Azure role-based access control (Azure RBAC), and policies in a single blueprint definition. 可以轻松将蓝图应用到新的订阅和环境,并通过版本控制来微调控制措施和管理。You can easily apply the blueprint to new subscriptions, environments, and fine-tune control and management through versioning.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.10:阐述流量配置规则1.10: Document traffic configuration rules

指导:对与 Azure 应用程序网关子网关联的网络安全组 (NSG) 以及与网络安全和流量流相关的任何其他资源使用标记。Guidance: Use Tags for network security groups (NSGs) associated with your Azure Application Gateway subnet as well as any other resources related to network security and traffic flow. 对于单个 NSG 规则,请使用“说明”字段针对允许流量传入/传出网络的任何规则指定业务需求和/或持续时间等。For individual NSG rules, use the "Description" field to specify business need and/or duration (etc.) for any rules that allow traffic to/from a network.

使用标记相关的任何内置 Azure 策略定义(例如“需要标记及其值”)来确保使用标记创建所有资源,并在有现有资源不带标记时发出通知。Use any of the built-in Azure policy definitions related to tagging, such as "Require tag and its value" to ensure that all resources are created with Tags and to notify you of existing untagged resources.

可以使用 Azure PowerShell 或 Azure CLI 根据资源的标记查找资源或对其执行操作。You may use Azure PowerShell or Azure CLI to look-up or perform actions on resources based on their Tags.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.11:使用自动化工具来监视网络资源配置和检测更改1.11: Use automated tools to monitor network resource configurations and detect changes

指导:使用 Azure 活动日志监视网络资源配置,并检测与 Azure 应用程序网关部署相关的网络设置和资源的更改。Guidance: Use Azure Activity Log to monitor network resource configurations and detect changes for network settings and resources related to your Azure Application Gateway deployments. 在 Azure Monitor 中创建当关键网络设置或资源发生更改时触发的警报。Create alerts within Azure Monitor that will trigger when changes to critical network settings or resources takes place.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

日志记录和监视Logging and monitoring

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:日志记录和监视For more information, see Security control: Logging and monitoring.

2.1:使用批准的时间同步源2.1: Use approved time synchronization sources

指导:Microsoft 维护用于 Azure 资源的时间源,如 Azure 应用服务。Guidance: Microsoft maintains the time source used for Azure resources such as Azure App Service.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:MicrosoftResponsibility: Microsoft

2.2:配置中心安全日志管理2.2: Configure central security log management

指导:对于控制平面审核日志记录,请启用 Azure 活动日志诊断设置,并将日志发送到 Log Analytics 工作区、Azure 事件中心或 Azure 存储帐户。Guidance: For control plane audit logging, enable Azure Activity Log diagnostic settings and send the logs to a Log Analytics workspace, Azure event hub, or Azure storage account. 使用 Azure 活动日志数据,可以确定任何写入操作(PUT、POST、DELETE)的“内容、对象和时间”,这些写入操作在控制平面级别上针对 Azure 应用程序网关以及用于保护 Azure 应用程序网关子网的相关资源执行。Using Azure Activity Log data, you can determine the "what, who, and when" for any write operations (PUT, POST, DELETE) performed at the control plane level for your Azure Application Gateway and related resources, such as network security groups (NSGs), being used to protect the Azure Application Gateway subnet.

除活动日志外,还可以配置 Azure 应用程序网关部署的诊断设置。In addition to Activity Logs, you can configure diagnostic settings for your Azure Application Gateway deployments. 诊断设置用于将资源的平台日志和指标流式导出配置到你选择的目标位置(存储帐户、事件中心和 Log Analytics)。diagnostic settings are used to configure streaming export of platform logs and metrics for a resource to the destination of your choice (Storage Accounts, Event Hubs and Log Analytics).

Azure 应用程序网关还提供与 Azure Application Insights 的内置集成。Azure Application Gateway also offers built-in integration with Azure Application Insights. Application Insights 可收集日志、性能和错误数据。Application Insights collects log, performance, and error data. Application Insights 可自动检测性能异常,并且包含了强大的分析工具来帮助你诊断问题并了解 Web 应用的使用情况。Application Insights automatically detects performance anomalies and includes powerful analytics tools to help you diagnose issues and to understand how your web apps are being used. 可以启用连续导出,将遥测从 Application Insights 导出到一个集中位置,以使数据保留的时间长于标准保持期。You may enable continuous export to export telemetry from Application Insights into a centralized location to keep the data for longer than the standard retention period.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.3:为 Azure 资源启用审核日志记录2.3: Enable audit logging for Azure resources

指导:对于控制平面审核日志记录,请启用 Azure 活动日志诊断设置,并将日志发送到 Log Analytics 工作区、Azure 事件中心或 Azure 存储帐户。Guidance: For control plane audit logging, enable Azure Activity Log diagnostic settings and send the logs to a Log Analytics workspace, Azure event hub, or Azure storage account. 使用 Azure 活动日志数据,可以确定任何写入操作(PUT、POST、DELETE)的“内容、对象和时间”,这些写入操作在控制平面级别上针对 Azure 应用程序网关以及用于保护 Azure 应用程序网关子网的相关资源执行。Using Azure Activity Log data, you can determine the "what, who, and when" for any write operations (PUT, POST, DELETE) performed at the control plane level for your Azure Application Gateway and related resources, such as network security groups (NSGs), being used to protect the Azure Application Gateway subnet.

