为 Azure Stack Hub 准备基于 Red Hat 的虚拟机Prepare a Red Hat-based virtual machine for Azure Stack Hub

本文介绍如何准备可在 Azure Stack Hub 中使用的 Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 虚拟机 (VM)。This article describes how to prepare a Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) virtual machine (VM) for use in Azure Stack Hub. 本文介绍的 RHEL 版本为 7.1 或更高版本。The versions of RHEL that are covered in this article are 7.1 or later. 本文所述的用于准备工作的虚拟机监控程序为 Hyper-V、基于内核的虚拟机 (KVM) 和 VMware。The hypervisors for preparation that are covered in this article are Hyper-V, kernel-based virtual machine (KVM), and VMware.

有关 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 支持信息,请参阅 Red Hat 和 Azure Stack:常见问题解答For Red Hat Enterprise Linux support information, see Red Hat and Azure Stack: Frequently Asked Questions.

通过 Hyper-V 管理器准备基于 Red Hat 的 VMPrepare a Red Hat-based VM from Hyper-V Manager

本部分假设已从 Red Hat 网站获取 ISO 文件并将 RHEL 映像安装到虚拟硬盘 (VHD)。This section assumes that you already have an ISO file from the Red Hat website and have installed the RHEL image to a virtual hard disk (VHD). 有关如何使用 Hyper-V 管理器来安装操作系统映像的详细信息,请参阅安装 Hyper-V 角色和配置 VMFor more information about how to use Hyper-V Manager to install an operating system image, see Install the Hyper-V Role and Configure a VM.

RHEL 安装说明RHEL installation notes

  • Azure Stack Hub 不支持 VHDX 格式。Azure Stack Hub does not support the VHDX format. Azure 仅支持固定 VHD。Azure supports only fixed VHD. 可使用 Hyper-V 管理器将磁盘转换为 VHD 格式,也可以使用 convert-vhd cmdlet。You can use Hyper-V Manager to convert the disk to VHD format, or you can use the convert-vhd cmdlet. 如果使用 VirtualBox,则选择“固定大小”,而不是在创建磁盘时默认动态分配选项。If you use VirtualBox, select Fixed size as opposed to the default dynamically allocated option when you create the disk.
  • Azure Stack Hub 仅支持第 1 代 VM。Azure Stack Hub supports only generation 1 VMs. 可以将第 1 代 VM 从 VHDX 转换为 VHD 文件格式,从动态扩展磁盘转换为固定大小磁盘。You can convert a generation 1 VM from VHDX to the VHD file format, and from dynamically expanding to a fixed-size disk. 无法更改 VM 的代系。You cannot change a VM's generation. 有关详细信息,请参阅应该在 Hyper-V 中创建第 1 代还是第 2 代 VM?For more information, see Should I create a generation 1 or 2 VM in Hyper-V?.
  • VHD 允许的最大大小为 1,023 GB。The maximum size allowed for the VHD is 1,023 GB.
  • 在安装 Linux 操作系统时,建议使用标准分区而不是逻辑卷管理器 (LVM)(通常是许多安装的默认设置)。When you install the Linux operating system, we recommend that you use standard partitions rather than Logical Volume Manager (LVM), which is often the default for many installations. 这种做法可以避免 LVM 名称与克隆的 VM 冲突,尤其是当需要将操作系统磁盘附加到另一台相同的 VM 进行故障排除时。This practice avoids LVM name conflicts with cloned VMs, particularly if you ever need to attach an operating system disk to another identical VM for troubleshooting.
  • 需要装载通用磁盘格式 (UDF) 文件系统的内核支持。Kernel support for mounting Universal Disk Format (UDF) file systems is required. 首次启动时,附加到来宾的 UDF 格式媒体会将预配配置传递给 Linux VM。At first boot, the UDF-formatted media attached to the guest passes the provisioning configuration to the Linux VM. Azure Linux 代理必须装载 UDF 文件系统才能读取其配置和预配 VM。The Azure Linux Agent must mount the UDF file system to read its configuration and provision the VM.
  • 不要在操作系统磁盘上配置交换分区。Do not configure a swap partition on the operating system disk. 可以配置 Linux 代理,并在临时资源磁盘上创建交换文件。The Linux Agent can be configured to create a swap file on the temporary resource disk. 可在以下步骤中找到更多相关信息。More information about can be found in the following steps.
  • Azure 上所有 VHD 的虚拟大小必须已按 1 MB 对齐。All VHDs on Azure must have a virtual size aligned to 1 MB. 从原始磁盘转换为 VHD 时,必须确保在转换前的原始磁盘大小是 1 MB 的倍数。When converting from a raw disk to VHD, you must ensure that the raw disk size is a multiple of 1 MB before conversion. 可在以下步骤中找到更多详细信息。More details can be found in the following steps.
  • Azure Stack Hub 支持 cloud-init。Azure Stack Hub supports cloud-init. Cloud-init 是一种广泛使用的方法,用于在首次启动 Linux VM 时对其进行自定义。Cloud-init is a widely used approach to customize a Linux VM as it boots for the first time. 可使用 cloud-init 来安装程序包和写入文件,或者配置用户和安全性。You can use cloud-init to install packages and write files, or to configure users and security. 由于是在初始启动过程中调用 cloud-init,因此无需额外的步骤且无需代理来应用配置。Because cloud-init is called during the initial boot process, there are no additional steps or required agents to apply your configuration. 有关将 cloud-init 添加到映像的说明,请参阅准备与 cloud-init 配合使用的现有 Linux Azure VM 映像For instructions on adding cloud-init to your image, see Prepare an existing Linux Azure VM image for use with cloud-init.

