ExpressRoute 监视器ExpressRoute Monitor

可以使用网络性能监视器中的 Azure ExpressRoute 监视器功能通过 Azure ExpressRoute 监视分支办事处与 Azure 之间的端到端连接和性能。You can use the Azure ExpressRoute Monitor capability in Network Performance Monitor to monitor end-to-end connectivity and performance between your branch offices and Azure, over Azure ExpressRoute. 主要优势包括:Key advantages are:

  • 自动检测与你的订阅关联的 ExpressRoute 线路。Autodetection of ExpressRoute circuits associated with your subscription.
  • 跟踪 ExpressRoute 在线路、对等互连和 Azure 虚拟网络级别的带宽利用率、丢包情况和延迟。Tracking of bandwidth utilization, loss and latency at the circuit, peering, and Azure Virtual Network level for ExpressRoute.
  • 发现 ExpressRoute 线路的网络拓扑。Discovery of network topology of your ExpressRoute circuits.

ExpressRoute 监视器

配置Configuration

若要打开网络性能监视器的配置,请打开网络性能监视器解决方案并选择“配置”。To open the configuration for Network Performance Monitor, open the Network Performance Monitor solution and select Configure.

配置网络安全组规则Configure network security group rules

对于 Azure 中用于通过网络性能监视器进行监视的服务器,配置网络安全组 (NSG) 规则以允许将网络性能监视器在端口上使用的 TCP 流量用于综合事务。For the servers in Azure that are used for monitoring via Network Performance Monitor, configure network security group (NSG) rules to allow TCP traffic on the port used by Network Performance Monitor for synthetic transactions. 默认端口为 8084。The default port is 8084. 此配置允许安装在 Azure VM 上的 Log Analytics 代理与本地监视代理进行通信。This configuration allows the Log Analytics agent installed on Azure VMs to communicate with an on-premises monitoring agent.

有关 NSG 的详细信息,请参阅 网络安全组For more information about NSGs, see Network security groups.

Note

在继续执行此步骤之前,请安装本地服务器代理和 Azure 服务器代理,然后运行 EnableRules.ps1 PowerShell 脚本。Before you continue with this step, install the on-premises server agent and the Azure server agent, and run the EnableRules.ps1 PowerShell script.

发现 ExpressRoute 对等连接Discover ExpressRoute peering connections

  1. 选择“ExpressRoute 对等互连”视图。Select the ExpressRoute Peerings view.

  2. 选择“立即发现”,以便发现所有已连接到 Azure 订阅(通过此 Azure Log Analytics 工作区进行链接)中的虚拟网络的 ExpressRoute 专用对等互连。Select Discover Now to discover all the ExpressRoute private peerings that are connected to the virtual networks in the Azure subscription linked with this Azure Log Analytics workspace.

    Note

    此解决方案目前只发现 ExpressRoute 专用对等互连。The solution currently discovers only ExpressRoute private peerings.

    Note

    只发现与此 Log Analytics 工作区链接的订阅关联的虚拟网络所连接的专用对等互连。Only private peerings connected to the virtual networks associated with the subscription linked with this Log Analytics workspace are discovered. 如果 ExpressRoute 所连接到的虚拟网络位于链接到此工作区的订阅之外,请在这些订阅中创建 Log Analytics 工作区。If ExpressRoute is connected to virtual networks outside of the subscription linked to this workspace, create a Log Analytics workspace in those subscriptions. 然后,使用网络性能监视器监视这些对等互连。Then use Network Performance Monitor to monitor those peerings.

    ExpressRoute 监视器配置

    完成发现操作以后,发现的专用对等互连就会列在表中。After the discovery is complete, the discovered private peering connections are listed in a table. 针对这些对等互连的监视功能一开始处于禁用状态。The monitoring for these peerings is initially in a disabled state.

启用 ExpressRoute 对等连接监视Enable monitoring of the ExpressRoute peering connections

  1. 选择要监视的专用对等连接。Select the private peering connection you want to monitor.

  2. 在右侧窗格中,选中“监视此对等互连”复选框。In the pane on the right, select the Monitor this Peering check box.

