What is Azure VPN Gateway?
Azure VPN Gateway is a service that uses a specific type of virtual network gateway to send encrypted traffic between an Azure virtual network and on-premises locations over the public Internet. You can also use VPN Gateway to send encrypted traffic between Azure virtual networks over the Microsoft network. Multiple connections can be created to the same VPN gateway. When you create multiple connections, all VPN tunnels share the available gateway bandwidth.
About VPN gateways
A VPN gateway is a type of virtual network gateway. A virtual network gateway is composed of two or more Azure-managed VMs that are automatically configured and deployed to a specific subnet you create called the GatewaySubnet. The gateway VMs contain routing tables and run specific gateway services.
One of the settings that you specify when creating a virtual network gateway is the "gateway type". The gateway type determines how the virtual network gateway will be used and the actions that the gateway takes. A virtual network can have two virtual network gateways; one VPN gateway and one ExpressRoute gateway. The gateway type 'Vpn' specifies that the type of virtual network gateway created is a VPN gateway. This distinguishes it from an ExpressRoute gateway, which uses a different gateway type. For more information, see Gateway types.
When you create a VPN gateway, gateway VMs are deployed to the gateway subnet and configured with the settings that you specified. This process can take 45 minutes or more to complete, depending on the gateway SKU that you selected. After you create a VPN gateway, you can configure connections. For example, you can create an IPsec/IKE VPN tunnel connection between that VPN gateway and another VPN gateway (VNet-to-VNet), or create a cross-premises IPsec/IKE VPN tunnel connection between the VPN gateway and an on-premises VPN device (Site-to-Site). You can also create a Point-to-Site VPN connection (VPN over OpenVPN, IKEv2, or SSTP), which lets you connect to your virtual network from a remote location, such as from a conference or from home.
Configuring VPN Gateway
A VPN gateway connection relies on multiple resources that are configured with specific settings. Most of the resources can be configured separately, although some resources must be configured in a certain order.
Because you can create multiple connection configurations using VPN Gateway, you need to determine which configuration best fits your needs. Point-to-Site, Site-to-Site, and coexisting ExpressRoute/Site-to-Site connections all have different instructions and configuration requirements. For connection diagrams and corresponding links to configuration steps, see VPN Gateway design.
The following table can help you decide the best connectivity option for your solution. Note that ExpressRoute isn't a part of VPN Gateway, but is included in the table.
|Azure Supported Services||Cloud Services and Virtual Machines||Cloud Services and Virtual Machines||Services list|
|Typical Bandwidths||Based on the gateway SKU||Typically < 10 Gbps aggregate||50 Mbps, 100 Mbps, 200 Mbps, 500 Mbps, 1 Gbps, 2 Gbps, 5 Gbps, 10 Gbps, 100 Gbps|
|Protocols Supported||Secure Sockets Tunneling Protocol (SSTP), OpenVPN and IPsec||IPsec||Direct connection over VLANs, NSP's VPN technologies (MPLS, VPLS,...)|
|Routing||RouteBased (dynamic)||We support PolicyBased (static routing) and RouteBased (dynamic routing VPN)||BGP|
|Connection resiliency||active-passive||active-passive or active-active||active-active|
|Typical use case||Secure access to Azure virtual networks for remote users||Dev / test / lab scenarios and small to medium scale production workloads for cloud services and virtual machines||Access to all Azure services (validated list), Enterprise-class and mission critical workloads, Backup, Big Data, Azure as a DR site|
|Technical Documentation||VPN Gateway||VPN Gateway||ExpressRoute|
|FAQ||VPN Gateway FAQ||VPN Gateway FAQ||ExpressRoute FAQ|
The settings that you chose for each resource are critical to creating a successful connection. For information about individual resources and settings for VPN Gateway, see About VPN Gateway settings. The article contains information to help you understand gateway types, gateway SKUs, VPN types, connection types, gateway subnets, local network gateways, and various other resource settings that you may want to consider.
You can start out creating and configuring resources using one configuration tool, such as the Azure portal. You can later decide to switch to another tool, such as PowerShell, to configure additional resources, or modify existing resources when applicable. Currently, you can't configure every resource and resource setting in the Azure portal. The instructions in the articles for each connection topology specify when a specific configuration tool is needed.
