网络观察程序的 Azure 安全基线Azure security baseline for Network Watcher

网络观察程序的 Azure 安全基线包含可帮助你改善部署安全状况的建议。The Azure Security Baseline for Network Watcher contains recommendations that will help you improve the security posture of your deployment.

此服务的基线摘自 Azure 安全基准版本 1.0,其中提供了有关如何根据我们的最佳做法指导保护 Azure 上的云解决方案的建议。The baseline for this service is drawn from the Azure Security Benchmark version 1.0, which provides recommendations on how you can secure your cloud solutions on Azure with our best practices guidance.

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线概述For more information, see the Azure security baselines overview.

网络安全Network security

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:网络安全For more information, see Security control: Network security.

1.1:保护虚拟网络中的 Azure 资源1.1: Protect Azure resources within virtual networks

指导:不适用;网络观察程序能够监视终结点与虚拟机之间的连接,但不能通过虚拟网络、网络安全组或 Azure 防火墙对其进行保护。Guidance: Not applicable; Network Watcher has the ability to monitor the connection between an endpoint and virtual machine but cannot be secured by a virtual network, network security group, or Azure Firewall.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

1.2:监视和记录虚拟网络、子网和 NIC 的配置与流量1.2: Monitor and log the configuration and traffic of virtual networks, subnets, and NICs

指导:不适用;Azure 网络观察程序能够分析流日志并提供丰富的数据可视化效果,但是,网络观察程序本身不会生成流日志或可捕获的数据包。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure Network Watcher has the ability to analyze flow logs and provide rich visualizations of data, however, Network Watcher itself does not produce flow logs or capturable packets.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

1.3:保护关键 Web 应用程序1.3: Protect critical web applications

指南:不适用;此建议适用于 Azure 应用服务或计算资源上运行的 Web 应用程序。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for web applications running on Azure App Service or compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

1.4:拒绝与已知恶意的 IP 地址进行通信1.4: Deny communications with known malicious IP addresses

指导:不适用;Azure 网络观察程序不是一种可能暴露于公共网络中的资源,因而不需保护其免受恶意流量的危害。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure Network Watcher is not a resource with potential exposure to public networks that needs to be protected from malicious traffic.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

1.5:记录网络数据包1.5: Record network packets

指导:不适用;Azure 网络观察程序能够分析流日志并提供丰富的数据可视化效果,但是,网络观察程序本身不会生成流日志或可捕获的数据包。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure Network Watcher has the ability to analyze flow logs and provide rich visualizations of data, however, Network Watcher itself does not produce flow logs or capturable packets.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

1.6:部署基于网络的入侵检测/入侵防护系统 (IDS/IPS)1.6: Deploy network-based intrusion detection/intrusion prevention systems (IDS/IPS)

指导:不适用;Azure 网络观察程序不是一种可能暴露于公共网络中的资源,因而不需保护其免受恶意流量的危害。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure Network Watcher is not a resource with potential exposure to public networks that needs to be protected from malicious traffic.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

1.7:管理发往 Web 应用程序的流量1.7: Manage traffic to web applications

指南:不适用;此建议适用于 Azure 应用服务或计算资源上运行的 Web 应用程序。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for web applications running on Azure App Service or compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

1.8:最大程度地降低网络安全规则的复杂性和管理开销1.8: Minimize complexity and administrative overhead of network security rules

指导:不适用;Azure 网络观察程序能够分析流日志并提供丰富的数据可视化效果,但是,网络观察程序本身并不是你可以在其中使用服务标记或网络安全组来筛选或允许流量的终结点。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure Network Watcher has the ability to analyze flow logs and provide rich visualizations of data, however, Network Watcher itself is not an endpoint where you can filter or allow traffic with service tags or network security groups.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

1.9:维护网络设备的标准安全配置1.9: Maintain standard security configurations for network devices

指导:使用 Azure Policy 为 Azure 网络观察程序定义并实施标准安全配置。Guidance: Define and implement standard security configurations for Azure Network Watcher with Azure Policy. 在“Microsoft.Network”命名空间中使用 Azure Policy 别名创建自定义策略以审核或强制实施网络观察程序实例的网络配置。Use Azure Policy aliases in the "Microsoft.Network" namespace to create custom policies to audit or enforce the network configuration of your Network Watcher instances. 还可以利用内置策略定义,例如:You may also make use of built-in policy definitions such as:

创建虚拟网络时部署网络观察程序Deploy network watcher when virtual networks are created

应启用网络观察程序Network Watcher should be enabled

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

1.10:阐述流量配置规则1.10: Document traffic configuration rules

指导:不适用;当 Azure 网络观察程序支持标记时,网络观察程序本身不会控制网络流量的流动。Guidance: Not applicable; while Azure Network Watcher supports tags, Network Watcher itself does not control the flow of network traffic.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

1.11:使用自动化工具来监视网络资源配置和检测更改1.11: Use automated tools to monitor network resource configurations and detect changes

指导:使用 Azure 活动日志监视对 Azure 网络观察程序所做的更改。Guidance: Use Azure Activity Log to monitor changes made to Azure Network Watcher. 可以在 Azure Monitor 中创建在发生更改时会触发的警报。You may create alerts within Azure Monitor that will trigger when changes take place.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

日志记录和监视Logging and monitoring

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:日志记录和监视For more information, see Security control: Logging and monitoring.

2.1:使用批准的时间同步源2.1: Use approved time synchronization sources

指导:不适用;Azure 会为日志中的时间戳维护用于 Azure 资源(例如 Azure 网络观察程序)的时间源。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure maintains the time source used for Azure resources, such as Azure Network Watcher, for timestamps in the logs.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

2.2:配置中心安全日志管理2.2: Configure central security log management

指导:使用 Azure 活动日志监视 Azure 网络观察程序实例的配置并检测更改。Guidance: Use Azure Activity Log to monitor configurations and detect changes for your Azure Network Watcher instances. 除了在控制平面(例如 Azure 门户)中以外,网络观察程序本身不会生成与网络流量相关的日志。Other than at the control plane (e.g. Azure portal), Network Watcher itself does not generate logs related to network traffic. 网络观察程序提供所需的工具来监视、诊断 Azure 虚拟网络中的资源并查看其指标,以及为其启用或禁用日志。Network Watcher provides tools to monitor, diagnose, view metrics, and enable or disable logs for resources in an Azure virtual network.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.3:为 Azure 资源启用审核日志记录2.3: Enable audit logging for Azure resources

指导:使用 Azure 活动日志监视 Azure 网络观察程序实例的配置并检测更改。Guidance: Use Azure Activity Log to monitor configurations and detect changes for your Azure Network Watcher instances. 除了在控制平面(例如 Azure 门户)以外,网络观察程序本身不会生成审核日志。Other than at the control plane (e.g. Azure portal), Network Watcher itself does not generate audit logs. 网络观察程序提供所需的工具来监视、诊断 Azure 虚拟网络中的资源并查看其指标,以及为其启用或禁用日志。Network Watcher provides tools to monitor, diagnose, view metrics, and enable or disable logs for resources in an Azure virtual network.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.4:从操作系统收集安全日志2.4: Collect security logs from operating systems

指南:不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

2.5:配置安全日志存储保留期2.5: Configure security log storage retention

指导:在 Azure Monitor 中,根据组织的合规性规定,为与 Azure 网络观察程序关联的 Log Analytics 工作区设置日志保留期。Guidance: In Azure Monitor, set log retention period for Log Analytics workspaces associated with Azure Network Watcher according to your organization's compliance regulations.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.6:监视和审查日志2.6: Monitor and review Logs

指导:使用 Azure 活动日志监视 Azure 网络观察程序实例的配置并检测更改。Guidance: Use Azure Activity Log to monitor configurations and detect changes for your Azure Network Watcher instances. 除了在控制平面(例如 Azure 门户)中以外,网络观察程序本身不会生成与网络流量相关的日志。Other than at the control plane (e.g. Azure portal), Network Watcher itself does not generate logs related to network traffic. 网络观察程序提供所需的工具来监视、诊断 Azure 虚拟网络中的资源并查看其指标,以及为其启用或禁用日志。Network Watcher provides tools to monitor, diagnose, view metrics, and enable or disable logs for resources in an Azure virtual network.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.7:针对异常活动启用警报2.7: Enable alerts for anomalous activities

指导:你可以进行配置,以便基于活动日志(与 Azure 网络观察程序相关)接收警报。Guidance: You can configure to receive alerts based on activity logs related to Azure Network Watcher. 通过使用 Azure Monitor,你可以配置警报以发送电子邮件通知、调用 Webhook 或调用 Azure 逻辑应用。Azure Monitor allows you to configure an alert to send an email notification, call a webhook, or invoke an Azure Logic App.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.8:集中管理反恶意软件日志记录2.8: Centralize anti-malware logging

指导:不适用;Azure 网络观察程序不会处理或生成与反恶意软件相关的日志。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure Network Watcher does not process or produce anti-malware related logs.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

2.9:启用 DNS 查询日志记录2.9: Enable DNS query logging

指导:不适用;Azure 网络观察程序不会处理或生成与 DNS 相关的日志。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure Network Watcher does not process or produce DNS-related logs.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

2.10:启用命令行审核日志记录2.10: Enable command-line audit logging

指南:不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

标识和访问控制Identity and access control

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:标识和访问控制For more information, see Security control: Identity and access control.