  3. 如果想要为此连接创建运行状况事件,请选中“为此对等互连启用运行状况监视”。If you intend to create health events for this connection, select Enable Health Monitoring for this peering.

  4. 选择监视条件。Choose monitoring conditions. 可以通过输入阈值,针对运行状况事件生成设置自定义阈值。You can set custom thresholds for health event generation by entering threshold values. 每当条件值超出其针对对等互连选择的阈值时,就会生成一个运行状况事件。Whenever the value of the condition goes above its selected threshold for the peering connection, a health event is generated.

  5. 选择“添加代理”,以选择想要用来监视此对等连接的监视代理。Select Add Agents to choose the monitoring agents you intend to use for monitoring this peering connection. 确保在连接的两端都添加代理。Make sure that you add agents on both ends of the connection. 连接到此对等互连的虚拟网络中至少需要有一个代理。You need at least one agent in the virtual network connected to this peering. 至少还需要有一个连接到此对等互连的本地代理。You also need at least one on-premises agent connected to this peering.

  6. 选择“保存”以保存配置。Select Save to save the configuration.

    ExpressRoute 监视配置

在启用规则并选择值和代理后,等待 30 到 60 分钟来填充值并等待 ExpressRoute 监视磁贴显示。After you enable the rules and select values and agents, wait 30 to 60 minutes for the values to populate and the ExpressRoute Monitoring tiles to appear. 看到监视磁贴后,网络性能监视器也将开始监视 ExpressRoute 线路和连接资源。When you see the monitoring tiles, your ExpressRoute circuits and connection resources are now monitored by Network Performance Monitor.

Note

在已升级到新查询语言的工作区中,此功能能够可靠地运行。This capability works reliably on workspaces that have upgraded to the new query language.

演练Walkthrough

网络性能监视器仪表板显示 ExpressRoute 线路和对等连接的运行状况概述。The Network Performance Monitor dashboard shows an overview of the health of ExpressRoute circuits and peering connections.

网络性能监视器仪表板

线路列表Circuits list

若要查看所有受监视的 ExpressRoute 线路的列表,请选择“ExpressRoute 线路”磁贴。To see a list of all monitored ExpressRoute circuits, select the ExpressRoute circuits tile. 可以选择一条线路并查看其运行状态以及数据包丢失、带宽使用率和延迟的趋势图表。You can select a circuit and view its health state, trend charts for packet loss, bandwidth utilization, and latency. 这些图表是交互式的。The charts are interactive. 可以选择自定义时间段来绘制图表。You can select a custom time window for plotting the charts. 在图表的某个区域上拖动鼠标来放大图表,详细查看数据点。Drag the mouse over an area on the chart to zoom in and see fine-grained data points.

ExpressRoute 线路列表

带宽利用率、延迟和丢包图表是交互式的。The bandwidth utilization, latency, and loss charts are interactive. 可以使用鼠标控件放大这些图表的任何部分。You can zoom in to any section of these charts by using mouse controls. 还可以看到其他时间间隔的带宽、延迟和丢包数据。You also can see the bandwidth, latency, and loss data for other intervals. 在左上角的 “操作” 按钮下,选择 “日期/时间”In the upper left under the Actions button, select Date/Time.

ExpressRoute 延迟

对等互连列表Peerings list

若要显示通过专用对等互连建立的到虚拟网络的所有连接的列表,请选择仪表板上的“专用对等互连”磁贴。To bring up a list of all connections to virtual networks over private peering, select the Private Peerings tile on the dashboard. 可以在此处选择一个虚拟网络连接,并查看其运行状态以及数据包丢失、带宽使用率和延迟的趋势图表。Here, you can select a virtual network connection and view its health state, trend charts for packet loss, bandwidth utilization, and latency.

