通过 Azure PowerShell 使用基于 URL 路径的路由规则创建应用程序网关Create an application gateway with URL path-based routing rules using Azure PowerShell

创建应用程序网关时可以使用 Azure PowerShell 配置基于 URL 路径的路由规则You can use Azure PowerShell to configure URL path-based routing rules when you create an application gateway. 在本教程中,使用虚拟机规模集创建后端池。In this tutorial, you create backend pools using a virtual machine scale set. 然后创建路由规则,以确保 Web 流量到达池中的相应服务器。You then create routing rules that make sure web traffic arrives at the appropriate servers in the pools.

在本文中,学习如何:In this article, you learn how to:

  • 设置网络Set up the network
  • 使用 URL 映射创建应用程序网关Create an application gateway with URL map
  • 使用后端池创建虚拟机规模集Create virtual machine scale sets with the backend pools

URL 路由示例

如果没有 Azure 订阅,可在开始前创建一个试用帐户If you don't have an Azure subscription, create a Trial before you begin.

Note

本文进行了更新,以便使用新的 Azure PowerShell Az 模块。This article has been updated to use the new Azure PowerShell Az module. 你仍然可以使用 AzureRM 模块,至少在 2020 年 12 月之前,它将继续接收 bug 修补程序。You can still use the AzureRM module, which will continue to receive bug fixes until at least December 2020. 若要详细了解新的 Az 模块和 AzureRM 兼容性,请参阅新 Azure Powershell Az 模块简介To learn more about the new Az module and AzureRM compatibility, see Introducing the new Azure PowerShell Az module. 有关 Az 模块安装说明,请参阅安装 Azure PowerShellFor Az module installation instructions, see Install Azure PowerShell.

如果选择在本地安装并使用 PowerShell,则本教程需要 Azure PowerShell 模块。If you choose to install and use the PowerShell locally, this tutorial requires the Azure PowerShell module. 若要查找版本,请运行 Get-Module -ListAvailable AzTo find the version, run Get-Module -ListAvailable Az . 如果需要进行升级,请参阅 Install Azure PowerShell module(安装 Azure PowerShell 模块)。If you need to upgrade, see Install Azure PowerShell module. 如果在本地运行 PowerShell,则还需运行 Connect-AzAccount -Environment AzureChinaCloud 来创建与 Azure 的连接。If you are running PowerShell locally, you also need to run Connect-AzAccount -Environment AzureChinaCloud to create a connection with Azure.

创建资源组Create a resource group

资源组是在其中部署和管理 Azure 资源的逻辑容器。A resource group is a logical container into which Azure resources are deployed and managed. 使用 New-AzResourceGroup 创建 Azure 资源组。Create an Azure resource group using New-AzResourceGroup.

New-AzResourceGroup -Name myResourceGroupAG -Location chinanorth

创建网络资源Create network resources

使用 New-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig 创建子网配置 myAGSubnetmyBackendSubnetCreate the subnet configurations myAGSubnet and myBackendSubnet using New-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig. 使用 New-AzVirtualNetwork 和子网配置创建名为 myVNet 的虚拟网络。Create the virtual network named myVNet using New-AzVirtualNetwork with the subnet configurations. 最后使用 New-AzPublicIpAddress 创建名为 myAGPublicIPAddress 的公共 IP 地址。And finally, create the public IP address named myAGPublicIPAddress using New-AzPublicIpAddress. 这些资源用于提供与应用程序网关及其关联资源的网络连接。These resources are used to provide network connectivity to the application gateway and its associated resources.

$backendSubnetConfig = New-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig `
  -Name myBackendSubnet `
  -AddressPrefix 10.0.1.0/24
$agSubnetConfig = New-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig `
  -Name myAGSubnet `
  -AddressPrefix 10.0.2.0/24
$vnet = New-AzVirtualNetwork `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Location chinanorth `
  -Name myVNet `
  -AddressPrefix 10.0.0.0/16 `
  -Subnet $backendSubnetConfig, $agSubnetConfig
$pip = New-AzPublicIpAddress `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Location chinanorth `
  -Name myAGPublicIPAddress `
  -AllocationMethod Dynamic

创建应用程序网关Create an application gateway

创建 IP 配置和前端端口Create the IP configurations and frontend port

使用 New-AzApplicationGatewayIPConfiguration 将前面创建的 myAGSubnet 关联到应用程序网关。Associate myAGSubnet that you previously created to the application gateway using New-AzApplicationGatewayIPConfiguration. 使用 New-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendIPConfigmyAGPublicIPAddress 分配给应用程序网关。Assign the myAGPublicIPAddress to the application gateway using New-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendIPConfig.