通过 Hyper-V 管理器准备 RHEL 7 VMPrepare an RHEL 7 VM from Hyper-V Manager

  1. 在 Hyper-V 管理器中选择 VM。In Hyper-V Manager, select the VM.

  2. 选择“连接”打开 VM 的控制台窗口。Select Connect to open a console window for the VM.

  3. 创建或编辑 /etc/sysconfig/network 文件并添加以下文本:Create or edit the /etc/sysconfig/network file, and add the following text:

    NETWORKING=yes
    HOSTNAME=localhost.localdomain
    
  4. 创建或编辑 /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 文件,并根据需要添加以下文本:Create or edit the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 file, and add the following text as needed:

    DEVICE=eth0
    ONBOOT=yes
    BOOTPROTO=dhcp
    TYPE=Ethernet
    USERCTL=no
    PEERDNS=yes
    IPV6INIT=no
    NM_CONTROLLED=no
    
  5. 运行以下命令,确保网络服务在引导时启动:Ensure that the network service starts at boot time by running the following command:

    sudo systemctl enable network
    
  6. 注册 Red Hat 订阅,以通过运行以下命令来启用来自 RHEL 存储库中的包的安装:Register your Red Hat subscription to enable the installation of packages from the RHEL repository by running the following command:

    sudo subscription-manager register --auto-attach --username=XXX --password=XXX
    
  7. 在 grub 配置中修改内核引导行,使其包含 Azure 的其他内核参数。Modify the kernel boot line in your grub configuration to include additional kernel parameters for Azure. 若要执行此修改,请在文本编辑器中打开 /etc/default/grub 并修改 GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX 参数。To make this modification, open /etc/default/grub in a text editor, and modify the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX parameter. 例如:For example:

    GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="rootdelay=300 console=ttyS0 earlyprintk=ttyS0 net.ifnames=0"
    

    此项修改可确保所有控制台消息都发送到第一个串行端口,从而协助 Azure 支持人员调试问题。This modification ensures all console messages are sent to the first serial port, which can assist Azure support with debugging issues. 此配置还会关闭 NIC 的新 RHEL 7 命名约定。This configuration also turns off the new RHEL 7 naming conventions for NICs.

    图形界面式引导和安静引导在云环境中不适用,在云环境中,我们希望所有日志都发送到串行端口。Graphical and quiet boot are not useful in a cloud environment where we want all the logs to be sent to the serial port. 如果需要,可以保留配置的 crashkernel 选项。You can leave the crashkernel option configured if desired. 此参数可将 VM 中的可用内存量减少 128 MB 或更多,当 VM 小较小时,这可能会造成问题。This parameter reduces the amount of available memory in the VM by 128 MB or more, which might be problematic on smaller VM sizes. 我们建议删除以下参数:We recommend that you remove the following parameters:

    rhgb quiet crashkernel=auto
    
  8. 完成 /etc/default/grub 编辑后,运行以下命令以重新生成 grub 配置:After you're done editing /etc/default/grub, run the following command to rebuild the grub configuration:

    sudo grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
    
  9. [在 1910 版本以后为可选] 停止并卸载 cloud-init:[Optional after 1910 release] Stop and Uninstall cloud-init:

    systemctl stop cloud-init
    yum remove cloud-init
    
  10. 请确保 SSH 服务器已安装且已配置为在引导时启动(默认采用此配置)。Ensure that the SSH server is installed and configured to start at boot time, which is usually the default. 修改 /etc/ssh/sshd_config 以包含以下行:Modify /etc/ssh/sshd_config to include the following line:

    ClientAliveInterval 180
    
  11. 为 Azure Stack Hub 创建自定义 VHD 时,请注意,2.2.20 到 2.2.35(不含)之间的 WALinuxAgent 版本在 1910 版本以前的 Azure Stack Hub 环境中不工作。When creating a custom vhd for Azure Stack Hub, note that WALinuxAgent version between 2.2.20 and 2.2.35 (both exclusive) do not work on Azure Stack Hub environments before the 1910 release. 可以使用版本 2.2.20/2.2.35 来准备你的映像。You can use versions 2.2.20/2.2.35 versions to prepare your image. 若要使用高于 2.2.35 的版本来准备自定义映像,请将 Azure Stack Hub 更新到 1903 或更高版本,或应用 1901/1902 修补程序。To use versions above 2.2.35 to prepare your custom image, update your Azure Stack Hub to the 1903 release or later, or apply the 1901/1902 hotfix.

    [1910 版本以前] 按照以下说明下载兼容的 WALinuxAgent:[Before 1910 release] Follow these instructions to download a compatible WALinuxAgent:

    1. 下载 setuptools。Download setuptools.

      wget https://pypi.python.org/packages/source/s/setuptools/setuptools-7.0.tar.gz --no-check-certificate
      tar xzf setuptools-7.0.tar.gz
      cd setuptools-7.0
      
    2. 下载并解压缩来自我们的 GitHub 的 2.2.20 版代理。Download and unzip the 2.2.20 version of the agent from our GitHub.

      wget https://github.com/Azure/WALinuxAgent/archive/v2.2.20.zip
      unzip v2.2.20.zip
      cd WALinuxAgent-2.2.20
      
    3. 安装 setup.py。Install setup.py.

      sudo python setup.py install
      
    4. 重启 waagent。Restart waagent.

      sudo systemctl restart waagent
      
    5. 测试代理版本是否与你下载的版本匹配。Test if the agent version matches the one you downloaded. 对于本示例,它应当为 2.2.20。For this example, it should be 2.2.20.

      waagent -version
      

    [1910 版本之后] 按照以下说明下载兼容的 WALinuxAgent:[After 1910 release] Follow these instructions to download a compatible WALinuxAgent:

    1. WALinuxAgent 包 WALinuxAgent-<version> 已推送到 Red Hat extras 存储库。The WALinuxAgent package, WALinuxAgent-<version>, has been pushed to the Red Hat extras repository. 通过运行以下命令启用 extras 存储库:Enable the extras repository by running the following command:

      subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-7-server-extras-rpms
      
    2. 通过运行以下命令来安装 Azure Linux 代理:Install the Azure Linux Agent by running the following command:

      sudo yum install WALinuxAgent
      sudo systemctl enable waagent.service
      
  12. 不要在操作系统磁盘上创建交换空间。Do not create swap space on the operating system disk.