ExpressRoute 对等互连

线路拓扑Circuit topology

若要查看线路拓扑,请选择“拓扑”磁贴。To view circuit topology, select the Topology tile. 此操作将显示所选线路或对等互连的拓扑视图。This action takes you to the topology view of the selected circuit or peering. 此拓扑图显示该网络上每个分段的延迟情况,并且每个第 3 层跃点由图表上的一个节点表示。The topology diagram provides the latency for each segment on the network, and each layer 3 hop is represented by a node of the diagram. 选择某个跃点可查看该跃点的详细信息。Selecting a hop reveals more details about the hop. 若要增大可见级别以包含本地跃点,请移动“筛选器”下的滚动条。To increase the level of visibility to include on-premises hops, move the slider bar under FILTERS. 向左或向右移动滚动条可增加或减少拓扑图中的跃点数。Moving the slider bar to the left or right increases or decreases the number of hops in the topology graph. 还将显示每个分段的延迟情况,据此可以更快地隔离网络中的高延迟分段。The latency across each segment is visible, which allows for faster isolation of high-latency segments on your network.

ExpressRoute 拓扑

线路的详细拓扑图视图Detailed topology view of a circuit

此视图显示虚拟网络连接。This view shows virtual network connections.

ExpressRoute 虚拟网络连接

诊断Diagnostics

可以借助网络性能监视器诊断多种线路连接问题。Network Performance Monitor helps you diagnose several circuit connectivity issues. 以下列出了可能出现的一些问题。Some of the issues that you can see are listed below.

可通过 LogAnalytics 查看通知代码并设置警报。You can see the notification codes and set alerts on them via LogAnalytics. 在“NPM 诊断”页面上,可看到触发的每条诊断消息的说明。On the NPM Diagnostics page, you can see descriptions for every diagnostics message triggered.

通知代码(日志)Notification Code (Logs) 说明Description
55015501 无法遍历 ExpressRoute 线路的辅助连接Unable to traverse through secondary connection of ExpressRoute circuit
55025502 无法遍历 ExpressRoute 线路的主连接Unable to traverse through primary connection of ExpressRoute circuit
55035503 在链接到此工作区的订阅中找不到线路No circuit is found for subscription linked to the workspace
55085508 无法确定流量是否通过路径的任何电路Not able to determine whether traffic is passing through any circuit(s) for path
55105510 流量未通过期望的线路The traffic is not passing through the intended circuit
55115511 流量未通过期望的虚拟网络The traffic is not passing through the intended virtual network

线路已关闭。Circuit is down. 一旦本地资源与 Azure 虚拟网络之间的连接断开,网络性能监视器立即会发出通知。Network Performance Monitor notifies you as soon as the connectivity between your on-premises resources and Azure virtual networks is lost. 此通知可以帮助你在收到用户事务升级之前采取主动措施,并减少停机时间。This notification helps you take proactive action before you receive user escalations and reduce downtime.

ExpressRoute 线路已关闭

流量不流过预期的线路。Traffic not flowing through intended circuit. 每当流量未流经预期的 ExpressRoute 线路时,网络性能监视器都会发出通知。Network Performance Monitor notifies you whenever traffic isn't flowing through the intended ExpressRoute circuit. 如果该线路已关闭,并且流量流经备用路由,则可能会出现此问题。This issue can happen if the circuit is down and traffic is flowing through the backup route. 如果存在路由问题,则也可能会出现此问题。It also can happen if there's a routing issue. 此信息可帮助你主动管理路由策略中的任何配置问题,并确保使用最佳的安全路由。This information helps you proactively manage any configuration issues in your routing policies and make sure that the most optimal and secure route is used.

流量不流过主线路。Traffic not flowing through primary circuit. 当流量流经辅助 ExpressRoute 线路时,网络性能监视器会发出通知。Network Performance Monitor notifies you when traffic is flowing through the secondary ExpressRoute circuit. 尽管在此情况下可能不会遇到任何连接问题,但主动排查主线路的问题能够做好充分的准备。Even though you won't experience any connectivity issues in this case, proactively troubleshooting the issues with the primary circuit makes you better prepared.

ExpressRoute 流量流

高峰利用率导致性能下降。Degradation due to peak utilization. 可将带宽利用率趋势与延迟趁势相关联,以查明 Azure 工作负荷性能下降的原因是否为带宽利用率出现峰值。You can correlate the bandwidth utilization trend with the latency trend to identify whether the Azure workload degradation is due to a peak in bandwidth utilization or not. 然后可以相应地采取措施。Then you can take action accordingly.

ExpressRoute 带宽利用率

后续步骤Next steps

搜索日志以查看详细的网络性能数据记录。Search logs to view detailed network performance data records.