$vnet = Get-AzVirtualNetwork `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myVNet
$subnet=$vnet.Subnets[0]
$pip = Get-AzPublicIpAddress `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myAGPublicIPAddress
$gipconfig = New-AzApplicationGatewayIPConfiguration `
  -Name myAGIPConfig `
  -Subnet $subnet
$fipconfig = New-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendIPConfig `
  -Name myAGFrontendIPConfig `
  -PublicIPAddress $pip
$frontendport = New-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendPort `
  -Name myFrontendPort `
  -Port 80

创建默认池和设置Create the default pool and settings

使用 New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool 为应用程序网关创建名为 appGatewayBackendPool 的默认后端池。Create the default backend pool named appGatewayBackendPool for the application gateway using New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool. 使用 New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendHttpSettings 配置后端池的设置。Configure the settings for the backend pool using New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendHttpSettings.

$defaultPool = New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool `
  -Name appGatewayBackendPool 
$poolSettings = New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendHttpSettings `
  -Name myPoolSettings `
  -Port 80 `
  -Protocol Http `
  -CookieBasedAffinity Enabled `
  -RequestTimeout 120

创建默认侦听器和规则Create the default listener and rule

应用程序网关需要侦听器才能适当地将流量路由到后端池。A listener is required to enable the application gateway to route traffic appropriately to the backend pool. 在本教程中,将创建两个侦听器。In this tutorial, you create two listeners. 创建的第一个基本侦听器侦听根 URL 上的流量。The first basic listener that you create listens for traffic at the root URL. 创建的第二个侦听器侦听特定 URL 上的流量。The second listener that you create listens for traffic at specific URLs.

使用 New-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener 以及前面创建的前端配置和前端端口创建名为 myDefaultListener 的默认侦听器。Create the default listener named myDefaultListener using New-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener with the frontend configuration and frontend port that you previously created. 侦听器需要使用规则来了解哪个后端池使用传入流量。A rule is required for the listener to know which backend pool to use for incoming traffic. 使用 New-AzApplicationGatewayRequestRoutingRule 创建一个名为 rule1 的基本规则。Create a basic rule named rule1 using New-AzApplicationGatewayRequestRoutingRule.

$defaultlistener = New-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener `
  -Name myDefaultListener `
  -Protocol Http `
  -FrontendIPConfiguration $fipconfig `
  -FrontendPort $frontendport
$frontendRule = New-AzApplicationGatewayRequestRoutingRule `
  -Name rule1 `
  -RuleType Basic `
  -HttpListener $defaultlistener `
  -BackendAddressPool $defaultPool `
  -BackendHttpSettings $poolSettings

创建应用程序网关Create the application gateway

现在已创建所需的支持资源,请使用 New-AzApplicationGatewaySku 为名为 myAppGateway 的应用程序网关指定参数,然后再使用 New-AzApplicationGateway 创建它。Now that you created the necessary supporting resources, specify parameters for the application gateway named myAppGateway using New-AzApplicationGatewaySku, and then create it using New-AzApplicationGateway.

$sku = New-AzApplicationGatewaySku `
  -Name Standard_Medium `
  -Tier Standard `
  -Capacity 2
$appgw = New-AzApplicationGateway `
  -Name myAppGateway `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Location chinanorth `
  -BackendAddressPools $defaultPool `
  -BackendHttpSettingsCollection $poolSettings `
  -FrontendIpConfigurations $fipconfig `
  -GatewayIpConfigurations $gipconfig `
  -FrontendPorts $frontendport `
  -HttpListeners $defaultlistener `
  -RequestRoutingRules $frontendRule `
  -Sku $sku

添加映像及视频后端池和端口Add image and video backend pools and port

可以使用 Add-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool 向应用程序网关添加名为 imagesBackendPoolvideoBackendPool 的后端池。You can add backend pools named imagesBackendPool and videoBackendPool to your application gateway by using Add-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool. 使用 Add-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendPort 添加池的前端端口。You add the frontend port for the pools using Add-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendPort. 然后使用 Set-AzApplicationGateway 提交对应用程序网关所做的更改。You then submit the changes to the application gateway using Set-AzApplicationGateway.