3.1:维护管理帐户的清单3.1: Maintain an inventory of administrative accounts

指导:维护对 Azure 网络观察程序的控制平面(例如 Azure 门户)拥有管理访问权限的用户帐户的清单。Guidance: Maintain an inventory of the user accounts that have administrative access to the control plane (e.g. Azure portal) of Azure Network Watcher. 若要使用网络观察程序功能,登录 Azure 时所使用的帐户必须分配给所有者、参与者或网络参与者内置角色,或分配给某个自定义角色(已向该角色分配了为特定网络观察程序功能列出的操作)。To use Network Watcher capabilities, the account you log into Azure with, must be assigned to the Owner, Contributor, or Network contributor built-in roles, or assigned to a custom role that is assigned the actions listed for specific Network Watcher capabilities.

可以在 Azure 门户中为你的订阅使用“标识和访问控制(IAM)”窗格来配置基于角色的访问控制 (RBAC)。You can use the Identity and Access control (IAM) pane in the Azure portal for your subscription to configure role-based access control (RBAC). 角色将应用到 Active Directory 中的用户、组、服务主体和托管标识。The roles are applied to users, groups, service principals, and managed identities in Active Directory.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.2:在适用的情况下更改默认密码3.2: Change default passwords where applicable

指导:Azure AD 没有默认密码。Guidance: Azure AD does not have the concept of default passwords. 其他需要密码的 Azure 资源会强制创建具有复杂性要求和最小密码长度的密码,该长度因服务而异。Other Azure resources requiring a password forces a password to be created with complexity requirements and a minimum password length, which differs depending on the service. 你对可能使用默认密码的第三方应用程序和市场服务负责。You are responsible for third-party applications and marketplace services that may use default passwords.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.3:使用专用管理帐户3.3: Use dedicated administrative accounts

指南:围绕专用管理帐户的使用创建标准操作程序。Guidance: Create standard operating procedures around the use of dedicated administrative accounts. 使用 Azure 安全中心标识和访问管理来监视管理帐户的数量。Use Azure Security Center Identity and Access Management to monitor the number of administrative accounts.

此外,为了帮助你跟踪专用管理帐户,你可以使用 Azure 安全中心或内置的 Azure 策略提供的建议,例如:Additionally, to help you keep track of dedicated administrative accounts, you may use recommendations from Azure Security Center or built-in Azure Policies, such as:

  • 应该为你的订阅分配了多个所有者There should be more than one owner assigned to your subscription
  • 应从订阅中删除拥有所有者权限的已弃用帐户Deprecated accounts with owner permissions should be removed from your subscription
  • 应从订阅中删除拥有所有者权限的外部帐户External accounts with owner permissions should be removed from your subscription

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.4:将单一登录 (SSO) 与 Azure Active Directory 配合使用3.4: Use single sign-on (SSO) with Azure Active Directory

指导:不适用;当用户在 Azure Active Directory (AD) 中登录到自定义应用程序时,单一登录 (SSO) 可以增加安全性和便利性。Guidance: Not applicable; single sign-on (SSO) adds security and convenience when users sign-on to custom applications in Azure Active Directory (AD). 对 Azure 网络观察程序的访问已经与 Azure Active Directory 集成,可以通过 Azure 门户以及 Azure 资源管理器 REST API 对其进行访问。Access to Azure Network Watcher is already integrated with Azure Active Directory and is accessed through the Azure portal as well as the Azure Resource Manager REST API.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

3.5:对所有基于 Azure Active Directory 的访问使用多重身份验证3.5: Use multi-factor authentication for all Azure Active Directory based access

指导:启用 Azure Active Directory 多重身份验证,并遵循 Azure 安全中心标识和访问管理的建议。Guidance: Enable Azure Active Directory Multi-Factor Authentication and follow Azure Security Center Identity and Access Management recommendations.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.6:对所有管理任务使用专用计算机(特权访问工作站)3.6: Use dedicated machines (Privileged Access Workstations) for all administrative tasks

指导:使用启用了 Azure 多重身份验证 (MFA) 的特权访问工作站 (PAW) 来登录和配置 Azure Sentinel 相关的资源。Guidance: Use a Privileged Access Workstation (PAW) with Azure Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) enabled to log into and configure your Azure Sentinel-related resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.7:记录来自管理帐户的可疑活动并对其发出警报3.7: Log and alert on suspicious activities from administrative accounts

指导:当环境中出现可疑或不安全的活动时,可使用 Azure Active Directory (AD) Privileged Identity Management (PIM) 生成日志和警报。Guidance: Use Azure Active Directory (AD) Privileged Identity Management (PIM) for generation of logs and alerts when suspicious or unsafe activity occurs in the environment.