    Azure Linux 代理可使用在 Azure 上预配 VM 后附加到 VM 的本地资源磁盘自动配置交换空间。The Azure Linux Agent can automatically configure swap space by using the local resource disk that's attached to the VM after the VM is provisioned on Azure. 本地资源磁盘是临时磁盘,并可能在取消预配 VM 时被清空。The local resource disk is a temporary disk, and it might be emptied when the VM is deprovisioned. 在上一步中安装 Azure Linux 代理后,相应地在 /etc/waagent.conf 中修改以下参数:After you install the Azure Linux Agent in the previous step, modify the following parameters in /etc/waagent.conf appropriately:

    ResourceDisk.Format=y
    ResourceDisk.Filesystem=ext4
    ResourceDisk.MountPoint=/mnt/resource
    ResourceDisk.EnableSwap=y
    ResourceDisk.SwapSizeMB=2048    #NOTE: set this to whatever you need it to be.
    
  13. 如果想要取消注册订阅,运行以下命令:If you want to unregister the subscription, run the following command:

    sudo subscription-manager unregister
    
  14. 如果使用的系统是通过企业证书颁发机构部署的,则 RHEL VM 不会信任 Azure Stack Hub 根证书。If you're using a system that was deployed using an Enterprise Certificate Authority, the RHEL VM won't trust the Azure Stack Hub root certificate. 必须将该证书放入受信任的根存储中。You must place that certificate into the trusted root store. 有关详细信息,请参阅将受信任的根证书添加到服务器For more information, see Adding trusted root certificates to the server.

  15. 运行以下命令可取消对 VM 的预配并对其进行准备,以便在 Azure 上进行预配:Run the following commands to de-provision the VM and prepare it for provisioning on Azure:

    sudo waagent -force -deprovision
    export HISTSIZE=0
    logout
    
  16. 在 Hyper-V 管理器中选择“操作”,然后选择“关闭”。Select Action, then Shut Down in Hyper-V Manager.

  17. 使用 Hyper-V 管理器的“编辑磁盘”功能或 Convert-VHD PowerShell 命令将 VHD 转换为固定大小的 VHD。Convert the VHD to a fixed size VHD using either the Hyper-V Manager "Edit disk" feature, or the Convert-VHD PowerShell command. 现在,准备将 Linux VHD 上传到 Azure。Your Linux VHD is now ready to be uploaded to Azure.

从 KVM 准备基于 Red Hat 的虚拟机Prepare a Red Hat-based virtual machine from KVM

  1. 从 Red Hat 网站上下载 RHEL 7 的 KVM 映像。Download the KVM image of RHEL 7 from the Red Hat website. 此过程以 RHEL 7 为例。This procedure uses RHEL 7 as the example.

  2. 设置 root 密码。Set a root password.

    生成加密密码,并复制命令的输出:Generate an encrypted password, and copy the output of the command:

    openssl passwd -1 changeme
    

    使用 guestfish 设置 root 密码:Set a root password with guestfish:

    guestfish --rw -a <image-name>
    > <fs> run
    > <fs> list-filesystems
    > <fs> mount /dev/sda1 /
    > <fs> vi /etc/shadow
    > <fs> exit
    

    将 root 用户的第二个字段从“!!”更改Change the second field of root user from "!!" 为加密密码。to the encrypted password.

  3. 从 qcow2 映像创建 KVM 中的 VM。Create a VM in KVM from the qcow2 image. 将磁盘类型设置为 qcow2,将虚拟网络接口设备型号设置为 virtioSet the disk type to qcow2, and set the virtual network interface device model to virtio. 然后启动 VM,并以 root 身份登录。Then, start the VM, and sign in as root.

  4. 创建或编辑 /etc/sysconfig/network 文件并添加以下文本:Create or edit the /etc/sysconfig/network file, and add the following text:

    NETWORKING=yes
    HOSTNAME=localhost.localdomain
    
  5. 创建或编辑 /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 文件并添加以下文本:Create or edit the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 file, and add the following text:

    DEVICE=eth0
    ONBOOT=yes
    BOOTPROTO=dhcp
    TYPE=Ethernet
    USERCTL=no
    PEERDNS=yes
    IPV6INIT=no
    NM_CONTROLLED=no
    
  6. 运行以下命令,确保网络服务在引导时启动:Ensure that the network service starts at boot time by running the following command:

    sudo systemctl enable network
    
  7. 注册 Red Hat 订阅,以通过运行以下命令来启用来自 RHEL 存储库中的包的安装:Register your Red Hat subscription to enable installation of packages from the RHEL repository by running the following command:

    subscription-manager register --auto-attach --username=XXX --password=XXX
    
  8. 在 grub 配置中修改内核引导行,使其包含 Azure 的其他内核参数。Modify the kernel boot line in your grub configuration to include additional kernel parameters for Azure. 若要执行此配置,请在文本编辑器中打开 /etc/default/grub 并修改 GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX 参数。To do this configuration, open /etc/default/grub in a text editor, and modify the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX parameter. 例如:For example:

    GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="rootdelay=300 console=ttyS0 earlyprintk=ttyS0 net.ifnames=0"
    

    此命令还会确保所有控制台消息都发送到第一个串行端口,从而可以协助 Azure 支持人员调试问题。This command also ensures that all console messages are sent to the first serial port, which can assist Azure support with debugging issues. 此命令还会关闭 NIC 的新 RHEL 7 命名约定。The command also turns off the new RHEL 7 naming conventions for NICs.