$appgw = Get-AzApplicationGateway `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myAppGateway
Add-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw `
  -Name imagesBackendPool 
Add-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw `
  -Name videoBackendPool
Add-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendPort `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw `
  -Name bport `
  -Port 8080
Set-AzApplicationGateway -ApplicationGateway $appgw

添加后端侦听器Add backend listener

使用 Add-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener 添加路由流量所需的名为 backendListener 的后端侦听器。Add the backend listener named backendListener that's needed to route traffic using Add-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener.

$appgw = Get-AzApplicationGateway `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myAppGateway
$backendPort = Get-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendPort `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw `
  -Name bport
$fipconfig = Get-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendIPConfig `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw
Add-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw `
  -Name backendListener `
  -Protocol Http `
  -FrontendIPConfiguration $fipconfig `
  -FrontendPort $backendPort
Set-AzApplicationGateway -ApplicationGateway $appgw

添加 URL 路径映射Add URL path map

URL 路径映射可确保将特定的 URL 路由到特定的后端池。URL path maps make sure that specific URLs are routed to specific backend pools. 可以使用 New-AzApplicationGatewayPathRuleConfigAdd-AzApplicationGatewayUrlPathMapConfig 创建名为 imagePathRulevideoPathRule 的 URL 路径映射。You can create URL path maps named imagePathRule and videoPathRule using New-AzApplicationGatewayPathRuleConfig and Add-AzApplicationGatewayUrlPathMapConfig.

$appgw = Get-AzApplicationGateway `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myAppGateway
$poolSettings = Get-AzApplicationGatewayBackendHttpSettings `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw `
  -Name myPoolSettings
$imagePool = Get-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw `
  -Name imagesBackendPool
$videoPool = Get-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw `
  -Name videoBackendPool
$defaultPool = Get-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw `
  -Name appGatewayBackendPool
$imagePathRule = New-AzApplicationGatewayPathRuleConfig `
  -Name imagePathRule `
  -Paths "/images/*" `
  -BackendAddressPool $imagePool `
  -BackendHttpSettings $poolSettings
$videoPathRule = New-AzApplicationGatewayPathRuleConfig `
  -Name videoPathRule `
    -Paths "/video/*" `
    -BackendAddressPool $videoPool `
    -BackendHttpSettings $poolSettings
Add-AzApplicationGatewayUrlPathMapConfig `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw `
  -Name urlpathmap `
  -PathRules $imagePathRule, $videoPathRule `
  -DefaultBackendAddressPool $defaultPool `
  -DefaultBackendHttpSettings $poolSettings
Set-AzApplicationGateway -ApplicationGateway $appgw

添加路由规则Add routing rule

路由规则可将 URL 映射与所创建的侦听器相关联。The routing rule associates the URL map with the listener that you created. 可以使用 Add-AzApplicationGatewayRequestRoutingRule 添加名为 *rule2 的规则。You can add the rule named *rule2 using Add-AzApplicationGatewayRequestRoutingRule.

$appgw = Get-AzApplicationGateway `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myAppGateway
$backendlistener = Get-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw `
  -Name backendListener
$urlPathMap = Get-AzApplicationGatewayUrlPathMapConfig `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw `
  -Name urlpathmap
Add-AzApplicationGatewayRequestRoutingRule `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw `
  -Name rule2 `
  -RuleType PathBasedRouting `
  -HttpListener $backendlistener `
  -UrlPathMap $urlPathMap
Set-AzApplicationGateway -ApplicationGateway $appgw

创建虚拟机规模集Create virtual machine scale sets

在此示例中,将创建三个虚拟机规模集以支持所创建的三个后端池。In this example, you create three virtual machine scale sets that support the three backend pools that you created. 创建的规模集分别名为 myvmss1myvmss2myvmss3The scale sets that you create are named myvmss1, myvmss2, and myvmss3. 每个规模集包含两个在其上安装了 IIS 的虚拟机实例。Each scale set contains two virtual machine instances on which you install IIS. 配置 IP 设置时将规模集分配给后端池。You assign the scale set to the backend pool when you configure the IP settings.

