适用于 Azure 数据资源管理器的 Azure 安全基线Azure security baseline for Azure Data Explorer

此安全基线将 Azure 安全基准版本 1.0 中的指南应用于 Azure 数据资源管理器。This security baseline applies guidance from the Azure Security Benchmark version 1.0 to Azure Data Explorer. Azure 安全基准提供有关如何在 Azure 上保护云解决方案的建议。The Azure Security Benchmark provides recommendations on how you can secure your cloud solutions on Azure. 内容按“安全控制”分组,这些控制根据适用于 Azure 数据资源管理器的 Azure 安全基准和相关指南定义。The content is grouped by the security controls defined by the Azure Security Benchmark and the related guidance applicable to Azure Data Explorer. 排除了不适用于 Azure 数据资源管理器的“控制”。Controls not applicable to Azure Data Explorer have been excluded.

若要查看 Azure 数据资源管理器如何完全映射到 Azure 安全基准,请参阅完整的 Azure 数据资源管理器安全基线映射文件To see how Azure Data Explorer completely maps to the Azure Security Benchmark, see the full Azure Data Explorer security baseline mapping file.

网络安全Network Security

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 网络安全性For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Network Security.

1.1:保护虚拟网络中的 Azure 资源1.1: Protect Azure resources within virtual networks

指导:Azure 数据资源管理器支持将群集部署到虚拟网络中的子网中。Guidance: Azure Data Explorer supports deploying a cluster into a subnet in your virtual network. 通过此功能,你可以在 Azure 数据资源管理器群集流量上强制实施网络安全组 (NSG) 规则,将本地网络连接到 Azure 数据资源管理器群集的子网,以及通过服务终结点保护数据连接源(事件中心和事件网格)。This capability enables you to enforce network security group (NSG) rules on your Azure Data Explorer cluster traffic, connect your on-premises network to Azure Data Explorer cluster's subnet, and Secure your data connection sources (Event Hub and Event Grid) with service endpoints.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.2:监视并记录虚拟网络、子网和网络接口的配置与流量1.2: Monitor and log the configuration and traffic of virtual networks, subnets, and network interfaces

指导:启用网络安全组 (NSG) 流日志,并将日志发送到存储帐户以进行流量审核。Guidance: Enable network security group (NSG) flow logs and send logs into a Storage Account for traffic audit.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.4:拒绝与已知恶意的 IP 地址进行通信1.4: Deny communications with known-malicious IP addresses

指导:在虚拟网络上启用 Azure DDoS 防护标准,防止 Azure 数据资源管理器群集受到 DDoS 攻击。Guidance: Enable Azure DDoS Protection Standard on the virtual network protecting your Azure Data Explorer clusters for protection against DDoS attacks. 根据 Azure 安全中心集成的威胁情报进行判断,拒绝与已知恶意的或未使用过的 Internet IP 地址通信。Use Azure Security Center Integrated Threat Intelligence to deny communications with known malicious or unused Internet IP addresses.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.5:记录网络数据包1.5: Record network packets

指导:在用于保护 Azure 数据资源管理器群集的网络安全组 (NSG) 上启用流日志,并将日志发送到存储帐户以进行流量审核。Guidance: Enable Flow Logs on the network security groups (NSG) being used to protect your Azure Data Explorer cluster, and send logs into a Storage Account for traffic audit.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.8:最大程度地降低网络安全规则的复杂性和管理开销1.8: Minimize complexity and administrative overhead of network security rules

指导:在与 Azure 数据资源管理器群集关联的网络安全组或 Azure 防火墙中使用虚拟网络服务标记来定义网络访问控制。Guidance: Use Virtual Network Service Tags to define network access controls on Network Security Groups or Azure Firewalls associated with your Azure Data Explorer clusters. 创建安全规则时,可以使用服务标记代替特定的 IP 地址。You can use service tags in place of specific IP addresses when creating security rules. 在规则的相应源或目标字段中指定服务标记名称(例如 ApiManagement),可以允许或拒绝相应服务的流量。By specifying the service tag name (e.g., ApiManagement) in the appropriate source or destination field of a rule, you can allow or deny the traffic for the corresponding service. Microsoft 会管理服务标记包含的地址前缀,并会在地址发生更改时自动更新服务标记。Microsoft manages the address prefixes encompassed by the service tag and automatically updates the service tag as addresses change.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.9:维护网络设备的标准安全配置1.9: Maintain standard security configurations for network devices

指导:客户使用 Azure Policy 为网络资源定义并实施标准安全配置。Guidance: Customer to define and implement standard security configurations for network resources with Azure Policy.