除活动日志外,还可以配置 Azure 应用程序网关部署的诊断设置。In addition to Activity Logs, you can configure diagnostic settings for your Azure Application Gateway deployments. 诊断设置用于将资源的平台日志和指标流式导出配置到你选择的目标位置(存储帐户、事件中心和 Log Analytics)。diagnostic settings are used to configure streaming export of platform logs and metrics for a resource to the destination of your choice (Storage Accounts, Event Hubs and Log Analytics).

Azure 应用程序网关还提供与 Azure Application Insights 的内置集成。Azure Application Gateway also offers built-in integration with Azure Application Insights. Application Insights 可收集日志、性能和错误数据。Application Insights collects log, performance, and error data. Application Insights 可自动检测性能异常,并且包含了强大的分析工具来帮助你诊断问题并了解 Web 应用的使用情况。Application Insights automatically detects performance anomalies and includes powerful analytics tools to help you diagnose issues and to understand how your web apps are being used. 可以启用连续导出,将遥测从 Application Insights 导出到一个集中位置,以使数据保留的时间长于标准保持期。You may enable continuous export to export telemetry from Application Insights into a centralized location to keep the data for longer than the standard retention period.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.4:从操作系统收集安全日志2.4: Collect security logs from operating systems

指导:不适用;此建议适用于 IaaS 计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for IaaS compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

2.5:配置安全日志存储保留期2.5: Configure security log storage retention

指南:在 Azure Monitor 中,根据组织的合规性规章设置 Log Analytics 工作区保留期。Guidance: Within Azure Monitor, set your Log Analytics Workspace retention period according to your organization's compliance regulations. 使用 Azure 存储帐户进行长期/存档存储。Use Azure Storage Accounts for long-term/archival storage.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.6:监视和审查日志2.6: Monitor and review Logs

指导:启用 Azure 活动日志诊断设置以及 Azure 应用程序网关的诊断设置,并将日志发送到 Log Analytics 工作区。Guidance: Enable Azure Activity Log diagnostic settings as well as the diagnostic settings for your Azure Application Gateway and send the logs to a Log Analytics workspace. 在 Log Analytics 中执行查询,以搜索字词、识别趋势、分析模式,并根据收集的数据提供许多其他见解。Perform queries in Log Analytics to search terms, identify trends, analyze patterns, and provide many other insights based on the collected data.

使用 Azure 网络监视器以全面了解所有已部署网络资源(包括 Azure 应用程序网关)的运行状况和指标。Use Azure Monitor for Networks for a comprehensive view of health and metrics for all deployed network resources, including your Azure Application Gateways.

(可选)可以启用将数据加入 Azure Sentinel 或第三方 SIEM 的功能。Optionally, you may enable and on-board data to Azure Sentinel or a third-party SIEM.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.7:针对异常活动启用警报2.7: Enable alerts for anomalous activities

指导:在关键 Web 应用程序前部署 Azure Web 应用程序防火墙 (WAF) v2 SKU,以对传入的流量进行额外的检查。Guidance: Deploy Azure Web Application Firewall (WAF) v2 SKU in front of critical web applications for additional inspection of incoming traffic. Web 应用程序防火墙 (WAF) 是(Azure 应用程序网关的)一项服务功能,可以对 Web 应用程序进行集中保护,避免其受到常见攻击和漏洞的伤害。Web Application Firewall (WAF) is a service (feature of Azure Application Gateway) that provides centralized protection of your web applications from common exploits and vulnerabilities. Azure WAF 通过检查入站 Web 流量来阻止攻击(例如 SQL 注入、跨站点脚本、恶意软件上传和 DDoS 攻击),从而帮助保护 Azure 应用服务 Web 应用的安全。Azure WAF can help secure your Azure App Service web apps by inspecting inbound web traffic to block attacks such as SQL injections, Cross-Site Scripting, malware uploads, and DDoS attacks. WAF 基于 OWASP(开放 Web 应用程序安全项目)核心规则集 3.1(仅限 WAF_v2)、3.0 和 2.2.9 中的规则。WAF is based on rules from the OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) core rule sets 3.1 (WAF_v2 only), 3.0, and 2.2.9.

启用 Azure 活动日志诊断设置以及 Azure WAF 的诊断设置,并将日志发送到 Log Analytics 工作区。Enable Azure Activity Log diagnostic settings as well as the diagnostic settings for your Azure WAF and send the logs to a Log Analytics workspace. 在 Log Analytics 中执行查询,以搜索字词、识别趋势、分析模式,并根据收集的数据提供许多其他见解。Perform queries in Log Analytics to search terms, identify trends, analyze patterns, and provide many other insights based on the collected data. 可以根据 Log Analytics 工作区查询来创建警报。You can create alerts based on your Log Analytics workspace queries.

使用 Azure 网络监视器以全面了解所有已部署网络资源(包括 Azure 应用程序网关)的运行状况和指标。Use Azure Monitor for Networks for a comprehensive view of health and metrics for all deployed network resources, including your Azure Application Gateways. 在 Azure 网络监视器控制台中,可以查看和创建 Azure 应用程序网关的警报。Within the Azure Monitor for Networks console, you can view and create alerts for Azure Application Gateway.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.8:集中管理反恶意软件日志记录2.8: Centralize anti-malware logging

指导:在关键 Web 应用程序前部署 Azure Web 应用程序防火墙 (WAF) v2,以对传入的流量进行额外的检查。Guidance: Deploy Azure Web Application Firewall (WAF) v2 in front of critical web applications for additional inspection of incoming traffic. Web 应用程序防火墙 (WAF) 是(Azure 应用程序网关的)一项服务功能,可以对 Web 应用程序进行集中保护,避免其受到常见攻击和漏洞的伤害。Web Application Firewall (WAF) is a service (feature of Azure Application Gateway) that provides centralized protection of your web applications from common exploits and vulnerabilities. Azure WAF 通过检查入站 Web 流量来阻止攻击(例如 SQL 注入、跨站点脚本、恶意软件上传和 DDoS 攻击),从而帮助保护 Azure 应用服务 Web 应用的安全。Azure WAF can help secure your Azure App Service web apps by inspecting inbound web traffic to block attacks such as SQL injections, Cross-Site Scripting, malware uploads, and DDoS attacks.