    在要将所有日志发送到串行端口的云环境中,图形界面式引导和安静引导在云环境中不适用。Graphical and quiet boot are not useful in a cloud environment where all the logs are sent to the serial port. 如果需要,可以保留配置的 crashkernel 选项。You can leave the crashkernel option configured if desired. 此参数可将 VM 中的可用内存量减少 128 MB 或更多,当 VM 小较小时,这可能会造成问题。This parameter reduces the amount of available memory in the VM by 128 MB or more, which might be problematic on smaller VM sizes. 我们建议删除以下参数:We recommend you remove the following parameters:

    rhgb quiet crashkernel=auto
    
  9. 完成 /etc/default/grub 编辑后,运行以下命令以重新生成 grub 配置:After you're done editing /etc/default/grub, run the following command to rebuild the grub configuration:

    grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
    
  10. 将 Hyper-V 模块添加到 initramfs 中。Add Hyper-V modules into initramfs.

    编辑 /etc/dracut.conf 并添加以下内容:Edit /etc/dracut.conf and add content:

    add_drivers+="hv_vmbus hv_netvsc hv_storvsc"
    

    重新生成 initramfs:Rebuild initramfs:

    dracut -f -v
    
  11. [在 1910 版本以后为可选] 停止并卸载 cloud-init:[Optional after 1910 release] Stop and uninstall cloud-init:

    systemctl stop cloud-init
    yum remove cloud-init
    
  12. 确保已安装 SSH 服务器且已将其配置为在引导时启动。Ensure that the SSH server is installed and configured to start at boot time:

    systemctl enable sshd
    

    修改 /etc/ssh/sshd_config 以包含以下行:Modify /etc/ssh/sshd_config to include the following lines:

    PasswordAuthentication yes
    ClientAliveInterval 180
    
  13. 为 Azure Stack Hub 创建自定义 VHD 时,请注意,2.2.20 到 2.2.35(不含)之间的 WALinuxAgent 版本在 1910 版本以前的 Azure Stack Hub 环境中不工作。When creating a custom VHD for Azure Stack Hub, note that WALinuxAgent versions between 2.2.20 and 2.2.35 (both exclusive) do not work on Azure Stack Hub environments before the 1910 release. 可以使用版本 2.2.20/2.2.35 来准备你的映像。You can use versions 2.2.20/2.2.35 versions to prepare your image. 若要使用高于 2.2.35 的版本来准备自定义映像,请将 Azure Stack Hub 更新到 1903 或更高版本,或应用 1901/1902 修补程序。To use versions above 2.2.35 to prepare your custom image, update your Azure Stack Hub to 1903 release or later, or apply the 1901/1902 hotfix.

    [1910 版本以前] 按照以下说明下载兼容的 WALinuxAgent:[Before 1910 release] Follow these instructions to download a compatible WALinuxAgent:

    1. 下载 setuptools。Download setuptools.

      wget https://pypi.python.org/packages/source/s/setuptools/setuptools-7.0.tar.gz --no-check-certificate
      tar xzf setuptools-7.0.tar.gz
      cd setuptools-7.0
      
    2. 下载并解压缩来自我们的 GitHub 的 2.2.20 版代理。Download and unzip the 2.2.20 version of the agent from our GitHub.

      wget https://github.com/Azure/WALinuxAgent/archive/v2.2.20.zip
      unzip v2.2.20.zip
      cd WALinuxAgent-2.2.20
      
    3. 安装 setup.py。Install setup.py.

      sudo python setup.py install
      
    4. 重启 waagent。Restart waagent.

      sudo systemctl restart waagent
      
    5. 测试代理版本是否与你下载的版本匹配。Test if the agent version matches the one you downloaded. 对于本示例,它应当为 2.2.20。For this example, it should be 2.2.20.

      waagent -version
      

    [1910 版本之后] 按照以下说明下载兼容的 WALinuxAgent:[After 1910 release] Follow these instructions to download a compatible WALinuxAgent:

    1. WALinuxAgent 包 WALinuxAgent-<version> 已推送到 Red Hat extras 存储库。The WALinuxAgent package, WALinuxAgent-<version>, has been pushed to the Red Hat extras repository. 通过运行以下命令启用 extras 存储库:Enable the extras repository by running the following command:

      subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-7-server-extras-rpms
      

      1. 通过运行以下命令安装 Azure Linux 代理:1.Install the Azure Linux Agent by running the following command:

       ```bash
       sudo yum install WALinuxAgent
       sudo systemctl enable waagent.service
       ```
      
  14. 不要在操作系统磁盘上创建交换空间。Do not create swap space on the operating system disk.

    Azure Linux 代理可使用在 Azure 上预配 VM 后附加到 VM 的本地资源磁盘自动配置交换空间。The Azure Linux Agent can automatically configure swap space by using the local resource disk that's attached to the VM after the VM is provisioned on Azure. 本地资源磁盘是临时磁盘,在取消预配 VM 时可能会被清空。The local resource disk is a temporary disk, and it might be emptied when the VM is de-provisioned. 在上一步中安装 Azure Linux 代理后,相应地在 /etc/waagent.conf 中修改以下参数:After you install the Azure Linux Agent in the previous step, modify the following parameters in /etc/waagent.conf appropriately:

    ResourceDisk.Format=y
    ResourceDisk.Filesystem=ext4
    ResourceDisk.MountPoint=/mnt/resource
    ResourceDisk.EnableSwap=y
    ResourceDisk.SwapSizeMB=2048    #NOTE: set this to whatever you need it to be.
    