客户还可以使用 Azure 蓝图,通过在单个蓝图定义中打包关键环境项目(例如 Azure 资源管理器模板、Azure RBAC 控制和 Azure Policy 分配)来简化大规模的 Azure 部署。Customer may also use Azure Blueprints to simplify large scale Azure deployments by packaging key environment artifacts, such as Azure Resource Manager templates, Azure RBAC controls, and Azure Policy assignments, in a single blueprint definition. 轻松将蓝图应用到新的订阅和环境,并通过版本控制来微调控制措施和管理。Easily apply the blueprint to new subscriptions and environments, and fine-tune control and management through versioning.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.10:阐述流量配置规则1.10: Document traffic configuration rules

指导:将标记用于网络安全组 (NSG) 以及与 Azure 数据资源管理器群集的网络安全和通信流相关的其他资源。Guidance: Use tags for network security groups (NSG) and other resources related to network security and traffic flow for your Azure Data Explorer clusters. 对于单个 NSG 规则,请使用“说明”字段针对允许流量传入/传出网络的任何规则指定业务需求和/或持续时间等。For individual NSG rules, use the "Description" field to specify business need and/or duration (etc.) for any rules that allow traffic to/from a network.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.11:使用自动化工具来监视网络资源配置和检测更改1.11: Use automated tools to monitor network resource configurations and detect changes

指导:使用 Azure Policy 来验证(和/或修正)网络资源的配置。Guidance: Use Azure Policy to validate (and/or remediate) configuration for network resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

日志记录和监视Logging and Monitoring

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 日志记录和监视For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Logging and Monitoring.

2.2:配置中心安全日志管理2.2: Configure central security log management

指导:Azure 数据资源管理器使用诊断日志获取有关引入成功和失败的见解。Guidance: Azure Data Explorer uses diagnostic logs for insights on ingestion successes and failures. 可将操作日志导出到 Azure 存储、事件中心或 Log Analytics 以监视引入状态。You can export operation logs to Azure Storage, Event Hub, or Log Analytics to monitor ingestion status.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.3:为 Azure 资源启用审核日志记录2.3: Enable audit logging for Azure resources

指导:启用 Azure 数据资源管理器的诊断设置以访问和记录服务专用操作和日志记录。Guidance: Enable Diagnostic Settings for Azure Data Explorer for access and logging to service specific operations and logging. 默认情况下,Azure Monitor 中的 Azure 活动日志(包括有关资源的概要日志记录)处于启用状态。Azure Activity logs within Azure Monitor, which includes high-level logging about the resource are enabled by default.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.5:配置安全日志存储保留期2.5: Configure security log storage retention

指导:在 Azure Monitor 中,根据组织的合规性规章设置 Log Analytics 工作区保留期。Guidance: Within Azure Monitor, set your Log Analytics Workspace retention period according to your organization's compliance regulations. 使用 Azure 存储帐户进行长期/存档存储。Use Azure Storage Accounts for long-term/archival storage.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.6:监视和查看日志2.6: Monitor and review logs

指导:分析和监视日志中的异常行为,并定期审查结果。Guidance: Analyze and monitor logs for anomalous behaviors and regularly review results. 启用 Azure 数据资源管理器的诊断设置后,使用 Azure Monitor 的 Log Analytics 工作区查看日志并对日志数据执行查询。After enabling Diagnostic Settings for Azure Data Explorer, use Azure Monitor's Log Analytics Workspace to review logs and perform queries on log data.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

标识和访问控制Identity and Access Control

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 标识和访问控制For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Identity and Access Control.

3.1:维护管理帐户的清单3.1: Maintain an inventory of administrative accounts

指导:在 Azure 数据资源管理器中,安全角色定义哪些安全主体(用户和应用程序)有权对受保护的资源(例如数据库或表)进行操作,以及允许进行哪些操作。Guidance: In Azure Data Explorer, security roles define which security principals (users and applications) have permissions to operate on a secured resource such as a database or a table, and what operations are permitted. 可以利用 Kusto 查询列出 Azure 数据资源管理器群集和数据库的具有管理员角色的主体。You can leverage Kusto query to list principles in the admin role for the Azure Data Explorer clusters and databases.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.2:在适用的情况下更改默认密码3.2: Change default passwords where applicable