配置 Azure 应用程序网关部署的诊断设置。Configure diagnostic settings for your Azure Application Gateway deployments. 诊断设置用于将资源的平台日志和指标流式导出配置到你选择的目标位置(存储帐户、事件中心和 Log Analytics)。diagnostic settings are used to configure streaming export of platform logs and metrics for a resource to the destination of your choice (Storage Accounts, Event Hubs and Log Analytics).

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.9:启用 DNS 查询日志记录2.9: Enable DNS query logging

指导:不适用;Azure 应用程序网关不会处理或生成与用户可访问的 DNS 相关的日志。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure Application Gateway does not process or produce user accessible DNS-related logs.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

2.10:启用命令行审核日志记录2.10: Enable command-line audit logging

指导:不适用;此项指导适用于 IaaS 计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this guideline is intended for IaaS compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

标识和访问控制Identity and access control

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:标识和访问控制For more information, see Security control: Identity and access control.

3.1:维护管理帐户的清单3.1: Maintain an inventory of administrative accounts

指导:Azure Active Directory (AD) 具有必须显式分配且可查询的内置角色。Guidance: Azure Active Directory (AD) has built-in roles that must be explicitly assigned and are queryable. 使用 Azure AD PowerShell 模块执行即席查询,以发现属于管理组成员的帐户。Use the Azure AD PowerShell module to perform ad hoc queries to discover accounts that are members of administrative groups.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.2:在适用的情况下更改默认密码3.2: Change default passwords where applicable

指导:通过 Azure Active Directory (AD) 控制对 Azure 应用程序网关的控制平面访问。Guidance: Control plane access to Azure Application Gateway is controlled through Azure Active Directory (AD). Azure AD 没有默认密码。Azure AD does not have the concept of default passwords.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.3:使用专用管理帐户3.3: Use dedicated administrative accounts

指南:围绕专用管理帐户的使用创建标准操作程序。Guidance: Create standard operating procedures around the use of dedicated administrative accounts. 使用 Azure 安全中心标识和访问管理来监视管理帐户的数量。Use Azure Security Center Identity and Access Management to monitor the number of administrative accounts.

此外,为了帮助你跟踪专用管理帐户,你可以使用 Azure 安全中心或内置的 Azure 策略提供的建议,例如:Additionally, to help you keep track of dedicated administrative accounts, you may use recommendations from Azure Security Center or built-in Azure Policies, such as:

  • 应该为你的订阅分配了多个所有者There should be more than one owner assigned to your subscription
  • 应从订阅中删除拥有所有者权限的已弃用帐户Deprecated accounts with owner permissions should be removed from your subscription
  • 应从订阅中删除拥有所有者权限的外部帐户External accounts with owner permissions should be removed from your subscription

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.4:将单一登录 (SSO) 与 Azure Active Directory 配合使用3.4: Use single sign-on (SSO) with Azure Active Directory

指导:使用 Azure 应用注册(服务主体)来检索令牌,该令牌可用于通过 API 调用与 Azure 应用程序网关进行交互。Guidance: Use an Azure app registration (service principal) to retrieve a token that can be used to interact with your Azure Application Gateways via API calls.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.5:对所有基于 Azure Active Directory 的访问使用多重身份验证3.5: Use multi-factor authentication for all Azure Active Directory based access

指导:启用 Azure AD MFA,并遵循 Azure 安全中心标识和访问管理建议。Guidance: Enable Azure AD MFA and follow Azure Security Center Identity and Access Management recommendations.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.6:对所有管理任务使用专用计算机(特权访问工作站)3.6: Use dedicated machines (Privileged Access Workstations) for all administrative tasks

指南:将 PAW(特权访问工作站)与为登录和配置 Azure 资源而配置的 MFA 结合使用。Guidance: Use PAWs (privileged access workstations) with MFA configured to log into and configure Azure resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.7:记录来自管理帐户的可疑活动并对其发出警报3.7: Log and alert on suspicious activities from administrative accounts

指导:使用 Azure Active Directory 安全报告在环境中发生可疑活动或不安全的活动时生成日志和警报。Guidance: Use Azure Active Directory security reports for generation of logs and alerts when suspicious or unsafe activity occurs in the environment. 使用 Azure 安全中心监视标识和访问活动。Use Azure Security Center to monitor identity and access activity.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.8:仅从批准的位置管理 Azure 资源3.8: Manage Azure resources from only approved locations

指南:使用条件访问命名位置,仅允许从 IP 地址范围或国家/地区的特定逻辑分组进行访问。Guidance: Use Conditional Access Named Locations to allow access from only specific logical groupings of IP address ranges or countries/regions.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.9:使用 Azure Active Directory3.9: Use Azure Active Directory

指导:使用 Azure Active Directory (AAD) 作为中心身份验证和授权系统。Guidance: Use Azure Active Directory (AAD) as the central authentication and authorization system. AAD 通过对静态数据和传输中数据使用强加密来保护数据。AAD protects data by using strong encryption for data at rest and in transit. AAD 还会对用户凭据进行加盐、哈希处理和安全存储。AAD also salts, hashes, and securely stores user credentials.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.10:定期审查和协调用户访问3.10: Regularly review and reconcile user access