此外,还可使用 Azure AD 风险检测来查看警报和报告有风险的用户行为。In addition, use Azure AD risk detections to view alerts and reports on risky user behavior.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.8:仅从批准的位置管理 Azure 资源3.8: Manage Azure resources from only approved locations

指南:使用条件访问命名位置,仅允许从 IP 地址范围或国家/地区的特定逻辑分组访问 Azure 门户。Guidance: Use Conditional Access Named Locations to allow access to the Azure portal from only specific logical groupings of IP address ranges or countries/regions.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.9:使用 Azure Active Directory3.9: Use Azure Active Directory

指导:使用 Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) 作为 Azure Sentinel 实例的中心身份验证和授权系统。Guidance: Use Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) as the central authentication and authorization system for your Azure Sentinel instances. Azure AD 通过对静态数据和传输中数据使用强加密来保护数据。Azure AD protects data by using strong encryption for data at rest and in transit. Azure AD 还会对用户凭据进行加盐、哈希处理和安全存储操作。Azure AD also salts, hashes, and securely stores user credentials.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.10:定期审查和协调用户访问3.10: Regularly review and reconcile user access

指导:Azure Active Directory (AD) 提供日志来帮助发现过时的帐户。Guidance: Azure Active Directory (AD) provides logs to help you discover stale accounts. 此外,请使用 Azure 标识访问评审来有效管理组成员身份、对企业应用程序的访问和角色分配。In addition, use Azure Identity Access Reviews to efficiently manage group memberships, access to enterprise applications, and role assignments. 可以定期评审用户的访问权限,确保只有适当的用户才持续拥有访问权限。User access can be reviewed on a regular basis to make sure only the right Users have continued access.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.11:监视尝试访问已停用凭据的行为3.11: Monitor attempts to access deactivated credentials

指导:使用 Azure Active Directory (AD) 作为 Azure 网络观察程序的中心身份验证和授权系统。Guidance: Use Azure Active Directory (AD) as the central authentication and authorization system for Azure Network Watcher. Azure AD 通过对静态数据和传输中数据使用强加密来保护数据。Azure AD protects data by using strong encryption for data at rest and in transit. Azure AD 还会对用户凭据进行加盐、哈希处理和安全存储操作。Azure AD also salts, hashes, and securely stores user credentials.

你可以访问 Azure AD 登录活动、审核和风险事件日志源,以便与 Azure Sentinel 或第三方 SIEM 集成。You have access to Azure AD sign-in activity, audit and risk event log sources, which allow you to integrate with Azure Sentinel or a third-party SIEM.

可以通过为 Azure AD 用户帐户创建诊断设置,并将审核日志和登录日志发送到 Log Analytics 工作区,来简化此过程。You can streamline this process by creating diagnostic settings for Azure AD user accounts and sending the audit logs and sign-in logs to a Log Analytics workspace. 可以在 Log Analytics 中配置所需的日志警报。You can configure desired log alerts within Log Analytics.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

数据保护Data protection

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:数据保护For more information, see Security control: Data protection.

4.1:维护敏感信息的清单4.1: Maintain an inventory of sensitive Information

指导:使用标记可以帮助跟踪存储或处理敏感信息的 Azure 资源。Guidance: Use tags to assist in tracking Azure resources that store or process sensitive information.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

4.2:隔离存储或处理敏感信息的系统4.2: Isolate systems storing or processing sensitive information

指导:为开发、测试和生产实施单独的订阅和/或管理组。Guidance: Implement separate subscriptions and/or management groups for development, test, and production.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

4.3:监视和阻止未经授权的敏感信息传输4.3: Monitor and block unauthorized transfer of sensitive information

指导:Azure 会管理 Azure 网络观察程序和相关资源的底层基础结构,并实施了严格的控制措施来防止客户数据丢失或泄露。Guidance: Azure manages the underlying infrastructure for Azure Network Watcher and related resources and has implemented strict controls to prevent the loss or exposure of customer data.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:AzureResponsibility: Azure

4.4:加密传输中的所有敏感信息4.4: Encrypt all sensitive information in transit

指导:如果使用 Azure VPN 网关在本地网络与 Azure 虚拟网络之间创建安全连接,请确保已为本地网关配置兼容的 IPsec 通信和加密参数。Guidance: If you are using Azure VPN Gateway to create a secure connection between your on-premises network and your Azure virtual networks, ensure that your on-premises local network gateway has been configured with compatible IPsec communication and encryption parameters. 任何错误配置都将导致本地网络与 Azure 之间的连接丢失。Any misconfiguration will lead to loss of connectivity between the on-premises network and Azure.