  15. 通过运行以下命令取消注册订阅(如有必要):Unregister the subscription (if necessary) by running the following command:

    subscription-manager unregister
    
  16. 如果使用的系统是通过企业证书颁发机构部署的,则 RHEL VM 不会信任 Azure Stack Hub 根证书。If you're using a system that was deployed using an Enterprise Certificate Authority, the RHEL VM won't trust the Azure Stack Hub root certificate. 必须将该证书放入受信任的根存储中。You must place that certificate into the trusted root store. 有关详细信息,请参阅将受信任的根证书添加到服务器For more information, see Adding trusted root certificates to the server.

  17. 运行以下命令可取消对 VM 的预配并对其进行准备,以便在 Azure 上进行预配:Run the following commands to de-provision the VM and prepare it for provisioning on Azure:

    sudo waagent -force -deprovision
    export HISTSIZE=0
    logout
    
  18. 关闭 KVM 中的 VM。Shut down the VM in KVM.

  19. 将 qcow2 映像转换为 VHD 格式。Convert the qcow2 image to the VHD format.

    备注

    qemu-img 版本(>=2.2.1)中有一个已知 bug,会导致 VHD 格式不正确。There is a known bug in qemu-img versions >=2.2.1 that results in an improperly formatted VHD. QEMU 2.6 中已修复此问题。The issue has been fixed in QEMU 2.6. 建议使用 qemu-img 2.2.0 或更低版本,或者更新到 2.6 或更高版本。It's recommended that you use either qemu-img 2.2.0 or lower, or update to 2.6 or higher. 请参考: https://bugs.launchpad.net/qemu/+bug/1490611Reference: https://bugs.launchpad.net/qemu/+bug/1490611.

    首先将此映像转换为原始格式:First convert the image to raw format:

    qemu-img convert -f qcow2 -O raw rhel-7.4.qcow2 rhel-7.4.raw
    

    请确保原始映像大小为 1 MB。Make sure that the size of the raw image is aligned with 1 MB. 如果不是,请将大小四舍五入,使其等于 1 MB:Otherwise, round up the size to align with 1 MB:

    MB=$((1024*1024))
    size=$(qemu-img info -f raw --output json "rhel-7.4.raw" | \
    gawk 'match($0, /"virtual-size": ([0-9]+),/, val) {print val[1]}')
    rounded_size=$((($size/$MB + 1)*$MB))
    qemu-img resize rhel-7.4.raw $rounded_size
    

    将原始磁盘转换为固定大小的 VHD:Convert the raw disk to a fixed-sized VHD:

    qemu-img convert -f raw -o subformat=fixed -O vpc rhel-7.4.raw rhel-7.4.vhd
    

    或者,对于 qemu 版本 2.6+ ,包括 force_size 选项:Or, with qemu version 2.6+, include the force_size option:

    qemu-img convert -f raw -o subformat=fixed,force_size -O vpc rhel-7.4.raw rhel-7.4.vhd
    

从 VMware 准备基于 Red Hat 的 VMPrepare a Red Hat-based VM from VMware

本部分假设已在 VMware 中安装了 RHEL VM。This section assumes that you've already installed an RHEL VM in VMware. 有关如何在 VMware 中安装操作系统的详细信息,请参阅 VMware 来宾操作系统安装指南For details about how to install an operating system in VMware, see VMware Guest Operating System Installation Guide.

  • 在安装 Linux 操作系统时,建议使用标准分区而不是 LVM,这通常是许多安装的默认设置。When you install the Linux operating system, we recommend that you use standard partitions rather than LVM, which is often the default for many installations. 此方法可避免 LVM 与克隆 VM 发生名称冲突,特别是在操作系统磁盘需要连接到另一台 VM 以进行故障排除的情况下。This method avoids LVM name conflicts with cloned VMs, particularly if an operating system disk ever needs to be attached to another VM for troubleshooting. 如果需要,可以在数据磁盘上使用 LVM 或 RAID。LVM or RAID can be used on data disks if preferred.
  • 不要在操作系统磁盘上配置交换分区。Do not configure a swap partition on the operating system disk. 可将 Linux 代理配置为在临时资源磁盘上创建交换文件。You can configure the Linux agent to create a swap file on the temporary resource disk. 可以在下面的步骤中找到有关此配置的详细信息。You can find more information about this configuration in the following steps.
  • 创建虚拟硬盘时,选择“将虚拟磁盘存储为单个文件”。When you create the virtual hard disk, select Store virtual disk as a single file.

从 VMware 准备 RHEL 7 VMPrepare an RHEL 7 VM from VMware

  1. 创建或编辑 /etc/sysconfig/network 文件并添加以下文本:Create or edit the /etc/sysconfig/network file, and add the following text:

    NETWORKING=yes
    HOSTNAME=localhost.localdomain
    
  2. 创建或编辑 /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 文件并添加以下文本:Create or edit the /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0 file, and add the following text:

    DEVICE=eth0
    ONBOOT=yes
    BOOTPROTO=dhcp
    TYPE=Ethernet
    USERCTL=no
    PEERDNS=yes
    IPV6INIT=no
    NM_CONTROLLED=no
    
  3. 运行以下命令,确保网络服务在引导时启动:Ensure that the network service starts at boot time by running the following command:

    sudo chkconfig network on
    
  4. 注册 Red Hat 订阅,以通过运行以下命令来启用来自 RHEL 存储库中的包的安装:Register your Red Hat subscription to enable the installation of packages from the RHEL repository by running the following command:

    sudo subscription-manager register --auto-attach --username=XXX --password=XXX
    
  5. 在 grub 配置中修改内核引导行,使其包含 Azure 的其他内核参数。Modify the kernel boot line in your grub configuration to include additional kernel parameters for Azure. 若要执行此修改,请在文本编辑器中打开 /etc/default/grubTo make this modification, open /etc/default/grub in a text editor. 修改 GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX 参数。Modify the GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX parameter. 例如:For example:

    GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX="rootdelay=300 console=ttyS0 earlyprintk=ttyS0 net.ifnames=0"
    

    此配置还会确保所有控制台消息都发送到第一个串行端口,从而可以协助 Azure 支持人员调试问题。This configuration also ensures that all console messages are sent to the first serial port, which can assist Azure support with debugging issues. 此外,还会关闭 NIC 的新 RHEL 7 命名约定。It also turns off the new RHEL 7 naming conventions for NICs. 我们建议删除以下参数:We recommend that you remove the following parameters:

    rhgb quiet crashkernel=auto
    

    图形界面式引导和安静引导在云环境中不适用,在云环境中,我们希望所有日志都发送到串行端口。Graphical and quiet boot are not useful in a cloud environment where we want all the logs to be sent to the serial port. 如果需要,可以保留配置的 crashkernel 选项。You can leave the crashkernel option configured if desired. 此参数可将 VM 中的可用内存量减少 128 MB 或更多,当 VM 小较小时,这可能会造成问题。This parameter reduces the amount of available memory in the VM by 128 MB or more, which might be problematic on smaller VM sizes.

  6. 完成 /etc/default/grub 编辑后,运行以下命令以重新生成 grub 配置:After you're done editing /etc/default/grub, run the following command to rebuild the grub configuration:

    sudo grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
    
  7. 将 Hyper-V 模块添加到 initramfs 中。Add Hyper-V modules to initramfs.

    编辑 /etc/dracut.conf,添加内容:Edit /etc/dracut.conf, add content:

    add_drivers+="hv_vmbus hv_netvsc hv_storvsc"
    

    重新生成 initramfs:Rebuild initramfs:

    dracut -f -v
    
  8. [在 1910 版本以后为可选] 停止并卸载 cloud-init:[Optional after 1910 release] Stop and uninstall cloud-init:

    systemctl stop cloud-init
    yum remove cloud-init
    
  9. 请确保已安装 SSH 服务器且将其配置为在引导时启动。Ensure that the SSH server is installed and configured to start at boot time. 此设置通常是默认设置。This setting is usually the default. 修改 /etc/ssh/sshd_config 以包含以下行:Modify /etc/ssh/sshd_config to include the following line:

    ClientAliveInterval 180
    
  10. 为 Azure Stack Hub 创建自定义 VHD 时,请注意,2.2.20 到 2.2.35(不含)之间的 WALinuxAgent 版本在 1910 版本以前的 Azure Stack Hub 环境中不工作。When creating a custom vhd for Azure Stack Hub, note that WALinuxAgent versions between 2.2.20 and 2.2.35 (both exclusive) don't work on Azure Stack Hub environments before the 1910 release. 可以使用版本 2.2.20/2.2.35 来准备你的映像。You can use versions 2.2.20/2.2.35 versions to prepare your image. 若要使用高于 2.2.35 的版本来准备自定义映像,请将 Azure Stack Hub 更新到 1903 或更高版本,或应用 1901/1902 修补程序。To use versions later than 2.2.35 to prepare your custom image, update your Azure Stack Hub to the 1903 release or later, or apply the 1901/1902 hotfix.

    [1910 版本以前] 按照以下说明下载兼容的 WALinuxAgent:[Before 1910 release] Follow these instructions to download a compatible WALinuxAgent:

    1. 下载 setuptools。Download setuptools.

      wget https://pypi.python.org/packages/source/s/setuptools/setuptools-7.0.tar.gz --no-check-certificate
      tar xzf setuptools-7.0.tar.gz
      cd setuptools-7.0
      
    2. 下载并解压缩来自我们的 GitHub 的 2.2.20 版代理。Download and unzip the 2.2.20 version of the agent from our GitHub.

      wget https://github.com/Azure/WALinuxAgent/archive/v2.2.20.zip
      unzip v2.2.20.zip
      cd WALinuxAgent-2.2.20
      
    3. 安装 setup.py。Install setup.py.

      sudo python setup.py install
      
    4. 重启 waagent。Restart waagent.

      sudo systemctl restart waagent
      
    5. 测试代理版本是否与你下载的版本匹配。Test if the agent version matches the one you downloaded. 对于本示例,它应当为 2.2.20。For this example, it should be 2.2.20.

      waagent -version
      

    [1910 版本之后] 按照以下说明下载兼容的 WALinuxAgent:[After 1910 release] Follow these instructions to download a compatible WALinuxAgent:

    1. WALinuxAgent 包 WALinuxAgent-<version> 已推送到 Red Hat extras 存储库。The WALinuxAgent package, WALinuxAgent-<version>, has been pushed to the Red Hat extras repository. 通过运行以下命令启用 extras 存储库:Enable the extras repository by running the following command:
    subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-7-server-extras-rpms
    

    1. 通过运行以下命令安装 Azure Linux 代理:1.Install the Azure Linux Agent by running the following command:

     ```bash
     sudo yum install WALinuxAgent
     sudo systemctl enable waagent.service
     ```
    
  11. 不要在操作系统磁盘上创建交换空间。Do not create swap space on the operating system disk.