指导:Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) 没有默认密码的概念。Guidance: Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) does not have the concept of default passwords. 其他需要密码的 Azure 资源会强制创建具有复杂性要求和最小密码长度的密码,该长度因服务而异。Other Azure resources requiring a password forces a password to be created with complexity requirements and a minimum password length, which differs depending on the service. 你对可能使用默认密码的第三方应用程序和市场服务负责。You are responsible for third party applications and marketplace services that may use default passwords.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.3:使用专用管理帐户3.3: Use dedicated administrative accounts

指导:客户围绕专用管理帐户的使用创建标准操作程序。Guidance: Customer to create standard operating procedures around the use of dedicated administrative accounts. 使用 Azure 安全中心标识和访问管理来监视管理帐户的数量。Use Azure Security Center Identity and Access Management to monitor the number of administrative accounts.

客户还可以通过使用 Microsoft 服务的 Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) Privileged Identity Management 特权角色和 Azure ARM 来启用实时/恰好足够的访问权限。Customers can also enable a Just-In-Time / Just-Enough-Access by using Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) Privileged Identity Management Privileged Roles for Microsoft Services, and Azure ARM.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.4:使用 Azure Active Directory 单一登录 (SSO)3.4: Use Azure Active Directory single sign-on (SSO)

指导:客户应尽可能使用 Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) SSO,而不是为每个服务配置单个独立凭据。Guidance: Wherever possible, customer to use SSO with Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) rather than configuring individual stand-alone credentials per-service. 请使用 Azure 安全中心标识和访问管理建议。Use Azure Security Center Identity and Access Management recommendations.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.5:对所有基于 Azure Active Directory 的访问使用多重身份验证3.5: Use multi-factor authentication for all Azure Active Directory-based access

指导:启用 Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) 多重身份验证 (MFA),并遵循 Azure 安全中心标识和访问管理的建议。Guidance: Enable Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) multi-factor authentication (MFA) and follow Azure Security Center Identity and Access Management recommendations.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.6:使用由 Azure 管理的安全工作站执行管理任务3.6: Use secure, Azure-managed workstations for administrative tasks

指导:使用配置了多重身份验证 (MFA) 的 PAW(特权访问工作站)来登录和配置 Azure 资源。Guidance: Use PAWs (privileged access workstations) with multi-factor authentication (MFA) configured to log into and configure Azure resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.7:记录来自管理帐户的可疑活动并对其发出警报3.7: Log and alert on suspicious activities from administrative accounts

指导:当环境中出现可疑或不安全的活动时,请使用 Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) 安全报告来生成日志和警报。Guidance: Use Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) security reports for generation of logs and alerts when suspicious or unsafe activity occurs in the environment. 使用 Azure 安全中心监视标识和访问活动Use Azure Security Center to monitor identity and access activity

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.8:仅从批准的位置管理 Azure 资源3.8: Manage Azure resources from only approved locations

指导:用户使用条件访问命名位置,仅允许从 IP 地址范围或国家/地区的特定逻辑分组进行访问。Guidance: Customer to use Conditional Access named locations to allow access from only specific logical groupings of IP address ranges or countries/regions.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.9:使用 Azure Active Directory3.9: Use Azure Active Directory

指导:Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) 是向 Azure 数据资源管理器进行身份验证的首选方法。Guidance: Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) is the preferred method for authenticating to Azure Data Explorer. Azure AD 支持多种身份验证方案:Azure AD supports a number of authentication scenarios:

  • 用户身份验证(交互式登录):用于对人类主体进行身份验证。User authentication (interactive logon): Used to authenticate human principals.

  • 应用程序身份验证(非交互式登录):用于对必须在没有人类用户参与的情况下运行或进行身份验证的服务和应用程序进行身份验证。Application authentication (non-interactive logon): Used to authenticate services and applications that have to run/authenticate with no human user being present.

有关详细信息,请参阅以下资源:For more information, see the following references:

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.10:定期审查和协调用户访问3.10: Regularly review and reconcile user access

指导:Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) 提供日志来帮助发现过时的帐户。Guidance: Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) provides logs to help discover stale accounts. 此外,请使用 Azure 标识访问评审来有效管理组成员身份、对企业应用程序的访问和角色分配。In addition, use Azure Identity Access Reviews to efficiently manage group memberships, access to enterprise applications, and role assignments. 可以定期评审用户的访问权限,确保只有适当的用户才持续拥有访问权限。User's access can be reviewed on a regular basis to make sure only the right Users have continued access.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.11:监视尝试访问已停用凭据的行为3.11: Monitor attempts to access deactivated credentials

指导:可使用 Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) 登录活动、审核和风险事件日志源进行监视,这让你可以与任何安全信息和事件管理 (SIEM)/监视工具集成。Guidance: You may use Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) Sign in Activity, Audit and Risk Event log sources for monitoring which allows you to integrate with any Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) / Monitoring tool.