指南:Azure AD 提供日志来帮助发现过时的帐户。Guidance: Azure AD provides logs to help discover stale accounts. 此外,请使用 Azure 标识访问评审来有效管理组成员身份、对企业应用程序的访问和角色分配。In addition, use Azure Identity Access Reviews to efficiently manage group memberships, access to enterprise applications, and role assignments. 可以定期评审用户的访问权限,确保只有适当的用户才持续拥有访问权限。User access can be reviewed on a regular basis to make sure only the right Users have continued access.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.11:监视尝试访问已停用凭据的行为3.11: Monitor attempts to access deactivated credentials

指导:你有权访问 Azure AD 登录活动、审核和风险事件日志源,以便与任何 SIEM/监视工具集成。Guidance: You have access to Azure AD Sign-in Activity, Audit and Risk Event log sources, which allow you to integrate with any SIEM/Monitoring tool.

可以通过为 Azure Active Directory 用户帐户创建诊断设置,并将审核日志和登录日志发送到 Log Analytics 工作区,来简化此过程。You can streamline this process by creating diagnostic settings for Azure Active Directory user accounts and sending the audit logs and sign-in logs to a Log Analytics Workspace. 你可以在 Log Analytics 工作区中配置所需的警报。You can configure desired Alerts within Log Analytics Workspace.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.12:针对帐户登录行为偏差发出警报3.12: Alert on account login behavior deviation

指导:可使用 Azure AD 标识保护和风险检测功能来配置对检测到的与用户标识相关的可疑操作的自动响应。Guidance: Use Azure AD Identity Protection and risk detection features to configure automated responses to detected suspicious actions related to user identities. 还可将数据引入 Azure Sentinel 以做进一步调查。You can also ingest data into Azure Sentinel for further investigation.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.13:在支持场合下为 Microsoft 提供对相关客户数据的访问权限3.13: Provide Microsoft with access to relevant customer data during support scenarios

指导:不适用;客户密码箱不适用于 Azure 应用程序网关。Guidance: Not applicable; Customer Lockbox is not applicable to Azure Application Gateway.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

数据保护Data protection

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:数据保护For more information, see Security control: Data protection.

4.1:维护敏感信息的清单4.1: Maintain an inventory of sensitive Information

指导:使用标记可以帮助跟踪存储或处理敏感信息的 Azure 资源。Guidance: Use Tags to assist in tracking Azure resources that store or process sensitive information.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

4.2:隔离存储或处理敏感信息的系统4.2: Isolate systems storing or processing sensitive information

指导:为开发、测试和生产实施单独的订阅和/或管理组。Guidance: Implement separate subscriptions and/or management groups for development, test, and production. 请确保所有虚拟网络 Azure 应用程序网关子网部署都应用了网络安全组 (NSG),且具有针对应用程序受信任端口和源的网络访问控制。Ensure that all Virtual Network Azure Application Gateway subnet deployments have a network security group (NSG) applied with network access controls specific to your application's trusted ports and sources. 虽然 Azure 应用程序网关上支持网络安全组,但必须遵守某些限制和要求,以使 NSG 和 Azure 应用程序网关按预期运行。While network security groups are supported on Azure Application Gateway, there are some restrictions and requirements that must be adhered to in order for your NSG and Azure Application Gateway to function as expected.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

4.3:监视和阻止未经授权的敏感信息传输4.3: Monitor and block unauthorized transfer of sensitive information

指导:请确保所有虚拟网络 Azure 应用程序网关子网部署都应用了网络安全组 (NSG),且具有针对应用程序受信任端口和源的网络访问控制。Guidance: Ensure that all Virtual Network Azure Application Gateway subnet deployments have a network security group (NSG) applied with network access controls specific to your application's trusted ports and sources. 将出站流量仅限于受信任的位置,以帮助缓解数据泄露的威胁。Restrict outbound traffic to only trusted locations to help mitigate the threat of data exfiltration. 虽然 Azure 应用程序网关上支持网络安全组,但必须遵守某些限制和要求,以使 NSG 和 Azure 应用程序网关按预期运行。While network security groups are supported on Azure Application Gateway, there are some restrictions and requirements that must be adhered to in order for your NSG and Azure Application Gateway to function as expected.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:共享Responsibility: Shared

4.4:加密传输中的所有敏感信息4.4: Encrypt all sensitive information in transit

指导:为 Azure 应用程序网关配置具有 TLS 的端到端加密。Guidance: Configure end-to-end encryption with TLS for your Azure Application Gateways.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:共享Responsibility: Shared

4.5:使用有效的发现工具识别敏感数据4.5: Use an active discovery tool to identify sensitive data

指导:不适用,Azure 应用程序网关不会存储静态客户数据。Guidance: Not applicable, Azure Application Gateway does not store customer data at rest.

Microsoft 会管理 Azure 应用程序网关的底层基础结构,并实现了严格的控制来防止客户数据丢失或泄露。Microsoft manages the underlying infrastructure for Azure Application Gateway and has implemented strict controls to prevent the loss or exposure of customer data.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

4.6:使用 Azure RBAC 控制对资源的访问4.6: Use Azure RBAC to control access to resources

指导:使用 Azure 基于角色的访问控制 (Azure RBAC) 来控制对 Azure 应用程序网关控制平面(Azure 门户)的访问。Guidance: Use Azure role-based access control (Azure RBAC) to control access to the Azure Application Gateway control plane (the Azure portal).