When you create a virtual network gateway, you specify the gateway SKU that you want to use. Select the SKU that satisfies your requirements based on the types of workloads, throughputs, features, and SLAs. For more information about gateway SKUs, including supported features, performance, production and dev-test, and configuration steps, see the VPN Gateway settings article.
The following table shows gateway SKUs by tunnel, connection, and throughput. For additional tables and more information regarding this table, see the Gateway SKUs section of the VPN Gateway settings article.
|BGP||Zone-redundant||Supported Number of VMs in the Virtual Network|
|Generation1||Basic||Max. 10||Max. 128||Not Supported||100 Mbps||Not Supported||No||200|
|Generation1||VpnGw1||Max. 30||Max. 128||Max. 250||650 Mbps||Supported||No||450|
|Generation1||VpnGw2||Max. 30||Max. 128||Max. 500||1 Gbps||Supported||No||1300|
|Generation1||VpnGw3||Max. 30||Max. 128||Max. 1000||1.25 Gbps||Supported||No||4000|
|Generation1||VpnGw1AZ||Max. 30||Max. 128||Max. 250||650 Mbps||Supported||Yes||1000|
|Generation1||VpnGw2AZ||Max. 30||Max. 128||Max. 500||1 Gbps||Supported||Yes||2000|
|Generation1||VpnGw3AZ||Max. 30||Max. 128||Max. 1000||1.25 Gbps||Supported||Yes||5000|
|Generation2||VpnGw2||Max. 30||Max. 128||Max. 500||1.25 Gbps||Supported||No||685|
|Generation2||VpnGw3||Max. 30||Max. 128||Max. 1000||2.5 Gbps||Supported||No||2240|
|Generation2||VpnGw4||Max. 100*||Max. 128||Max. 5000||5 Gbps||Supported||No||5300|
|Generation2||VpnGw5||Max. 100*||Max. 128||Max. 10000||10 Gbps||Supported||No||6700|
|Generation2||VpnGw2AZ||Max. 30||Max. 128||Max. 500||1.25 Gbps||Supported||Yes||2000|
|Generation2||VpnGw3AZ||Max. 30||Max. 128||Max. 1000||2.5 Gbps||Supported||Yes||3300|
|Generation2||VpnGw4AZ||Max. 100*||Max. 128||Max. 5000||5 Gbps||Supported||Yes||4400|
|Generation2||VpnGw5AZ||Max. 100*||Max. 128||Max. 10000||10 Gbps||Supported||Yes||9000|
(*) If you need more than 100 S2S VPN tunnels, use Virtual WAN instead of VPN Gateway.
VPN gateways can be deployed in Azure Availability Zones. This brings resiliency, scalability, and higher availability to virtual network gateways. Deploying gateways in Azure Availability Zones physically and logically separates gateways within a region, while protecting your on-premises network connectivity to Azure from zone-level failures. See About zone-redundant virtual network gateways in Azure Availability Zones.
You pay for two things: the hourly compute costs for the virtual network gateway, and the egress data transfer from the virtual network gateway. Pricing information can be found on the Pricing page. For legacy gateway SKU pricing, see the ExpressRoute pricing page and scroll to the Virtual Network Gateways section.
Virtual network gateway compute costs
Each virtual network gateway has an hourly compute cost. The price is based on the gateway SKU that you specify when you create a virtual network gateway. The cost is for the gateway itself and is in addition to the data transfer that flows through the gateway. Cost of an active-active setup is the same as active-passive.
Data transfer costs
Data transfer costs are calculated based on egress traffic from the source virtual network gateway.
- If you're sending traffic to your on-premises VPN device, it will be charged with the Internet egress data transfer rate.
- If you're sending traffic between virtual networks in different regions, the pricing is based on the region.
- If you're sending traffic only between virtual networks that are in the same region, there are no data costs. Traffic between VNets in the same region is free.
For more information about gateway SKUs for VPN Gateway, see Gateway SKUs.
For frequently asked questions about VPN gateway, see the VPN Gateway FAQ.