Azure 安全中心监视:目前不可用Azure Security Center monitoring: Currently not available

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

4.5:使用有效的发现工具识别敏感数据4.5: Use an active discovery tool to identify sensitive data

指导:不适用;Azure 网络观察程序本身不包含任何客户数据。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure Network Watcher itself does not hold any customer data.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

4.6:使用基于角色的访问控制来控制对资源的访问4.6: Use Role-based access control to control access to resources

指导:可以在 Azure 门户中为你的订阅使用“标识和访问控制(IAM)”窗格来配置基于角色的访问控制 (RBAC)。Guidance: You can use the Identity and Access control (IAM) pane in the Azure portal for your subscription to configure role-based access control (RBAC). 角色将应用到 Active Directory 中的用户、组、服务主体和托管标识。The roles are applied to users, groups, service principals, and managed identities in Active Directory. 对于个人和组,可使用内置角色或自定义角色。You can use built-in roles or custom roles for individuals and groups.

若要使用网络观察程序功能,登录 Azure 时所使用的帐户必须分配给所有者、参与者或网络参与者内置角色,或分配给某个自定义角色(已向该角色分配了为特定网络观察程序功能列出的操作)。To use Network Watcher capabilities, the account you log into Azure with, must be assigned to the Owner, Contributor, or Network contributor built-in roles, or assigned to a custom role that is assigned the actions listed for specific Network Watcher capabilities.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

4.7:使用基于主机的数据丢失防护来强制实施访问控制4.7: Use host-based data loss prevention to enforce access control

指南:不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources. Azure 管理 Azure 网络观察程序的底层基础结构,并实施严格的控制措施来防止客户数据丢失或泄露。Azure manages the underlying infrastructure for Azure Network Watcher and has implemented strict controls to prevent the loss or exposure of customer data.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

4.8:静态加密敏感信息4.8: Encrypt sensitive information at rest

指导:不适用;Azure 网络观察程序本身不包含任何客户数据。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure Network Watcher itself does not hold any customer data. 网络观察程序将日志和其他信息存储在 Azure 存储中,其中的数据会进行静态加密。Network Watcher stores logs and other information in Azure Storage where data is encrypted at rest.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:AzureResponsibility: Azure

4.9:记录对关键 Azure 资源的更改并对此类更改发出警报4.9: Log and alert on changes to critical Azure resources

指导:将 Azure Monitor 与 Azure 活动日志结合使用,以便在 Azure 网络观察程序以及其他关键的或相关的资源发生更改时创建警报。Guidance: Use Azure Monitor with the Azure Activity log to create alerts for when changes take place to Azure Network Watcher and other critical or related resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

漏洞管理Vulnerability management

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:漏洞管理For more information, see Security control: Vulnerability management.

5.1:运行自动漏洞扫描工具5.1: Run automated vulnerability scanning tools

指导:不适用;Azure 在支持 Azure 网络观察程序的基础系统上执行漏洞管理。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure performs vulnerability management on the underlying systems that support Azure Network Watcher.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

5.2:部署自动操作系统修补管理解决方案5.2: Deploy automated operating system patch management solution

指南:不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

5.3:为第三方软件部署自动修补程序管理解决方案5.3: Deploy automated patch management solution for third-party software titles

指导:不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

5.4:比较连续进行的漏洞扫描5.4: Compare back-to-back vulnerability scans

指导:不适用;Azure 在支持 Azure 网络观察程序的基础系统上执行漏洞管理。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure performs vulnerability management on the underlying systems that support Azure Network Watcher.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

5.5:使用风险评级过程来确定已发现漏洞的修正措施的优先级5.5: Use a risk-rating process to prioritize the remediation of discovered vulnerabilities

指导:不适用;Azure 在支持 Azure 网络观察程序的基础系统上执行漏洞管理。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure performs vulnerability management on the underlying systems that support Azure Network Watcher.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

库存和资产管理Inventory and asset management

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:清单和资产管理For more information, see Security control: Inventory and asset management.