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

4.7:使用基于主机的数据丢失防护来强制实施访问控制4.7: Use host-based data loss prevention to enforce access control

指导:不适用;此建议适用于 IaaS 计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for IaaS compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

4.8:静态加密敏感信息4.8: Encrypt sensitive information at rest

指导:不适用;Azure 应用程序网关不会存储客户数据。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure Application Gateway does not store customer data.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

4.9:记录对关键 Azure 资源的更改并对此类更改发出警报4.9: Log and alert on changes to critical Azure resources

指导:将 Azure Monitor 与 Azure 活动日志结合使用,以创建在生产 Azure 应用程序网关实例以及其他关键或相关资源发生更改时触发的警报。Guidance: Use Azure Monitor with the Azure Activity log to create alerts for when changes take place to production Azure Application Gateway instances as well as other critical or related resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

漏洞管理Vulnerability management

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:漏洞管理For more information, see Security control: Vulnerability management.

5.1:运行自动漏洞扫描工具5.1: Run automated vulnerability scanning tools

指导:当前不可用;Azure 安全中心的漏洞评估暂不适用于 Azure 应用程序网关。Guidance: Currently not available; vulnerability assessment in Azure Security Center is not yet available for Azure Application Gateway.

Microsoft 对基础平台进行了扫描和修补。Underlying platform scanned and patched by Microsoft. 查看 Azure 应用程序网关可用的安全控制,以减少与服务配置相关的漏洞。Review security controls available for Azure Application Gateway to reduce service configuration related vulnerabilities.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

5.2:部署自动操作系统修补管理解决方案5.2: Deploy automated operating system patch management solution

指导:不适用;此建议适用于 IaaS 计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for IaaS compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

5.3:为第三方软件部署自动修补程序管理解决方案5.3: Deploy automated patch management solution for third-party software titles

指导:不适用;此建议适用于 IaaS 计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for IaaS compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

5.4:比较连续进行的漏洞扫描5.4: Compare back-to-back vulnerability scans

指导:暂不可用;Azure 安全中心的漏洞评估暂不适用于 Azure 应用程序网关。Guidance: Not yet available; vulnerability assessment in Azure Security Center is not yet available for Azure Application Gateway.

Microsoft 对基础平台进行了扫描和修补。Underlying platform scanned and patched by Microsoft. 查看 Azure 应用程序网关可用的安全控制,以减少与服务配置相关的漏洞。Review security controls available for Azure Application Gateway to reduce service configuration related vulnerabilities.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

5.5:使用风险评级过程来确定已发现漏洞的修正措施的优先级5.5: Use a risk-rating process to prioritize the remediation of discovered vulnerabilities

指导:暂不可用;Azure 安全中心的漏洞评估暂不适用于 Azure 应用程序网关。Guidance: Not yet available; vulnerability assessment in Azure Security Center is not yet available for Azure Application Gateway.

Microsoft 对基础平台进行了扫描和修补。Underlying platform scanned and patched by Microsoft. 查看 Azure 应用程序网关可用的安全控制,以减少与服务配置相关的漏洞。Review security controls available for Azure Application Gateway to reduce service configuration related vulnerabilities.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

库存和资产管理Inventory and asset management

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:清单和资产管理For more information, see Security control: Inventory and asset management.

6.1:使用自动化资产发现解决方案6.1: Use automated Asset Discovery solution

指导:使用 Azure Resource Graph 查询/发现订阅中的所有资源(例如计算、存储、网络、端口和协议等)。Guidance: Use Azure Resource Graph to query/discover all resources (such as compute, storage, network, ports, and protocols etc.) within your subscription(s). 确保租户中具有适当的(读取)权限,并枚举所有 Azure 订阅以及订阅中的资源。Ensure appropriate (read) permissions in your tenant and enumerate all Azure subscriptions as well as resources within your subscriptions.

尽管可以通过 Resource Graph 发现经典 Azure 资源,但我们强烈建议你今后还是创建并使用 Azure 资源管理器资源。Although classic Azure resources may be discovered via Resource Graph, it is highly recommended to create and use Azure Resource Manager resources going forward.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

6.2:维护资产元数据6.2: Maintain asset metadata

指导:将标记应用于 Azure 资源,从而将元数据按逻辑组织到分类中。Guidance: Apply tags to Azure resources giving metadata to logically organize them into a taxonomy.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

6.3:删除未经授权的 Azure 资源6.3: Delete unauthorized Azure resources

指南:在适用的情况下,请使用标记、管理组和单独的订阅来组织和跟踪 Azure 资产。Guidance: Use tagging, management groups, and separate subscriptions, where appropriate, to organize and track Azure resources. 定期核对清单,确保及时地从订阅中删除未经授权的资源。Reconcile inventory on a regular basis and ensure unauthorized resources are deleted from the subscription in a timely manner.

此外,在 Azure Policy 中使用以下内置策略定义,对可以在客户订阅中创建的资源类型施加限制:In addition, use Azure policy to put restrictions on the type of resources that can be created in customer subscription(s) using the following built-in policy definitions:

  • 不允许的资源类型Not allowed resource types
  • 允许的资源类型Allowed resource types

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

6.4:定义并维护已获批 Azure 资源的清单6.4: Define and Maintain an inventory of approved Azure resources

指导:定义已批准的 Azure 资源。Guidance: Define approved Azure resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

6.5:监视未批准的 Azure 资源6.5: Monitor for unapproved Azure resources

指导:使用 Azure Policy 对可以在订阅中创建的资源类型施加限制。Guidance: Use Azure Policy to put restrictions on the type of resources that can be created in your subscription(s).