你可以通过为 Azure Active Directory 用户帐户创建诊断设置,并将审核日志和登录日志发送到 Log Analytics 工作区,来简化此过程。You can streamline this process by creating Diagnostic Settings for Azure Active Directory user accounts, sending the audit logs and sign-in logs to a Log Analytics Workspace. 客户可以在 Log Analytics 工作区中配置所需的警报。Customer to configure desired Alerts within Log Analytics Workspace.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.12:针对帐户登录行为偏差发出警报3.12: Alert on account sign-in behavior deviation

指导:使用 Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) 风险检测和标识保护功能配置对检测到的与用户标识相关的可疑操作的自动响应。Guidance: Use Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) Risk Detections and Identity Protection feature to configure automated responses to detected suspicious actions related to user identities. 此外,可将数据引入 Azure Sentinel 以做进一步调查。Additionally, you can ingest data into Azure Sentinel for further investigation.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.13:在支持场合下为 Microsoft 提供对相关客户数据的访问权限3.13: Provide Microsoft with access to relevant customer data during support scenarios

指导:在 Microsoft 需要访问客户数据的支持方案中,客户密码箱为客户提供接口来审核和批准/拒绝客户数据访问请求。Guidance: In support scenarios where Microsoft needs to access customer data, Customer Lockbox provides an interface for customers to review and approve or reject customer data access requests.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

数据保护Data Protection

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 数据保护For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Data Protection.

4.1:维护敏感信息的清单4.1: Maintain an inventory of sensitive Information

指导:使用标记可以帮助跟踪存储或处理敏感信息的 Azure 资源。Guidance: Use tags to assist in tracking Azure resources that store or process sensitive information.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

4.2:隔离存储或处理敏感信息的系统4.2: Isolate systems storing or processing sensitive information

指导:为开发、测试和生产实现单独的订阅和/或管理组。Guidance: Implement separate subscriptions and/or management groups for development, test, and production. Azure 数据资源管理器群集应当按虚拟网络/子网从其他资源进行分隔,相应地进行标记,并在网络安全组 (NSG) 或 Azure 防火墙中进行保护。Azure Data Explorer clusters should be separated from other resources by virtual network/subnet, tagged appropriately, and secured within an network security group (NSG) or Azure Firewall. 存储或处理敏感数据的 Azure 数据资源管理器群集应当充分隔离。Azure Data Explorer clusters storing or processing sensitive data should be sufficiently isolated.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

4.4:加密传输中的所有敏感信息4.4: Encrypt all sensitive information in transit

指导:默认情况下,Azure 数据资源管理器群集协商 TLS 1.2。Guidance: Azure Data Explorer cluster negotiate TLS 1.2 by default. 确保连接到 Azure 资源的任何客户端能够协商 TLS 1.2 或更高版本。Ensure that any clients connecting to your Azure resources are able to negotiate TLS 1.2 or greater.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:共享Responsibility: Shared

4.5:使用有效的发现工具识别敏感数据4.5: Use an active discovery tool to identify sensitive data

指导:数据标识、分类和丢失防护功能尚不适用于 Azure 数据资源管理器。Guidance: Data identification, classification, and loss prevention features are not yet available for Azure Data Explorer. 如果需要出于合规性目的使用这些功能,请实施第三方解决方案。Implement third-party solution if required for compliance purposes.

对于 Microsoft 管理的底层平台,Microsoft 会将所有客户内容视为敏感数据,并会全方位地防范客户数据丢失和遭到透露。For the underlying platform which is managed by Microsoft, Microsoft treats all customer content as sensitive and goes to great lengths to guard against customer data loss and exposure. 为了确保 Azure 中的客户数据保持安全,Microsoft 实施并维护了一套可靠的数据保护控制措施和功能。To ensure customer data within Azure remains secure, Microsoft has implemented and maintains a suite of robust data protection controls and capabilities.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

4.6:使用基于角色的访问控制来控制对资源的访问4.6: Use Role-based access control to control access to resources

指导:通过 Azure 数据资源管理器,可以使用 Azure 基于角色的访问控制 (RBAC) 模型来控制对数据库和表的访问。Guidance: Azure Data Explorer enables you to control access to databases and tables, using an Azure role-based access control (RBAC) model. 在此模型下,主体(用户、组和应用)将映射到角色。Under this model, principals (users, groups, and apps) are mapped to roles. 主体可以根据分配的角色访问资源。Principals can access resources according to the roles they're assigned.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

