了解 Azure Database for MariaDB 中的业务连续性Understand business continuity in Azure Database for MariaDB

本文介绍了 Azure Database for MariaDB 针对业务连续性和灾难恢复所提供的功能。This article describes the capabilities that Azure Database for MariaDB provides for business continuity and disaster recovery. 了解在发生破坏性事件后用于进行恢复的选项,破坏性事件可能导致数据丢失或者数据库和应用程序无法使用。Learn about options for recovering from disruptive events that could cause data loss or cause your database and application to become unavailable. 了解对一些情况的处理方式,包括用户或应用程序错误影响数据完整性、Azure 区域发生服务中断,或者应用程序需要维护。Learn what to do when a user or application error affects data integrity, an Azure region has an outage, or your application requires maintenance.

可用来提供业务连续性的功能Features that you can use to provide business continuity

Azure Database for MariaDB 提供了业务连续性功能,这包括自动备份和允许用户启动异地还原的功能。Azure Database for MariaDB provides business continuity features that include automated backups and the ability for users to initiate geo-restore. 每种功能在估计恢复时间 (ERT) 和可能丢失的数据方面都有不同的特性。Each has different characteristics for Estimated Recovery Time (ERT) and potential data loss. 了解这些选项后,便可从中进行选择,可以针对不同方案将其搭配使用。Once you understand these options, you can choose among them, and use them together for different scenarios. 制定业务连续性计划时,需了解应用程序在破坏性事件发生后完全恢复前的最大可接受时间,即恢复时间目标 (RTO)。As you develop your business continuity plan, you need to understand the maximum acceptable time before the application fully recovers after the disruptive event - this is your Recovery Time Objective (RTO). 此外,还需要了解从破坏性事件恢复时,应用程序可忍受丢失的最近数据更新(时间间隔)最大数量,即恢复点目标 (RPO)。You also need to understand the maximum amount of recent data updates (time interval) the application can tolerate losing when recovering after the disruptive event - this is your Recovery Point Objective (RPO).

下表比较了各种可用功能的 ERT 和 RPO:The following table compares the ERT and RPO for the available features:

功能Capability 基本Basic 常规用途General Purpose 内存优化Memory optimized
从备份执行时间点还原Point in Time Restore from backup 保留期内的任何还原点Any restore point within the retention period 保留期内的任何还原点Any restore point within the retention period 保留期内的任何还原点Any restore point within the retention period
从异地复制的备份执行异地还原Geo-restore from geo-replicated backups 不支持Not supported ERT < 12 小时ERT < 12 h
RPO < 1 小时RPO < 1 h
ERT < 12 小时ERT < 12 h
RPO < 1 小时RPO < 1 h

重要

如果删除服务器,则该服务器中包含的所有数据库也会被删除且不可恢复。If you delete the server, all databases contained in the server are also deleted and cannot be recovered. 无法还原已删除的服务器。You cannot restore a deleted server.

在发生用户或应用程序错误之后恢复服务器Recover a server after a user or application error

可以使用服务的备份在发生各种破坏性事件后对服务器进行恢复。You can use the service's backups to recover a server from various disruptive events. 用户可能会不小心删除某些数据、无意中删除重要的表,甚至删除整个数据库。A user may accidentally delete some data, inadvertently drop an important table, or even drop an entire database. 应用程序可能因为自身缺陷,意外以错误数据覆盖正确数据,等等。An application might accidentally overwrite good data with bad data due to an application defect, and so on.

可以执行时间点还原来创建服务器在已知良好的时间点的副本。You can perform a point-in-time-restore to create a copy of your server to a known good point in time. 此时间点必须在为服务器配置的备份保留期内。This point in time must be within the backup retention period you have configured for your server. 在将数据还原到新服务器后,可以将原始服务器替换为新还原的服务器,或者将所需的数据从还原的服务器复制到原始服务器。After the data is restored to the new server, you can either replace the original server with the newly restored server or copy the needed data from the restored server into the original server.

在 Azure 发生区域性数据中心中断后进行恢复Recover from an Azure regional data center outage

Azure 数据中心会罕见地发生中断。Although rare, an Azure data center can have an outage. 发生中断时,可能仅导致业务中断持续几分钟,也可能持续数小时。When an outage occurs, it causes a business disruption that might only last a few minutes, but could last for hours.

一个选项是等待数据中心中断结束时,服务器重新联机。One option is to wait for your server to come back online when the data center outage is over. 这适用于可以承受服务器脱机一段时间的应用程序,例如开发环境。This works for applications that can afford to have the server offline for some period of time, for example a development environment. 数据中心中断时,不知道中断会持续多久,因此该选项仅适用于暂时不需要服务器的情况。When data center has an outage, you do not know how long the outage might last, so this option only works if you don't need your server for a while.

另一个选项是使用 Azure Database for MariaDB 的异地还原功能,该功能使用异地冗余备份来还原服务器。The other option is to use the Azure Database for MariaDB's geo-restore feature that restores the server using geo-redundant backups. 即使托管你的服务器的区域处于脱机状态,也可访问这些备份。These backups are accessible even when the region your server is hosted in is offline. 可以使用这些备份还原到任何其他区域并使服务器恢复联机。You can restore from these backups to any other region and bring your server back online.

重要

只有当为服务器预配了异地冗余备份存储时,异地还原才是可行的。Geo-restore is only possible if you provisioned the server with geo-redundant backup storage.

跨区域只读副本Cross-region read replicas

可以使用跨区域只读副本来增强业务连续性和灾难恢复规划。You can use cross region read replicas to enhance your business continuity and disaster recovery planning. 只读副本使用 MariaDB 的二进制日志复制技术进行异步更新。Read replicas are updated asynchronously using MariaDB's binary log replication technology. 只读副本概念文章详细了解有关只读副本、可用区域以及如何进行故障转移的信息。Learn more about read replicas, available regions, and how to fail over from the read replicas concepts article.

常见问题解答FAQ

Azure Database for MariaDB 将客户数据存储在何处?Where does Azure Database for MariaDB store customer data?

默认情况下,Azure Database for MariaDB 不会将客户数据移出部署的区域或存储到部署区域以外的区域。By default, Azure Database for MariaDB doesn't move or store customer data out of the region it is deployed in. 但是,客户可以选择启用地域冗余备份或创建跨区域读取副本,以便在另一个区域存储数据。However, customers can optionally chose to enable geo-redundant backups or create cross-region read replica for storing data in another region.

后续步骤Next steps