6.1:使用自动化资产发现解决方案6.1: Use automated Asset Discovery solution

指导:使用 Azure Resource Graph 查询/发现订阅中的所有资源(例如计算、存储、网络、端口和协议等)。Guidance: Use Azure Resource Graph to query/discover all resources (such as compute, storage, network, ports, and protocols etc.) within your subscription(s). 确保租户中具有适当的(读取)权限,并枚举所有 Azure 订阅以及订阅中的资源。Ensure appropriate (read) permissions in your tenant and enumerate all Azure subscriptions as well as resources within your subscriptions.

尽管可以通过 Resource Graph 发现经典 Azure 资源,但我们强烈建议你今后还是创建并使用 Azure 资源管理器资源。Although classic Azure resources may be discovered via Resource Graph, it is highly recommended that you create and use Azure Resource Manager resources going forward.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

6.2:维护资产元数据6.2: Maintain asset metadata

指导:将标记应用到 Azure资源,以便有条理地将元数据组织成某种分类。Guidance: Apply tags to Azure resources giving metadata to logically organize them into a taxonomy.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

6.3:删除未经授权的 Azure 资源6.3: Delete unauthorized Azure resources

指南:在适用的情况下,请使用标记、管理组和单独的订阅来组织和跟踪 Azure 资产。Guidance: Use tagging, management groups, and separate subscriptions, where appropriate, to organize and track Azure resources. 定期核对清单,确保及时地从订阅中删除未经授权的资源。Reconcile inventory on a regular basis and ensure unauthorized resources are deleted from the subscription in a timely manner.

此外,在 Azure Policy 中使用以下内置策略定义,对可以在客户订阅中创建的资源类型施加限制:In addition, use Azure Policy to put restrictions on the type of resources that can be created in customer subscription(s) using the following built-in policy definitions:

  • 不允许的资源类型Not allowed resource types
  • 允许的资源类型Allowed resource types

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

6.4:定义并维护已获批 Azure 资源的清单6.4: Define and Maintain an inventory of approved Azure resources

指南:不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

6.5:监视未批准的 Azure 资源6.5: Monitor for unapproved Azure resources

指导:使用 Azure Policy 对可以在订阅中创建的资源类型施加限制。Guidance: Use Azure Policy to put restrictions on the type of resources that can be created in your subscriptions.

使用 Azure Resource Graph 查询和发现订阅中的资源。Use Azure Resource Graph to query for and discover resources within their subscriptions. 确保环境中的所有 Azure 资源均已获得批准。Ensure that all Azure resources present in the environment are approved.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

6.6:监视计算资源中未批准的软件应用程序6.6: Monitor for unapproved software applications within compute resources

指南:不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

6.7:删除未批准的 Azure 资源和软件应用程序6.7: Remove unapproved Azure resources and software applications

指南:不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

6.8:仅使用已批准的应用程序6.8: Use only approved applications

指南:不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

6.9:仅使用已批准的 Azure 服务6.9: Use only approved Azure services

指南:在 Azure Policy 中使用以下内置策略定义,对可以在客户订阅中创建的资源类型施加限制:Guidance: Use Azure Policy to put restrictions on the type of resources that can be created in customer subscription(s) using the following built-in policy definitions:

  • 不允许的资源类型Not allowed resource types
  • 允许的资源类型Allowed resource types

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

6.10:维护已获批软件的清单6.10: Maintain an inventory of approved software titles

指导:不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

6.11:限制用户与 Azure 资源管理器进行交互的能力6.11: Limit users' ability to interact with Azure Resource Manager

指导:通过对“Azure 管理”应用配置“阻止访问”,配置 Azure 条件访问来限制用户与 Azure 资源管理器交互的功能。Guidance: Configure Azure Conditional Access to limit users' ability to interact with Azure Resource Manager by configuring "Block access" for the "Azure Management" App.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

6.12:限制用户在计算资源中执行脚本的功能6.12: Limit users' ability to execute scripts within compute resources

指南:不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

6.13:以物理或逻辑方式隔离高风险应用程序6.13: Physically or logically segregate high risk applications

指南:不适用;此建议适用于 Azure 应用服务或计算资源上运行的 Web 应用程序。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for web applications running on Azure App Service or compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

安全配置Secure configuration

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:安全配置For more information, see Security control: Secure configuration.