4.8:静态加密敏感信息4.8: Encrypt sensitive information at rest

指导:Azure 磁盘加密有助于保护数据,使组织能够信守在安全性与合规性方面作出的承诺。Guidance: Azure Disk Encryption helps protect and safeguard your data to meet your organizational security and compliance commitments. 它为群集虚拟机的 OS 和数据磁盘提供卷加密。It provides volume encryption for the OS and data disks of your cluster virtual machines. 它还与 Azure 密钥保管库集成,让我们可以控制和管理磁盘加密密钥和机密,并确保 VM 磁盘上的所有数据在 Azure 存储中进行静态加密。It also integrates with Azure Key Vault which allows us to control and manage the disk encryption keys and secrets, and ensure all data on the VM disks is encrypted at rest while in Azure Storage.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

4.9:记录对关键 Azure 资源的更改并对此类更改发出警报4.9: Log and alert on changes to critical Azure resources

指导:将 Azure Monitor 与 Azure 活动日志配合使用,以创建在 Azure 数据资源管理器上发生资源级别更改时发出的警报。Guidance: Use Azure Monitor with the Azure Activity Log to create alerts for when resource-level changes take place on your Azure Data Explorer clusters.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

漏洞管理Vulnerability Management

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 漏洞管理。For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Vulnerability Management.

5.5:使用风险评级过程来确定已发现漏洞的修正措施的优先级5.5: Use a risk-rating process to prioritize the remediation of discovered vulnerabilities

指导:使用 Azure 安全中心提供的默认风险评级(安全功能分数)。Guidance: Use the default risk ratings (Secure Score) provided by Azure Security Center.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

清单和资产管理Inventory and Asset Management

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 清单和资产管理For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Inventory and Asset Management.

6.1:使用自动化资产发现解决方案6.1: Use automated asset discovery solution

指导:使用 Azure Resource Graph 查询和发现订阅中的所有资源。Guidance: Use Azure Resource Graph to query and discover all resources in your subscriptions. 确保租户中具有适当的(读取)权限,并枚举所有 Azure 订阅以及订阅中的资源。Ensure appropriate (read) permissions in your tenant and enumerate all Azure subscriptions as well as resources within your subscriptions.

尽管可以通过 Resource Graph 发现经典 Azure 资源,但我们强烈建议你今后还是创建并使用 Azure 资源管理器资源。Although classic Azure resources may be discovered via Resource Graph, it is highly recommended to create and use Azure Resource Manager resources going forward.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

6.2:维护资产元数据6.2: Maintain asset metadata

指导:将标记应用到 Azure资源,以便有条理地将元数据组织成某种分类。Guidance: Apply tags to Azure resources giving metadata to logically organize them into a taxonomy.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

6.3:删除未经授权的 Azure 资源6.3: Delete unauthorized Azure resources

指导:在适用的情况下,你可以使用适当的命名约定、标记、管理组或单独的订阅来组织和跟踪资产。Guidance: You may use appropriate naming conventions, tagging, management groups, or separate subscriptions, where appropriate, to organize and track assets. 你可以使用 Azure Resource Graph 定期核对清单,确保及时地从订阅中删除未经授权的资源。You may use Azure Resource Graph to reconcile inventory on a regular basis and ensure unauthorized resources are deleted from the subscription in a timely manner.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

6.4:定义并维护已批准的 Azure 资源的清单6.4: Define and maintain inventory of approved Azure resources

指导:你将需要根据组织需求,创建已获批 Azure 资源以及已获批用于计算资源的软件的清单。Guidance: You will need to create an inventory of approved Azure resources and approved software for compute resources as per your organizational needs.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

6.5:监视未批准的 Azure 资源6.5: Monitor for unapproved Azure resources

指导:可以在 Azure 策略中使用以下内置策略定义,对可以在客户订阅中创建的资源类型施加限制:Guidance: You may use Azure policies to put restrictions on the type of resources that can be created in customer subscriptions using the following built-in policy definitions:

  • 不允许的资源类型Not allowed resource types

  • 允许的资源类型Allowed resource types

你将能够使用活动日志(可使用 Azure Monitor 对其进行监视)监视策略生成的事件。You will be able to monitor the policy generated events using the Activity logs which can be monitored using Azure Monitor.