使用 Azure Resource Graph 查询/发现订阅中的资源。Use Azure Resource Graph to query/discover resources within their subscription(s). 确保环境中存在的所有 Azure 资源已获得批准。Ensure that all Azure resources present in the environment are approved.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

6.6:监视计算资源中未批准的软件应用程序6.6: Monitor for unapproved software applications within compute resources

指导:不适用;此建议适用于 IaaS 计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for IaaS compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

6.7:删除未批准的 Azure 资源和软件应用程序6.7: Remove unapproved Azure resources and software applications

指导:不适用;此建议适用于 IaaS 计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for IaaS compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

6.8:仅使用已批准的应用程序6.8: Use only approved applications

指导:不适用;此建议适用于 IaaS 计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for IaaS compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

6.9:仅使用已批准的 Azure 服务6.9: Use only approved Azure services

指南:在 Azure Policy 中使用以下内置策略定义,对可以在客户订阅中创建的资源类型施加限制:Guidance: Use Azure Policy to put restrictions on the type of resources that can be created in customer subscription(s) using the following built-in policy definitions:

  • 不允许的资源类型Not allowed resource types
  • 允许的资源类型Allowed resource types

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

6.10:维护已获批软件的清单6.10: Maintain an inventory of approved software titles

指导:不适用;此建议适用于 IaaS 计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for IaaS compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

6.11:限制用户与 Azure 资源管理器进行交互的能力6.11: Limit users' ability to interact with Azure Resource Manager

指导:通过对“Azure 管理”应用配置“阻止访问”,配置 Azure 条件访问来限制用户与 Azure 资源管理器交互的功能。Guidance: Configure Azure Conditional Access to limit users' ability to interact with Azure Resource Manager by configuring "Block access" for the "Azure Management" App.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

6.12:限制用户在计算资源中执行脚本的功能6.12: Limit users' ability to execute scripts within compute resources

指导:不适用;此建议适用于 IaaS 计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for IaaS compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

6.13:以物理或逻辑方式隔离高风险应用程序6.13: Physically or logically segregate high risk applications

指导:为开发、测试和生产实施单独的订阅和/或管理组。Guidance: Implement separate subscriptions and/or management groups for development, test, and production. 请确保所有虚拟网络 Azure 应用程序网关子网部署都应用了网络安全组 (NSG),且具有针对应用程序受信任端口和源的网络访问控制。Ensure that all Virtual Network Azure Application Gateway subnet deployments have a network security group (NSG) applied with network access controls specific to your application's trusted ports and sources. 虽然 Azure 应用程序网关上支持网络安全组,但必须遵守某些限制和要求,以使 NSG 和 Azure 应用程序网关按预期运行。While network security groups are supported on Azure Application Gateway, there are some restrictions and requirements that must be adhered to in order for your NSG and Azure Application Gateway to function as expected.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

安全配置Secure configuration

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:安全配置For more information, see Security control: Secure configuration.

7.1:为所有 Azure 资源建立安全配置7.1: Establish secure configurations for all Azure resources

指导:定义并实现与 Azure 应用程序网关部署相关的网络设置的标准安全配置。Guidance: Define and implement standard security configurations for network settings related to your Azure Application Gateway deployments. 在“Microsoft.Network”命名空间中使用 Azure Policy 别名创建自定义策略,以审核或强制实施 Azure 应用程序网关、Azure 虚拟网络和网络安全组的网络配置。Use Azure Policy aliases in the "Microsoft.Network" namespace to create custom policies to audit or enforce the network configuration of your Azure Application Gateways, Azure Virtual Networks, and network security groups. 还可以利用内置策略定义。You may also make use of built-in policy definition.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

7.2:建立安全的操作系统配置7.2: Establish secure operating system configurations

指导:不适用;此建议适用于 IaaS 计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for IaaS compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

7.3:维护安全的 Azure 资源配置7.3: Maintain secure Azure resource configurations

指导:使用 Azure 策略“[拒绝]”和“[不存在则部署]”对不同的 Azure 资源强制实施安全设置。Guidance: Use Azure policy [deny] and [deploy if not exist] to enforce secure settings across your Azure resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

7.4:维护安全的操作系统配置7.4: Maintain secure operating system configurations

指导:不适用;此建议适用于 IaaS 计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for IaaS compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

7.5:安全存储 Azure 资源的配置7.5: Securely store configuration of Azure resources

指导:如果使用自定义的 Azure 策略定义,请使用 Azure DevOps 或 Azure Repos 来安全存储和管理代码。Guidance: If using custom Azure policy definitions, use Azure DevOps or Azure Repos to securely store and manage your code.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

7.6:安全存储自定义操作系统映像7.6: Securely store custom operating system images

指导:不适用;此建议适用于 IaaS 计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for IaaS compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

7.7:部署 Azure 资源的配置管理工具7.7: Deploy configuration management tools for Azure resources

指导:在“Microsoft.Network”命名空间中使用内置的 Azure Policy 定义和 Azure Policy 别名创建自定义策略,以审核、强制实施系统配置并为其发出警报。Guidance: Use built-in Azure Policy definitions as well as Azure Policy aliases in the "Microsoft.Network" namespace to create custom policies to alert, audit, and enforce system configurations. 另外,开发一个用于管理策略例外的流程和管道。Additionally, develop a process and pipeline for managing policy exceptions.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

7.8:部署操作系统的配置管理工具7.8: Deploy configuration management tools for operating systems

指导:不适用;此建议适用于 IaaS 计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for IaaS compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

7.9:为 Azure 资源实施自动配置监视7.9: Implement automated configuration monitoring for Azure resources