7.1:为所有 Azure 资源建立安全配置7.1: Establish secure configurations for all Azure resources

指导:使用 Azure Policy 为 Azure 网络观察程序定义并实施标准安全配置。Guidance: Define and implement standard security configurations for Azure Network Watcher with Azure Policy. 在“Microsoft.Network”命名空间中使用 Azure Policy 别名创建自定义策略以审核或强制实施网络观察程序实例的网络配置。Use Azure Policy aliases in the "Microsoft.Network" namespace to create custom policies to audit or enforce the network configuration of your Network Watcher instances. 还可以利用内置策略定义,例如:You may also make use of built-in policy definitions such as:

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

7.2:建立安全的操作系统配置7.2: Establish secure operating system configurations

指导:不适用;此项指导适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this guideline is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

7.3:维护安全的 Azure 资源配置7.3: Maintain secure Azure resource configurations

指南:使用 Azure Policy“[拒绝]”和“[不存在则部署]”对不同的 Azure 资源强制实施安全设置。Guidance: Use Azure Policy [deny] and [deploy if not exist] to enforce secure settings across your Azure resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

7.4:维护安全的操作系统配置7.4: Maintain secure operating system configurations

指导:不适用;此项指导适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this guideline is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

7.5:安全存储 Azure 资源的配置7.5: Securely store configuration of Azure resources

指导:如果使用自定义的 Azure Policy 定义,请使用 Azure DevOps 或 Azure Repos 安全地存储和管理代码。Guidance: If using custom Azure Policy definitions, use Azure DevOps or Azure Repos to securely store and manage your code.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

7.6:安全存储自定义操作系统映像7.6: Securely store custom operating system images

指导:不适用;此项指导适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this guideline is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

7.7:部署 Azure 资源的配置管理工具7.7: Deploy configuration management tools for Azure resources

指导:使用 Azure Policy 为 Azure 网络观察程序定义并实施标准安全配置。Guidance: Define and implement standard security configurations for Azure Network Watcher with Azure Policy. 在“Microsoft.Network”命名空间中使用 Azure Policy 别名创建自定义策略以审核或强制实施网络观察程序实例的网络配置。Use Azure Policy aliases in the "Microsoft.Network" namespace to create custom policies to audit or enforce the network configuration of your Network Watcher instances. 还可以利用内置策略定义,例如:You may also make use of built-in policy definitions such as:

另请参阅:Also see:

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

7.8:部署操作系统的配置管理工具7.8: Deploy configuration management tools for operating systems

指导:不适用;此项指导适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this guideline is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

7.9:为 Azure 资源实施自动配置监视7.9: Implement automated configuration monitoring for Azure resources

指导:在“Microsoft.Network”命名空间中使用内置的 Azure Policy 定义和 Azure Policy 别名创建自定义 Azure Policy 定义,以审核、强制实施系统配置并为其发出警报。Guidance: Use built-in Azure Policy definitions as well as Azure Policy aliases in the "Microsoft.Network" namespace to create custom Azure Policy definitions to alert, audit, and enforce system configurations. 使用 Azure Policy“[审核]”、“[拒绝]”和“[不存在则部署]”自动强制实施 Azure 资源的配置。Use Azure Policy [audit], [deny], and [deploy if not exist] to automatically enforce configurations for your Azure resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

7.10:为操作系统实施自动配置监视7.10: Implement automated configuration monitoring for operating systems

指导:不适用;此项指导适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this guideline is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

7.11:安全管理 Azure 机密7.11: Manage Azure secrets securely

指导:不适用;没有与 Azure 网络观察程序关联的密码、机密或密钥。Guidance: Not applicable; there are no passwords, secrets, or keys associated with Azure Network Watcher.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

7.12:安全自动管理标识7.12: Manage identities securely and automatically

指导:不适用;Azure 网络观察程序不使用托管标识。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure Network Watcher does not make use of managed identities.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

7.13:消除意外的凭据透露7.13: Eliminate unintended credential exposure

指南:实施凭据扫描程序来识别代码中的凭据。Guidance: Implement Credential Scanner to identify credentials within code. 凭据扫描程序还会建议将发现的凭据转移到更安全的位置,例如 Azure Key Vault。Credential Scanner will also encourage moving discovered credentials to more secure locations such as Azure Key Vault.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

恶意软件防护Malware defense

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:恶意软件防护For more information, see Security control: Malware defense.

