INSERT OVERWRITEINSERT OVERWRITE

使用新值覆盖表中的现有数据。Overwrites the existing data in the table using the new values. 通过值表达式或查询的结果指定插入的行。You specify the inserted rows by value expressions or the result of a query.

语法Syntax

INSERT OVERWRITE [ TABLE ] table_identifier [ partition_spec [ IF NOT EXISTS ] ]
    { VALUES ( { value | NULL } [ , ... ] ) [ , ( ... ) ] | query }

参数Parameters

  • table_identifiertable_identifier

    • [database_name.] table_name:表名,可选择使用数据库名称进行限定。[database_name.] table_name: A table name, optionally qualified with a database name.
    • delta.`<path-to-table>`:现有 Delta 表的位置。delta.`<path-to-table>`: The location of an existing Delta table.
  • partition_specpartition_spec

    一个可选参数,用于指定分区键值对的逗号分隔列表。An optional parameter that specifies a comma-separated list of key-value pairs for partitions.

    语法: PARTITION ( partition_col_name [ = partition_col_val ] [ , ... ] )Syntax: PARTITION ( partition_col_name [ = partition_col_val ] [ , ... ] )

  • VALUES ( { value | NULL } [ , … ] ) [ , ( … ) ]VALUES ( { value | NULL } [ , … ] ) [ , ( … ) ]

    要插入的值。The values to be inserted. 可以插入显式指定的值或 NULL。Either an explicitly specified value or a NULL can be inserted. 必须使用逗号分隔子句中的每个值。A comma must be used to separate each value in the clause. 可以指定多个值集以插入多行。More than one set of values can be specified to insert multiple rows.

  • 查询query

    生成要插入的行的查询。A query that produces the rows to be inserted. 可以采用以下格式之一:It can be in one of following formats:

    • SELECT 语句A SELECT statement
    • TABLE 语句A TABLE statement
    • FROM 语句A FROM statement

示例Examples

本节内容:In this section:

使用 VALUES 子句进行插入Insert using a VALUES clause

-- Assuming the students table has already been created and populated.
SELECT * FROM students;
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|         name|                  address|student_id|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|    Amy Smith|   123 Park Ave, San Jose|    111111|
|    Bob Brown| 456 Taylor St, Cupertino|    222222|
|Cathy Johnson|  789 Race Ave, Palo Alto|    333333|
|Dora Williams|134 Forest Ave, Melo Park|    444444|
|Fleur Laurent|    345 Copper St, London|    777777|
|Gordon Martin|     779 Lake Ave, Oxford|    888888|
|  Helen Davis|469 Mission St, San Diego|    999999|
|   Jason Wang|    908 Bird St, Saratoga|    121212|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+

INSERT OVERWRITE students VALUES
    ('Ashua Hill', '456 Erica Ct, Cupertino', 111111),
    ('Brian Reed', '723 Kern Ave, Palo Alto', 222222);

SELECT * FROM students;
+----------+-----------------------+----------+
|      name|                address|student_id|
+----------+-----------------------+----------+
|Ashua Hill|456 Erica Ct, Cupertino|    111111|
|Brian Reed|723 Kern Ave, Palo Alto|    222222|
+----------+-----------------------+----------+

使用 SELECT 语句进行插入Insert using a SELECT statement

-- Assuming the persons table has already been created and populated.
SELECT * FROM persons;
+-------------+-------------------------+---------+
|         name|                  address|      ssn|
+-------------+-------------------------+---------+
|Dora Williams|134 Forest Ave, Melo Park|123456789|
+-------------+-------------------------+---------+
|  Eddie Davis|   245 Market St,Milpitas|345678901|
+-------------+-------------------------+---------+

INSERT OVERWRITE students PARTITION (student_id = 222222)
    SELECT name, address FROM persons WHERE name = "Dora Williams";

SELECT * FROM students;
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|         name|                  address|student_id|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|   Ashua Hill|  456 Erica Ct, Cupertino|    111111|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|Dora Williams|134 Forest Ave, Melo Park|    222222|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+

使用 TABLE 语句进行插入Insert using a TABLE statement

-- Assuming the visiting_students table has already been created and populated.
SELECT * FROM visiting_students;
+-------------+---------------------+----------+
|         name|              address|student_id|
+-------------+---------------------+----------+
|Fleur Laurent|345 Copper St, London|    777777|
+-------------+---------------------+----------+
|Gordon Martin| 779 Lake Ave, Oxford|    888888|
+-------------+---------------------+----------+

INSERT OVERWRITE students TABLE visiting_students;

SELECT * FROM students;
+-------------+---------------------+----------+
|         name|              address|student_id|
+-------------+---------------------+----------+
|Fleur Laurent|345 Copper St, London|    777777|
+-------------+---------------------+----------+
|Gordon Martin| 779 Lake Ave, Oxford|    888888|
+-------------+---------------------+----------+

使用 FROM 语句进行插入Insert using a FROM statement

-- Assuming the applicants table has already been created and populated.
SELECT * FROM applicants;
+-----------+--------------------------+----------+---------+
|       name|                   address|student_id|qualified|
+-----------+--------------------------+----------+---------+
|Helen Davis| 469 Mission St, San Diego|    999999|     true|
+-----------+--------------------------+----------+---------+
|   Ivy King|367 Leigh Ave, Santa Clara|    101010|    false|
+-----------+--------------------------+----------+---------+
| Jason Wang|     908 Bird St, Saratoga|    121212|     true|
+-----------+--------------------------+----------+---------+

INSERT OVERWRITE students
    FROM applicants SELECT name, address, id applicants WHERE qualified = true;

SELECT * FROM students;
+-----------+-------------------------+----------+
|       name|                  address|student_id|
+-----------+-------------------------+----------+
|Helen Davis|469 Mission St, San Diego|    999999|
+-----------+-------------------------+----------+
| Jason Wang|    908 Bird St, Saratoga|    121212|
+-----------+-------------------------+----------+

插入覆盖目录Insert overwrite a directory

CREATE TABLE students (name VARCHAR(64), address VARCHAR(64), student_id INT)
    PARTITIONED BY (student_id)
    LOCATION "/mnt/user1/students";

INSERT OVERWRITE delta.`/mnt/user1/students` VALUES
    ('Amy Smith', '123 Park Ave, San Jose', 111111);
SELECT * FROM students;
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|         name|                  address|student_id|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+
|    Amy Smith|   123 Park Ave, San Jose|    111111|
+-------------+-------------------------+----------+