    Azure Linux 代理可使用在 Azure 上预配 VM 后附加到 VM 的本地资源磁盘自动配置交换空间。The Azure Linux Agent can automatically configure swap space by using the local resource disk attached to the VM after the VM is provisioned on Azure. 请注意,本地资源磁盘是临时磁盘,在取消预配 VM 时可能会被清空。Note that the local resource disk is a temporary disk, and it might be emptied when the VM is de-provisioned. 在上一步中安装 Azure Linux 代理后,相应地在 /etc/waagent.conf 中修改以下参数:After you install the Azure Linux Agent in the previous step, modify the following parameters in /etc/waagent.conf appropriately:

    ResourceDisk.Format=y
    ResourceDisk.Filesystem=ext4
    ResourceDisk.MountPoint=/mnt/resource
    ResourceDisk.EnableSwap=y
    ResourceDisk.SwapSizeMB=2048    NOTE: set this to whatever you need it to be.
    
  12. 如果想要取消注册订阅,运行以下命令:If you want to unregister the subscription, run the following command:

    sudo subscription-manager unregister
    
  13. 如果使用的系统是通过企业证书颁发机构部署的,则 RHEL VM 不会信任 Azure Stack Hub 根证书。If you're using a system that was deployed using an Enterprise Certificate Authority, the RHEL VM won't trust the Azure Stack Hub root certificate. 必须将该证书放入受信任的根存储。You must place that into the trusted root store. 有关详细信息,请参阅将受信任的根证书添加到服务器For more information, see Adding trusted root certificates to the server.

  14. 运行以下命令可取消对 VM 的预配并对其进行准备,以便在 Azure 上进行预配:Run the following commands to de-provision the VM and prepare it for provisioning on Azure:

    sudo waagent -force -deprovision
    export HISTSIZE=0
    logout
    
  15. 关闭 VM,并将 VMDK 文件转换为 VHD 格式。Shut down the VM, and convert the VMDK file to the VHD format.

    备注

    qemu-img 版本(>=2.2.1)中有一个已知 bug,会导致 VHD 格式不正确。There is a known bug in qemu-img versions >=2.2.1 that results in an improperly formatted VHD. QEMU 2.6 中已修复此问题。The issue has been fixed in QEMU 2.6. 建议使用 qemu-img 2.2.0 或更低版本,或者更新到 2.6 或更高版本。It's recommended that you use either qemu-img 2.2.0 or lower, or update to 2.6 or higher.

    首先将此映像转换为原始格式:First convert the image to raw format:

    qemu-img convert -f qcow2 -O raw rhel-7.4.qcow2 rhel-7.4.raw
    

    请确保原始映像大小为 1 MB。Make sure that the size of the raw image is aligned with 1 MB. 如果不是,请将大小四舍五入,使其等于 1 MB:Otherwise, round up the size to align with 1 MB:

    MB=$((1024*1024))
    size=$(qemu-img info -f raw --output json "rhel-7.4.raw" | \
    gawk 'match($0, /"virtual-size": ([0-9]+),/, val) {print val[1]}')
    rounded_size=$((($size/$MB + 1)*$MB))
    qemu-img resize rhel-7.4.raw $rounded_size
    

    将原始磁盘转换为固定大小的 VHD:Convert the raw disk to a fixed-sized VHD:

    qemu-img convert -f raw -o subformat=fixed -O vpc rhel-7.4.raw rhel-7.4.vhd
    

    或者,对于 qemu 版本 2.6+ ,包括 force_size 选项:Or, with qemu version 2.6+, include the force_size option:

    qemu-img convert -f raw -o subformat=fixed,force_size -O vpc rhel-7.4.raw rhel-7.4.vhd
    

使用 kickstart 文件自动从 ISO 准备基于 Red Hat 的 VMPrepare a Red Hat-based VM from an ISO by using a kickstart file automatically

  1. 创建包括以下内容的 kickstart 文件,并保存该文件。Create a kickstart file that includes the following content, and save the file. 停止并卸载 cloud-init 是可选的(1910 版本之后的Azure Stack Hub 版本支持 cloud-init)。Stopping and uninstalling cloud-init is optional (cloud-init is supported on Azure Stack Hub post 1910 release). 只有在 1910 版本之后,才能从 redhat 存储库安装该代理。Install the agent from the redhat repo only after the 1910 release. 在 1910 之前,使用 Azure 存储库,如上一部分中所述。Prior to 1910, use the Azure repo as done in the previous section. 有关 kickstart 安装的详细信息,请参阅 Kickstart 安装指南For details about kickstart installation, see the Kickstart Installation Guide.

    Kickstart for provisioning a RHEL 7 Azure VM
    
    System authorization information
    auth --enableshadow --passalgo=sha512
    
    Use graphical install
    text
    
    Do not run the Setup Agent on first boot
    firstboot --disable
    
    Keyboard layouts
    keyboard --vckeymap=us --xlayouts='us'
    
    System language
    lang en_US.UTF-8
    
    Network information
    network  --bootproto=dhcp
    
    Root password
    rootpw --plaintext "to_be_disabled"
    
    System services
    services --enabled="sshd,waagent,NetworkManager"
    
    System timezone
    timezone Etc/UTC --isUtc --ntpservers 0.rhel.pool.ntp.org,1.rhel.pool.ntp.org,2.rhel.pool.ntp.org,3.rhel.pool.ntp.org
    
    Partition clearing information
    clearpart --all --initlabel
    
    Clear the MBR
    zerombr
    
    Disk partitioning information
    part /boot --fstype="xfs" --size=500
    part / --fstyp="xfs" --size=1 --grow --asprimary
    
    System bootloader configuration
    bootloader --location=mbr
    
    Firewall configuration
    firewall --disabled
    
    Enable SELinux
    selinux --enforcing
    
    Don't configure X
    skipx
    
    Power down the machine after install
    poweroff
    
    %packages
    @base
    @console-internet
    chrony
    sudo
    parted
    -dracut-config-rescue
    
    %end
    
    %post --log=/var/log/anaconda/post-install.log
    
    #!/bin/bash
    
    Register Red Hat Subscription
    subscription-manager register --username=XXX --password=XXX --auto-attach --force
    
    Install latest repo update
    yum update -y
    
    Stop and Uninstall cloud-init
    systemctl stop cloud-init
    yum remove cloud-init
    
    Enable extras repo
    subscription-manager repos --enable=rhel-7-server-extras-rpms
    
    Install WALinuxAgent
    yum install -y WALinuxAgent
    
    Unregister Red Hat subscription
    subscription-manager unregister
    
    Enable waaagent at boot-up
    systemctl enable waagent
    
    Disable the root account
    usermod root -p '!!'
    
