Azure 中虚拟机的区域和可用性Regions and availability for virtual machines in Azure

Azure 在中国的四个数据中心运行。Azure operates in four datacenters around China. 这些数据中心分组到地理区域,让用户可灵活选择构建应用程序的位置。These datacenters are grouped in to geographic regions, giving you flexibility in choosing where to build your applications. 请务必了解 Azure 中虚拟机 (VM) 运行的方式和位置,以及最大化性能、可用性和冗余的选项。It is important to understand how and where your virtual machines (VMs) operate in Azure, along with your options to maximize performance, availability, and redundancy. 本文提供了 Azure 的可用性和冗余功能的概述。This article provides you with an overview of the availability and redundancy features of Azure.

什么是 Azure 区域?What are Azure regions?

可以在规定的地理区域(例如“中国东部”、“中国东部 2”、“中国北部”或“中国北部 2”)中创建 Azure 资源。You create Azure resources in defined geographic regions like 'China East', 'China East 2 ', 'China North', or 'China North 2 '. 可查看区域及其位置的列表You can review the list of regions and their locations. 为了提供冗余和可用性,每个区域都设有多个数据中心。Within each region, multiple datacenters exist to provide for redundancy and availability. 这样,便可灵活设计应用程序,创建距离用户最近的 VM,满足任何法律、符合性或税务要求。This approach gives you flexibility as you design applications to create VMs closest to your users and to meet any legal, compliance, or tax purposes.

区域对Region pairs

每个 Azure 区域都与同一地域内的另一个区域配对。Each Azure region is paired with another region within the same geography. 此方法适用于跨地域复制资源(例如 VM 存储),降低因自然灾害、社会动乱、电力中断或物理网络中断而同时影响两个区域的可能性。This approach allows for the replication of resources, such as VM storage, across a geography that should reduce the likelihood of natural disasters, civil unrest, power outages, or physical network outages affecting both regions at once. 区域对的其他优点包括:Additional advantages of region pairs include:

  • 出现范围较广的 Azure 区域中断时,每个区域对中有一个区域优先级更高,这样可以缩短应用程序的还原时间。In the event of a wider Azure outage, one region is prioritized out of every pair to help reduce the time to restore for applications.
  • 将逐一对配对的区域进行计划内 Azure 更新,尽量减少停机时间并降低应用程序中断风险。Planned Azure updates are rolled out to paired regions one at a time to minimize downtime and risk of application outage.
  • 出于税务和执法管辖权方面的考虑,数据仍以配对的形式驻留在同一地域内。Data continues to reside within the same geography as its pair for tax and law enforcement jurisdiction purposes.

区域对的示例包括:Examples of region pairs include:

主要Primary 次要Secondary
中国北部China North 中国东部China East
中国北部 2China North 2 中国东部 2China East 2

功能可用性Feature availability

某些服务或 VM 功能(例如特定的 VM 大小或存储类型)仅在特定区域提供。Some services or VM features are only available in certain regions, such as specific VM sizes or storage types. 也有一些全球性 Azure 服务不需要用户选择特定的区域,例如 Azure Active Directory流量管理器Azure DNSThere are also some global Azure services that do not require you to select a particular region, such as Azure Active Directory, Traffic Manager, or Azure DNS. 若要更好地设计应用程序环境,可查看 Azure 服务在每个区域的可用性To assist you in designing your application environment, you can check the availability of Azure services across each region. 此外,还可以以编程方式查询受支持的 VM 大小和每个区域中的限制You can also programmatically query the supported VM sizes and restrictions in each region.

存储可用性Storage availability

在考虑可用的存储复制选项时,了解 Azure 区域和地理位置变得相当重要。Understanding Azure regions and geographies becomes important when you consider the available storage replication options. 根据存储类型,可以使用不同的复制选项。Depending on the storage type, you have different replication options.

Azure 托管磁盘Azure Managed Disks

  • 本地冗余存储 (LRS)Locally redundant storage (LRS)
    • 在创建存储帐户时所在的区域复制数据三次。Replicates your data three times within the region in which you created your storage account.

基于存储帐户的磁盘Storage account-based disks

  • 本地冗余存储 (LRS)Locally redundant storage (LRS)

    • 在创建存储帐户时所在的区域复制数据三次。Replicates your data three times within the region in which you created your storage account.
  • 异地冗余存储 (GRS)Geo-redundant storage (GRS)

    • 将数据复制到距主要区域数百英里以外的次要区域。Replicates your data to a secondary region that is hundreds of miles away from the primary region.
  • 读取访问异地冗余存储 (RA-GRS)Read-access geo-redundant storage (RA-GRS)

    • 与 GRS 一样,可将数据复制到次要区域,但此外还提供对次要位置中数据的只读访问权限。Replicates your data to a secondary region, as with GRS, but also then provides read-only access to the data in the secondary location.

下表提供存储复制类型之间差异的简要概述:The following table provides a quick overview of the differences between the storage replication types:

复制策略Replication strategy LRSLRS GRSGRS RA-GRSRA-GRS
数据在多个设施之间进行复制。Data is replicated across multiple facilities. No Yes Yes
可以从辅助位置和主位置读取数据。Data can be read from the secondary location and from the primary location. No No Yes
在单独的节点上维护的数据副本数。Number of copies of data maintained on separate nodes. 33 66 66

可以在此处详细了解 Azure 存储复制选项。You can read more about Azure Storage replication options here. 有关托管磁盘的详细信息,请参阅 Azure 托管磁盘概述For more information about managed disks, see Azure Managed Disks overview.