此外,可以使用 Azure Resource Graph 来查询/发现订阅中的资源。In addition, you may use the Azure Resource Graph to query/discover resources within the subscriptions.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

6.9:仅使用已批准的 Azure 服务6.9: Use only approved Azure services

指导:可以在 Azure Policy 中使用以下内置策略定义,对可以在客户订阅中创建的资源类型施加限制:Guidance: You may use Azure policies to put restrictions on the type of resources that can be created in customer subscription(s) using the following built-in policy definitions:

  • 不允许的资源类型Not allowed resource types

  • 允许的资源类型Allowed resource types

有关详细信息,请参阅以下资源:For more information, see the following references:

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

6.11:限制用户与 Azure 资源管理器进行交互的能力6.11: Limit users' ability to interact with Azure Resource Manager

指导:通过为“Azure 管理”应用配置“阻止访问”,使用 Azure 条件访问来限制用户与 Azure 资源管理器交互的功能。Guidance: Use the Azure Conditional Access to limit users' ability to interact with Azure Resource Manager by configuring "Block access" for the "Azure Management" App. 这会阻止在 Azure 订阅中创建和更改资源。This will prevent the creation and changes to resources within your Azure subscriptions.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

安全配置Secure Configuration

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 安全配置For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Secure Configuration.

7.1:为所有 Azure 资源建立安全配置7.1: Establish secure configurations for all Azure resources

指导:使用 Azure Policy 别名创建自定义策略,审核或强制实施 Azure 资源的配置。Guidance: Use Azure Policy aliases to create custom policies to audit or enforce the configuration of your Azure resources. 你还可以使用内置的 Azure Policy 定义。You may also use built-in Azure Policy definitions.

此外,Azure 资源管理器能够以 JavaScript 对象表示法 (JSON) 导出模板,应该对其进行检查,以确保配置满足或超过组织的安全要求。Also, Azure Resource Manager has the ability to export the template in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), which should be reviewed to ensure that the configurations meet or exceed the security requirements for your organization.

还可以使用来自 Azure 安全中心的建议作为 Azure 资源的安全配置基线。You can also use recommendations from Azure Security Center as a secure configuration baseline for your Azure resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

7.3:维护安全的 Azure 资源配置7.3: Maintain secure Azure resource configurations

指导:使用 Azure 策略“[拒绝]”和“[不存在则部署]”对不同的 Azure 资源强制实施安全设置。Guidance: Use Azure policy [deny] and [deploy if not exist] to enforce secure settings across your Azure resources. 可以使用更改跟踪、策略符合性仪表板等解决方案或自定义解决方案来轻松识别环境中的安全更改。You may use solutions such as Change Tracking, Policy compliance dashboard or a custom solution to easily identify security changes in your environment.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

7.5:安全存储 Azure 资源的配置7.5: Securely store configuration of Azure resources

指导:使用 Azure Repos 安全地存储和管理代码,如自定义 Azure 策略、Azure 资源管理器模板、Desired State Configuration 脚本等。若要访问在 Azure DevOps 中管理的资源,可以向特定用户、内置安全组或 Azure Active Directory (Azure AD)(如果与 Azure DevOps 集成)中定义的组或 Active Directory(如果与 TFS 集成)授予或拒绝授予权限。Guidance: Use Azure Repos to securely store and manage your code like custom Azure policies, Azure Resource Manager templates, Desired State Configuration scripts etc. To access the resources you manage in Azure DevOps, you can grant or deny permissions to specific users, built-in security groups, or groups defined in Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) if integrated with Azure DevOps, or Active Directory if integrated with TFS.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

7.7:部署 Azure 资源的配置管理工具7.7: Deploy configuration management tools for Azure resources

指导:使用 Azure Policy 为 Azure 资源定义和实施标准安全配置。Guidance: Define and implement standard security configurations for Azure resources using Azure Policy. 使用 Azure Policy 别名创建自定义策略,审核或强制实施 Azure 资源的网络配置。Use Azure Policy aliases to create custom policies to audit or enforce the network configuration of your Azure resources. 还可以使用与特定资源相关的内置策略定义。You may also make use of built-in policy definitions related to your specific resources. 此外,你也可以使用 Azure 自动化来部署配置更改。Additionally, you may use Azure Automation to deploy configuration changes.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

7.9:为 Azure 资源实施自动配置监视7.9: Implement automated configuration monitoring for Azure resources