8.1:使用集中管理的反恶意软件8.1: Use centrally managed anti-malware software

指导:不适用;此项指导适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this guideline is intended for compute resources. 已在支持 Azure 服务(例如 Azure 应用服务)的底层主机上启用 Azure 反恶意软件,但是该软件不针对客户内容运行。Azure Anti-malware is enabled on the underlying host that supports Azure services (for example, Azure App Service), however it does not run on customer content.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

8.2:预先扫描要上传到非计算 Azure 资源的文件8.2: Pre-scan files to be uploaded to non-compute Azure resources

指导:不适用。Guidance: Not applicable. 网络观察程序不能对用户上传的数据进行操作。Network Watcher does not operate on user uploaded data.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

步骤 8.3:确保反恶意软件和签名已更新8.3: Ensure anti-malware software and signatures are updated

指南:不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources. 已在支持 Azure 服务的底层主机上启用 Azure 反恶意软件,但是该软件不针对客户内容运行。Azure Anti-malware is enabled on the underlying host that supports Azure services, however it does not run on customer content.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

数据恢复Data recovery

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:数据恢复For more information, see Security control: Data recovery.

9.1:确保定期执行自动备份9.1: Ensure regular automated back ups

指导:不适用;Azure 网络观察程序本身不包含任何客户数据。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure Network Watcher itself does not hold any customer data.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

9.2:执行完整系统备份,并备份客户管理的所有密钥9.2: Perform complete system backups and backup any customer-managed keys

指导:不适用;Azure 网络观察程序本身不包含任何客户数据。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure Network Watcher itself does not hold any customer data.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

9.3:验证所有备份,包括客户管理的密钥9.3: Validate all backups including customer-managed keys

指导:不适用;Azure 网络观察程序本身不包含任何客户数据。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure Network Watcher itself does not hold any customer data.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

9.4:确保保护备份和客户管理的密钥9.4: Ensure protection of backups and customer-managed keys

指导:不适用;Azure 网络观察程序本身不包含任何客户数据。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure Network Watcher itself does not hold any customer data.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not applicable

事件响应Incident response

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:事件响应For more information, see Security control: Incident response.

10.1:创建事件响应指导10.1: Create an incident response guide

指南:为组织制定事件响应指南。Guidance: Build out an incident response guide for your organization. 确保在书面的事件响应计划中定义人员职责,以及事件处理/管理从检测到事件后审查的各个阶段。Ensure that there are written incident response plans that define all roles of personnel as well as phases of incident handling/management from detection to post-incident review.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

10.2:创建事件评分和优先级设定过程10.2: Create an incident scoring and prioritization procedure

指南:安全中心向每个警报分配一个严重性,帮助你优先处理应首先调查的警报。Guidance: Security Center assigns a severity to each alert to help you prioritize which alerts should be investigated first. 严重性取决于安全中心在发出警报时所依据的检测结果和分析结果的置信度,以及导致发出警报的活动的恶意企图的置信度。The severity is based on how confident Security Center is in the finding or the analytic used to issue the alert as well as the confidence level that there was malicious intent behind the activity that led to the alert.

此外,请明确标记订阅(例如Additionally, clearly mark subscriptions (for ex. 生产、非生产),并创建命名系统来对 Azure 资源进行明确标识和分类。production, non-prod) and create a naming system to clearly identify and categorize Azure resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

10.3:测试安全响应过程10.3: Test security response procedures

指导:定期执行演练来测试系统的事件响应功能。Guidance: Conduct exercises to test your systems' incident response capabilities on a regular cadence. 识别弱点和差距,并根据需要修改计划。Identify weak points and gaps and revise plan as needed.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

10.4:提供安全事件联系人详细信息,并针对安全事件配置警报通知10.4: Provide security incident contact details and configure alert notifications for security incidents

指导:如果 Azure 安全响应中心 (MSRC) 发现非法或未经授权的某方访问了客户的数据,Azure 将使用安全事件联系人信息与你取得联系。Guidance: Security incident contact information will be used by Azure to contact you if the Azure Security Response Center (MSRC) discovers that the customer's data has been accessed by an unlawful or unauthorized party. 事后审查事件,确保问题得到解决。Review incidents after the fact to ensure that issues are resolved.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

渗透测试和红队练习Penetration tests and red team exercises

有关详细信息,请参阅安全控制:渗透测试和红队演练For more information, see Security control: Penetration tests and red team exercises.

11.1:定期对 Azure 资源执行渗透测试,确保修正所有发现的关键安全问题11.1: Conduct regular penetration testing of your Azure resources and ensure remediation of all critical security findings

指导:*遵循 Azure 互动规则,确保你的渗透测试不违反 Azure 政策Guidance: * Follow the Azure Rules of Engagement to ensure your Penetration Tests are not in violation of Azure policies

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not applicable

责任:共享Responsibility: Shared

后续步骤Next steps