存储成本Storage costs

价格根据所选存储类型和可用性的不同而异。Prices vary depending on the storage type and availability that you select.

Azure 托管磁盘Azure Managed Disks

  • 高级托管磁盘受固态硬盘 (SSD) 支持,标准托管磁盘受常规旋转磁盘支持。Premium Managed Disks are backed by Solid-State Drives (SSDs) and Standard Managed Disks are backed by regular spinning disks. 高级和标准托管磁盘均按预配的磁盘容量计费。Both Premium and Standard Managed Disks are charged based on the provisioned capacity for the disk.

非托管磁盘Unmanaged disks

  • 高级存储以固态硬盘 (SSD) 为基础,收费方式根据磁盘容量而定。Premium storage is backed by Solid-State Drives (SSDs) and is charged based on the capacity of the disk.
  • 标准存储以普通的旋转式磁盘为基础,收费方式根据所用容量和所需的存储可用性而定。Standard storage is backed by regular spinning disks and is charged based on the in-use capacity and desired storage availability.
    • 对于 RA-GRS,有一个额外的异地复制数据传输费用,它是将该数据复制到另一个 Azure 区域收取的带宽费用。For RA-GRS, there is an additional Geo-Replication Data Transfer charge for the bandwidth of replicating that data to another Azure region.

有关不同存储类型和可用性选项的定价信息,请参阅 Azure 存储器定价See Azure Storage Pricing for pricing information on the different storage types and availability options.

可用性集Availability sets

可用性集是数据中心内的 VM 的逻辑分组,可让 Azure 了解应用程序的构建方式,以便提供冗余和可用性。An availability set is a logical grouping of VMs within a datacenter that allows Azure to understand how your application is built to provide for redundancy and availability. 建议在可用性集内创建两个或多个 VM,提供高度可用的应用程序,并满足 99.95% Azure SLA 的要求。We recommended that two or more VMs are created within an availability set to provide for a highly available application and to meet the 99.95% Azure SLA. 可用性集本身是免费的,只需为创建的每个 VM 实例付费。There is no cost for the Availability Set itself, you only pay for each VM instance that you create. 当单个 VM 使用 Azure 高级 SSD 时,Azure SLA 适用于计划外维护事件。When a single VM is using Azure premium SSDs, the Azure SLA applies for unplanned maintenance events.

可用性集由可防止硬件故障以及允许安全应用更新的两个额外分组构成 - 容错域 (FD) 和更新域 (UD)。An availability set is composed of two additional groupings that protect against hardware failures and allow updates to safely be applied - fault domains (FDs) and update domains (UDs). 详细了解如何管理 Linux VMWindows VM 的可用性。You can read more about how to manage the availability of Linux VMs or Windows VMs.

当分配不使用容错域的高可用性构造的多个计算资源时,存在很高的反相关性概率,但这种反相关性不能得到保证。When allocating multiple compute resources which do not use the high availability constructs of fault domains there is a high probability of anti-affinity, however this anti-affinity is not guaranteed.

容错域Fault domains

容错域是共享公用电源和网络交换机的基础硬件逻辑组,类似于本地数据中心内的机架。A fault domain is a logical group of underlying hardware that share a common power source and network switch, similar to a rack within an on-premises datacenter. 在可用性集内创建 VM 时,Azure 平台会将 VM 自动分布到这些容错域。As you create VMs within an availability set, the Azure platform automatically distributes your VMs across these fault domains. 此方法可限制潜在物理硬件故障、网络中断或断电的影响。This approach limits the impact of potential physical hardware failures, network outages, or power interruptions.

更新域Update domains

更新域是可以同时维护或重新启动的基础硬件逻辑组。An update domain is a logical group of underlying hardware that can undergo maintenance or be rebooted at the same time. 在可用性集内创建 VM 时,Azure 平台会自动将 VM 分布到这些更新域。As you create VMs within an availability set, the Azure platform automatically distributes your VMs across these update domains. Azure 平台进行定期维护时,此方法可确保至少有一个应用程序实例始终保持运行状态。This approach ensures that at least one instance of your application always remains running as the Azure platform undergoes periodic maintenance. 在计划内维护期间,更新域的重启顺序可能不会按序进行,但一次只重启一个更新域。The order of update domains being rebooted may not proceed sequentially during planned maintenance, but only one update domain is rebooted at a time.


托管磁盘容错域Managed Disk fault domains

对于使用 Azure 托管磁盘的 VM,在使用托管可用性集时,VM 与托管磁盘容错域一致。For VMs using Azure Managed Disks, VMs are aligned with managed disk fault domains when using a managed availability set. 该一致性可确保附加到 VM 的所有托管磁盘都在同一托管磁盘容错域内。This alignment ensures that all the managed disks attached to a VM are within the same managed disk fault domain. 在托管可用性集中,只能创建带托管磁盘的 VM。Only VMs with managed disks can be created in a managed availability set. 托管磁盘容错域的数目因区域而异 - 每个区域两个或三个托管磁盘容错域。The number of managed disk fault domains varies by region - either two or three managed disk fault domains per region. 可以阅读有关这些适用于 Linux VMWindows VM 的托管磁盘容错域的详细信息。You can read more about these managed disk fault domains for Linux VMs or Windows VMs.


后续步骤Next steps

现在即可开始使用这些可用性和冗余功能构建 Azure 环境。You can now start to use these availability and redundancy features to build your Azure environment. 有关最佳实践的信息,请参阅 Azure 可用性的最佳实践For best practices information, see Azure availability best practices.