    Configure swap in WALinuxAgent
    sed -i 's/^\(ResourceDisk\.EnableSwap\)=[Nn]$/\1=y/g' /etc/waagent.conf
    sed -i 's/^\(ResourceDisk\.SwapSizeMB\)=[0-9]*$/\1=2048/g' /etc/waagent.conf
    
    Set the cmdline
    sed -i 's/^\(GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX\)=".*"$/\1="console=tty1 console=ttyS0 earlyprintk=ttyS0 rootdelay=300"/g' /etc/default/grub
    
    Enable SSH keepalive
    sed -i 's/^#\(ClientAliveInterval\).*$/\1 180/g' /etc/ssh/sshd_config
    
    Build the grub cfg
    grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
    
    Configure network
    cat << EOF > /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0
    DEVICE=eth0
    ONBOOT=yes
    BOOTPROTO=dhcp
    TYPE=Ethernet
    USERCTL=no
    PEERDNS=yes
    IPV6INIT=no
    NM_CONTROLLED=no
    EOF
    
    Deprovision and prepare for Azure
    waagent -force -deprovision
    
    %end
    
  2. 将 kickstart 文件放在安装系统可以访问的位置。Place the kickstart file where the installation system can access it.

  3. 在 Hyper-V 管理器中,创建新的 VM。In Hyper-V Manager, create a new VM. 在“连接虚拟硬盘”页上,选择“稍后附加虚拟硬盘”,并完成新建虚拟机向导 。On the Connect Virtual Hard Disk page, select Attach a virtual hard disk later, and complete the New Virtual Machine Wizard.

  4. 打开 VM 设置:Open the VM settings:

    a.a. 将新的虚拟硬盘附加到 VM。Attach a new virtual hard disk to the VM. 请务必选择“VHD 格式”和“固定大小” 。Make sure to select VHD Format and Fixed Size.

    b.b. 将安装 ISO 附加到 DVD 光驱。Attach the installation ISO to the DVD drive.

    c.c. 将 BIOS 设置为从 CD 启动。Set the BIOS to boot from CD.

  5. 启动 VM。Start the VM. 当安装指南出现时,请按 Tab 键来配置启动选项。When the installation guide appears, press Tab to configure the boot options.

  6. 在启动选项的末尾输入 inst.ks=<the location of the kickstart file> ,并按 Enter键。Enter inst.ks=<the location of the kickstart file> at the end of the boot options, and press Enter.

  7. 等待安装完成。Wait for the installation to finish. 完成后,VM 将自动关闭。When it's finished, the VM is shut down automatically. 现在,准备将 Linux VHD 上传到 Azure。Your Linux VHD is now ready to be uploaded to Azure.

已知问题Known issues

使用非 Hyper-V 虚拟机监控程序时,初始 RAM 磁盘未包含 Hyper-V 驱动程序The Hyper-V driver couldn't be included in the initial RAM disk when using a non-Hyper-V hypervisor

在某些情况下,Linux 安装程序可能无法在初始 RAM 磁盘(initrd 或 initramfs)中包含 Hyper-V 驱动程序,除非 Linux 检测到它正在 Hyper-V 环境中运行。In some cases, Linux installers might not include the drivers for Hyper-V in the initial RAM disk (initrd or initramfs) unless Linux detects that it's running in a Hyper-V environment.

使用不同虚拟化系统(例如 Oracle VM VirtualBox,Xen Project 等)来准备 Linux 映像时,可能需要重新生成 initrd 以确保至少 hv_vmbus 和 hv_storvsc 内核模块可在初始 RAM 磁盘上使用。When you're using a different virtualization system (like Oracle VM VirtualBox, Xen Project, and so on) to prepare your Linux image, you might need to rebuild initrd to ensure that at least the hv_vmbus and hv_storvsc kernel modules are available on the initial RAM disk. 至少在基于上游 Red Hat 分发的系统上这是一个已知问题。This is a known issue at least on systems that are based on the upstream Red Hat distribution.

要解决此问题,请将 Hyper-V 模块添加到 initramfs 并进行重新生成:To resolve this issue, add Hyper-V modules to initramfs and rebuild it:

编辑 /etc/dracut.conf 并添加以下内容:Edit /etc/dracut.conf, and add the following content:

add_drivers+="hv_vmbus hv_netvsc hv_storvsc"

重新生成 initramfs:Rebuild initramfs:

dracut -f -v

有关详细信息,请参阅重新生成 initramfsFor more information, see rebuilding initramfs.

后续步骤Next steps

现在,可以使用 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 虚拟硬盘在 Azure Stack Hub 中创建新的 VM。You're now ready to use your Red Hat Enterprise Linux virtual hard disk to create new VMs in Azure Stack Hub. 如果这是你第一次将 VHD 文件上传到 Azure Stack Hub,请参阅创建和发布市场项If this is the first time that you're uploading the VHD file to Azure Stack Hub, see Create and publish a Marketplace item.

有关经认证可运行 Red Hat Enterprise Linux 的虚拟机监控程序的详细信息,请参阅 Red Hat 网站For more information about the hypervisors that are certified to run Red Hat Enterprise Linux, see the Red Hat website.