指导:使用 Azure Policy 别名创建自定义策略,以审核、强制实施系统配置并为其发出警报。Guidance: Use Azure Policy aliases to create custom policies to alert, audit, and enforce system configurations. 使用 Azure Policy“[审核]”、“[拒绝]”和“[不存在则部署]”自动强制实施 Azure 资源的配置。Use Azure policy [audit], [deny], and [deploy if not exist] to automatically enforce configurations for your Azure resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

7.12:安全自动管理标识7.12: Manage identities securely and automatically

指导:使用托管标识在 Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) 中为 Azure 服务提供一个自动托管的标识。Guidance: Use Managed Identities to provide Azure services with an automatically managed identity in Azure Active Directory (Azure AD). 使用托管标识可以向支持 Azure AD 身份验证的任何服务(包括 Key Vault)进行身份验证,无需在代码中放入任何凭据。Managed Identities allows you to authenticate to any service that supports Azure AD authentication, including Key Vault, without any credentials in your code.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

7.13:消除意外的凭据透露7.13: Eliminate unintended credential exposure

指南:实施凭据扫描程序来识别代码中的凭据。Guidance: Implement Credential Scanner to identify credentials within code. 凭据扫描程序还会建议将发现的凭据转移到更安全的位置,例如 Azure Key Vault。Credential Scanner will also encourage moving discovered credentials to more secure locations such as Azure Key Vault.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

恶意软件防护Malware Defense

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 恶意软件防护For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Malware Defense.

8.2:预先扫描要上传到非计算 Azure 资源的文件8.2: Pre-scan files to be uploaded to non-compute Azure resources

指导:在支持 Azure 服务(例如 Azure 数据资源管理器)的底层主机上已启用 Microsoft Antimalware,但是,该软件不会针对客户内容运行。Guidance: Microsoft anti-malware is enabled on the underlying host that supports Azure services (for example, Azure Data Explorer), however it does not run on customer content.

预扫描要上传到非计算 Azure 资源的任何内容,例如 Azure 数据资源管理器、Data Lake Storage、Blob 存储、Azure Database for PostgreSQL 等。Microsoft 无法访问这些实例中的数据。Pre-scan any content being uploaded to non-compute Azure resources, such as Azure Data Explorer, Data Lake Storage, Blob Storage, Azure Database for PostgreSQL, etc. Microsoft cannot access your data in these instances.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

数据恢复Data Recovery

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 数据恢复For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Data Recovery.

9.1:确保定期执行自动备份9.1: Ensure regular automated back-ups

指导:始终复制 Azure 存储帐户中 Azure 数据资源管理器群集使用的数据,以确保持续性和高可用性。Guidance: The data in your Azure storage account used by your Azure Data Explorer cluster is always replicated to ensure durability and high availability. Azure 存储功能会复制数据,以防范各种计划内和计划外的事件,包括暂时性的硬件故障、网络中断或断电、大范围自然灾害等。Azure Storage copies your data so that it is protected from planned and unplanned events, including transient hardware failures, network or power outages, and massive natural disasters. 可以选择在同一数据中心中、跨同一区域中的局域数据中心或跨地理上隔离的区域复制数据。You can choose to replicate your data within the same data center, across zonal data centers within the same region, or across geographically separated regions.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

9.2:执行完整系统备份,并备份客户管理的所有密钥9.2: Perform complete system backups and backup any customer-managed keys

指导:Azure 数据资源管理器对静态存储帐户中的所有数据进行加密。Guidance: Azure Data Explorer encrypts all data in a storage account at rest. 默认情况下,数据使用 Microsoft 管理的密钥进行加密。By default, data is encrypted with Microsoft-managed keys. 为了更进一步控制加密密钥,可以提供客户管理的密钥来用于对数据进行加密。For additional control over encryption keys, you can supply customer-managed keys to use for data encryption. 客户管理的密钥必须存储在 Azure密钥保管库中。Customer-managed keys must be stored in an Azure Key Vault.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

9.3:验证所有备份,包括客户管理的密钥9.3: Validate all backups including customer-managed keys

指南:定期测试 Azure Key Vault 机密的数据还原。Guidance: Periodically test data restoration of your Azure Key Vault secrets.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

9.4:确保保护备份和客户管理的密钥9.4: Ensure protection of backups and customer-managed keys

指导:客户在 Key Vault 中启用“软删除”,以防止意外删除或恶意删除密钥。Guidance: Customer to enable Soft-Delete in Key Vault to protect keys against accidental or malicious deletion. 你还可以启用清除保护,这样在保留期结束之前,便无法清除处于已删除状态的保管库或对象。You can also enable purge protection so that if a vault or an object in the deleted state, it cannot be purged until the retention period has passed.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

事件响应Incident Response

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 事件响应For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Incident Response.