指导:在“Microsoft.Network”命名空间中使用内置的 Azure Policy 定义和 Azure Policy 别名创建自定义策略,以审核、强制实施系统配置并为其发出警报。Guidance: Use built-in Azure Policy definitions as well as Azure Policy aliases in the "Microsoft.Network" namespace to create custom policies to alert, audit, and enforce system configurations. 使用 Azure Policy“[审核]”、“[拒绝]”和“[不存在则部署]”自动强制实施 Azure 资源的配置。Use Azure policy [audit], [deny], and [deploy if not exist] to automatically enforce configurations for your Azure resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

7.10:为操作系统实施自动配置监视7.10: Implement automated configuration monitoring for operating systems

指导:不适用;此建议适用于 IaaS 计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for IaaS compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

7.11:安全管理 Azure 机密7.11: Manage Azure secrets securely

指导:使用托管标识在 Azure Active Directory (AD) 中为 Azure 应用程序网关提供一个自动托管标识。Guidance: Use Managed Identities to provide your Azure Application Gateway with an automatically managed identity in Azure Active Directory (AD). 使用托管标识可以向支持 Azure AD 身份验证的任何服务(包括 Key Vault)进行身份验证,无需在代码中放入任何凭据。Managed Identities allows you to authenticate to any service that supports Azure AD authentication, including Key Vault, without any credentials in your code.

使用 Azure Key Vault 安全地存储证书。Use Azure Key Vault to securely store certificates. Azure Key Vault 是由平台管理的机密存储,可以用来保证机密、密钥和 SSL 证书的安全。Azure Key Vault is a platform-managed secret store that you can use to safeguard secrets, keys, and SSL certificates. Azure 应用程序网关支持与密钥保管库集成,以存储附加到支持 HTTPS 的侦听器的服务器证书。Azure Application Gateway supports integration with Key Vault for server certificates that are attached to HTTPS-enabled listeners. 此支持仅限于应用程序网关 v2 SKU。This support is limited to the Application Gateway v2 SKU.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

7.12:安全自动管理标识7.12: Manage identities securely and automatically

指导:使用托管标识在 Azure Active Directory (AD) 中为 Azure 应用程序网关提供一个自动托管标识。Guidance: Use Managed Identities to provide your Azure Application Gateway with an automatically managed identity in Azure Active Directory (AD). 使用托管标识可以向支持 Azure AD 身份验证的任何服务(包括 Key Vault)进行身份验证,无需在代码中放入任何凭据。Managed Identities allows you to authenticate to any service that supports Azure AD authentication, including Key Vault, without any credentials in your code.

使用 Azure Key Vault 安全地存储证书。Use Azure Key Vault to securely store certificates. Azure Key Vault 是由平台管理的机密存储,可以用来保证机密、密钥和 SSL 证书的安全。Azure Key Vault is a platform-managed secret store that you can use to safeguard secrets, keys, and SSL certificates. Azure 应用程序网关支持与密钥保管库集成,以存储附加到支持 HTTPS 的侦听器的服务器证书。Azure Application Gateway supports integration with Key Vault for server certificates that are attached to HTTPS-enabled listeners. 此支持仅限于应用程序网关 v2 SKU。This support is limited to the Application Gateway v2 SKU.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

7.13:消除意外的凭据透露7.13: Eliminate unintended credential exposure

指南:实施凭据扫描程序来识别代码中的凭据。Guidance: Implement Credential Scanner to identify credentials within code. 凭据扫描程序还会建议将发现的凭据转移到更安全的位置,例如 Azure Key Vault。Credential Scanner will also encourage moving discovered credentials to more secure locations such as Azure Key Vault.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

恶意软件防护Malware defense

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:恶意软件防护For more information, see Security control: Malware defense.

8.1:使用集中管理的反恶意软件8.1: Use centrally managed anti-malware software

指导:在关键 Web 应用程序前部署 Azure Web 应用程序防火墙 (WAF) v2,以对传入的流量进行额外的检查。Guidance: Deploy Azure Web Application Firewall (WAF) v2 in front of critical web applications for additional inspection of incoming traffic. Web 应用程序防火墙 (WAF) 是(Azure 应用程序网关的)一项服务功能,可以对 Web 应用程序进行集中保护,避免其受到常见攻击和漏洞的伤害。Web Application Firewall (WAF) is a service (feature of Azure Application Gateway) that provides centralized protection of your web applications from common exploits and vulnerabilities. Azure WAF 通过检查入站 Web 流量来阻止攻击(例如 SQL 注入、跨站点脚本、恶意软件上传和 DDoS 攻击),从而帮助保护 Azure 应用服务 Web 应用的安全。Azure WAF can help secure your Azure App Service web apps by inspecting inbound web traffic to block attacks such as SQL injections, Cross-Site Scripting, malware uploads, and DDoS attacks.

配置 Azure 应用程序网关部署的诊断设置。Configure diagnostic settings for your Azure Application Gateway deployments. 诊断设置用于将资源的平台日志和指标流式导出配置到你选择的目标位置(存储帐户、事件中心和 Log Analytics)。diagnostic settings are used to configure streaming export of platform logs and metrics for a resource to the destination of your choice (Storage Accounts, Event Hubs and Log Analytics).

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

8.2:预先扫描要上传到非计算 Azure 资源的文件8.2: Pre-scan files to be uploaded to non-compute Azure resources

指导:不适用;Azure 应用程序网关不会存储客户数据。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure Application Gateway does not store customer data.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

步骤 8.3:确保反恶意软件和签名已更新8.3: Ensure anti-malware software and signatures are updated

指导:使用 Azure Web 应用程序防火墙 (WAF) 时,可以配置 WAF 策略。Guidance: When using Azure Web Application Firewall (WAF), you can configure WAF policies. WAF 策略包含两种类型的安全规则:由客户创作的自定义规则,以及托管规则集(即由 Azure 托管的预配置规则组的集合)。A WAF policy consists of two types of security rules: custom rules that are authored by the customer, and managed rule sets that are a collection of Azure-managed pre-configured set of rules. Azure 托管的规则集可轻松针对一组常见的安全威胁来部署保护。Azure-managed rule sets provide an easy way to deploy protection against a common set of security threats. 由于此类规则集由 Azure 托管,因此这些规则会根据需要进行更新以预防新的攻击签名。Since such rulesets are managed by Azure, the rules are updated as needed to protect against new attack signatures.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:共享Responsibility: Shared

数据恢复Data recovery

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:数据恢复For more information, see Security control: Data recovery.

9.1:确保定期执行自动备份9.1: Ensure regular automated back ups

指导:Azure 应用程序网关不会存储客户数据。Guidance: Azure Application Gateway does not store customer data. 但是,如果使用自定义的 Azure Policy 定义,请使用 Azure DevOps 或 Azure Repos 安全地存储和管理代码。However, if using custom Azure policy definitions, use Azure DevOps or Azure Repos to securely store and manage your code.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

9.2:执行完整系统备份,并备份客户管理的所有密钥9.2: Perform complete system backups and backup any customer managed keys

指导:在 Azure Key Vault 中备份客户托管证书。Guidance: Backup customer managed certificates within Azure Key Vault.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

9.3:验证所有备份,包括客户管理的密钥9.3: Validate all backups including customer managed keys

指导:测试已备份客户托管证书的还原。Guidance: Test restoration of backed up customer managed certificates.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

9.4:确保保护备份和客户管理的密钥9.4: Ensure protection of backups and customer managed keys

指导:请确保为 Azure Key Vault 启用软删除。Guidance: Ensure that soft delete is enabled for Azure Key Vault. 软删除允许恢复已删除的密钥保管库和保管库对象,例如密钥、机密和证书。Soft delete allows recovery of deleted key vaults and vault objects such as keys, secrets, and certificates.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

事件响应Incident response

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:事件响应For more information, see Security control: Incident response.

10.1:创建事件响应指导10.1: Create an incident response guide

指南:为组织制定事件响应指南。Guidance: Build out an incident response guide for your organization. 确保在书面的事件响应计划中定义人员职责,以及事件处理/管理从检测到事件后审查的各个阶段。Ensure that there are written incident response plans that define all roles of personnel as well as phases of incident handling/management from detection to post-incident review.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

10.2:创建事件评分和优先级设定过程10.2: Create an incident scoring and prioritization procedure

指南:安全中心向每个警报分配一个严重性,帮助你优先处理应首先调查的警报。Guidance: Security Center assigns a severity to each alert to help you prioritize which alerts should be investigated first. 严重性取决于安全中心在发出警报时所依据的检测结果和分析结果的置信度,以及导致发出警报的活动的恶意企图的置信度。The severity is based on how confident Security Center is in the finding or the analytic used to issue the alert as well as the confidence level that there was malicious intent behind the activity that led to the alert.

此外,请明确标记订阅(例如Additionally, clearly mark subscriptions (for ex. 生产、非生产),并创建命名系统来对 Azure 资源进行明确标识和分类。production, non-prod) and create a naming system to clearly identify and categorize Azure resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

10.3:测试安全响应过程10.3: Test security response procedures

指导:定期练习以测试系统的事件响应能力。Guidance: Conduct exercises to test your systems’ incident response capabilities on a regular cadence. 识别弱点和差距,并根据需要修改计划。Identify weak points and gaps and revise plan as needed.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

10.4:提供安全事件联系人详细信息,并针对安全事件配置警报通知10.4: Provide security incident contact details and configure alert notifications for security incidents

指南:如果 Microsoft 安全响应中心 (MSRC) 发现非法或未经授权的某方访问了客户的数据,Microsoft 将使用安全事件联系人信息与你取得联系。Guidance: Security incident contact information will be used by Microsoft to contact you if the Microsoft Security Response Center (MSRC) discovers that the customer's data has been accessed by an unlawful or unauthorized party. 事后审查事件,确保问题得到解决。Review incidents after the fact to ensure that issues are resolved.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

10.5:将安全警报整合到事件响应系统中10.5: Incorporate security alerts into your incident response system

指导:使用连续导出功能导出 Azure 安全中心警报和建议。Guidance: Export your Azure Security Center alerts and recommendations using the Continuous Export feature. 使用连续导出可以手动导出或者持续导出警报和建议。Continuous Export allows you to export alerts and recommendations either manually or in an ongoing, continuous fashion. 可以使用 Azure 安全中心数据连接器将警报流式传输到 Sentinel。You may use the Azure Security Center data connector to stream the alerts Sentinel.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

10.6:自动响应安全警报10.6: Automate the response to security alerts

指导:使用 Azure 安全中心内的工作流自动化功能可以通过“逻辑应用”针对安全警报和建议自动触发响应。Guidance: Use the Workflow Automation feature in Azure Security Center to automatically trigger responses via "Logic Apps" on security alerts and recommendations.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

渗透测试和红队练习Penetration tests and red team exercises

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:渗透测试和红队演练For more information, see Security control: Penetration tests and red team exercises.

11.1:定期对 Azure 资源执行渗透测试,确保修正所有发现的关键安全问题11.1: Conduct regular penetration testing of your Azure resources and ensure remediation of all critical security findings

指导Guidance:

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:共享Responsibility: Shared

后续步骤Next steps