10.1:创建事件响应指导10.1: Create an incident response guide

指南:为组织制定事件响应指南。Guidance: Build out an incident response guide for your organization. 确保在书面的事件响应计划中定义人员职责,以及事件处理/管理从检测到事件后审查的各个阶段。Ensure that there are written incident response plans that define all roles of personnel as well as phases of incident handling/management from detection to post-incident review.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

10.2:创建事件评分和优先级设定过程10.2: Create an incident scoring and prioritization procedure

指导:安全中心为每条警报分配严重性,以帮助你优先处理应该最先调查的警报。Guidance: Security Center assigns a severity to each alert to help you prioritize which alerts should be investigated first. 严重性取决于安全中心在发出警报时所依据的检测结果和分析结果的置信度,以及导致发出警报的活动的恶意企图的置信度。The severity is based on how confident Security Center is in the finding or the analytic used to issue the alert as well as the confidence level that there was malicious intent behind the activity that led to the alert.

此外,请明确标记订阅(例如Additionally, clearly mark subscriptions (for ex. 生产、非生产)并创建命名系统来对 Azure 资源进行明确标识和分类,特别是处理敏感数据的资源。production, non-prod) using tags and create a naming system to clearly identify and categorize Azure resources, especially those processing sensitive data. 你的责任是根据发生事件的 Azure 资源和环境的关键性确定修正警报的优先级。It is your responsibility to prioritize the remediation of alerts based on the criticality of the Azure resources and environment where the incident occurred.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

10.3:测试安全响应过程10.3: Test security response procedures

指南:定期执行演练来测试系统的事件响应功能,以帮助保护 Azure 资源。Guidance: Conduct exercises to test your systems’ incident response capabilities on a regular cadence to help protect your Azure resources. 识别弱点和差距,并根据需要修改计划。Identify weak points and gaps and revise plan as needed.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

10.4:提供安全事件联系人详细信息,并针对安全事件配置警报通知10.4: Provide security incident contact details and configure alert notifications for security incidents

指导:如果 Microsoft 安全响应中心 (MSRC) 发现数据被某方非法访问或未经授权访问,Microsoft 会使用安全事件联系信息联系用户。Guidance: Security incident contact information will be used by Microsoft to contact you if the Microsoft Security Response Center (MSRC) discovers that your data has been accessed by an unlawful or unauthorized party. 事后审查事件,确保问题得到解决。Review incidents after the fact to ensure that issues are resolved.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

10.5:将安全警报整合到事件响应系统中10.5: Incorporate security alerts into your incident response system

指南:使用连续导出功能导出 Azure 安全中心警报和建议,以帮助确定 Azure 资源的风险。Guidance: Export your Azure Security Center alerts and recommendations using the Continuous Export feature to help identify risks to Azure resources. 使用连续导出可以手动导出或者持续导出警报和建议。Continuous Export allows you to export alerts and recommendations either manually or in an ongoing, continuous fashion. 可以使用 Azure 安全中心数据连接器将警报流式传输到 Azure Sentinel。You may use the Azure Security Center data connector to stream the alerts to Azure Sentinel.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

10.6:自动响应安全警报10.6: Automate the response to security alerts

指导:使用 Azure 安全中心内的工作流自动化功能,通过“逻辑应用”针对安全警报和建议自动触发响应,以保护 Azure 资源。Guidance: Use the Workflow Automation feature in Azure Security Center to automatically trigger responses via "Logic Apps" on security alerts and recommendations to protect your Azure resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

渗透测试和红队练习Penetration Tests and Red Team Exercises

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 渗透测试和红队演练For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Penetration Tests and Red Team Exercises.

11.1:定期对 Azure 资源执行渗透测试,确保修正所有发现的关键安全问题11.1: Conduct regular penetration testing of your Azure resources and ensure remediation of all critical security findings

指导:请遵循 Microsoft 云渗透测试互动规则,确保你的渗透测试不违反 Microsoft 政策。Guidance: Follow the Microsoft Cloud Penetration Testing Rules of Engagement to ensure your penetration tests are not in violation of Microsoft policies. 使用 Microsoft 红队演练策略和执行,以及针对 Microsoft 托管云基础结构、服务和应用程序执行现场渗透测试。Use Microsoft's strategy and execution of Red Teaming and live site penetration testing against Microsoft-managed cloud infrastructure, services, and applications.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:共享Responsibility: Shared

后续步骤Next steps