$vnet = Get-AzVirtualNetwork `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myVNet
$appgw = Get-AzApplicationGateway `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myAppGateway
$backendPool = Get-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool `
  -Name appGatewayBackendPool `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw
$imagesPool = Get-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool `
  -Name imagesBackendPool `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw
$videoPool = Get-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool `
  -Name videoBackendPool `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw
for ($i=1; $i -le 3; $i++)
{
  if ($i -eq 1)
  {
     $poolId = $backendPool.Id
  }
  if ($i -eq 2) 
  {
    $poolId = $imagesPool.Id
  }
  if ($i -eq 3)
  {
    $poolId = $videoPool.Id
  }
  $ipConfig = New-AzVmssIpConfig `
    -Name myVmssIPConfig$i `
    -SubnetId $vnet.Subnets[1].Id `
    -ApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPoolsId $poolId
  $vmssConfig = New-AzVmssConfig `
    -Location chinanorth `
    -SkuCapacity 2 `
    -SkuName Standard_DS2 `
    -UpgradePolicyMode Automatic
  Set-AzVmssStorageProfile $vmssConfig `
    -ImageReferencePublisher MicrosoftWindowsServer `
    -ImageReferenceOffer WindowsServer `
    -ImageReferenceSku 2016-Datacenter `
    -ImageReferenceVersion latest `
    -OsDiskCreateOption FromImage
  Set-AzVmssOsProfile $vmssConfig `
    -AdminUsername azureuser `
    -AdminPassword "Azure123456!" `
    -ComputerNamePrefix myvmss$i
  Add-AzVmssNetworkInterfaceConfiguration `
    -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmssConfig `
    -Name myVmssNetConfig$i `
    -Primary $true `
    -IPConfiguration $ipConfig
  New-AzVmss `
    -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
    -Name myvmss$i `
    -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmssConfig
}

安装 IISInstall IIS

$publicSettings = @{ "fileUris" = (,"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Azure/azure-docs-powershell-samples/master/application-gateway/iis/appgatewayurl.ps1"); 
  "commandToExecute" = "powershell -ExecutionPolicy Unrestricted -File appgatewayurl.ps1" }

for ($i=1; $i -le 3; $i++)
{
  $vmss = Get-AzVmss -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG -VMScaleSetName myvmss$i
  Add-AzVmssExtension -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmss `
    -Name "customScript" `
    -Publisher "Microsoft.Compute" `
    -Type "CustomScriptExtension" `
    -TypeHandlerVersion 1.8 `
    -Setting $publicSettings

  Update-AzVmss `
    -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
    -Name myvmss$i `
    -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmss
}

测试应用程序网关Test the application gateway

可以使用 Get-AzPublicIPAddress 获取应用程序网关的公共 IP 地址。You can use Get-AzPublicIPAddress to get the public IP address of the application gateway. 复制该公共 IP 地址,并将其粘贴到浏览器的地址栏。Copy the public IP address, and then paste it into the address bar of your browser. 例如,http://52.168.55.24http://52.168.55.24:8080/images/test.htmhttp://52.168.55.24:8080/video/test.htmSuch as, http://52.168.55.24, http://52.168.55.24:8080/images/test.htm, or http://52.168.55.24:8080/video/test.htm.

Get-AzPublicIPAddress -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG -Name myAGPublicIPAddress

在应用程序网关中测试基 URL

将 URL 更改为 http://<ip-address>:8080/video/test.htm,将 <ip-address> 替换为你的 IP 地址,此时会看到类似以下示例的内容:Change the URL to http://<ip-address>:8080/video/test.htm, substituting your IP address for <ip-address>, and you should see something like the following example:

在应用程序网关中测试映像 URL

将 URL 更改为 http://<ip-address>:8080/video/test.htm,此时会看到类似以下示例的内容:Change the URL to http://<ip-address>:8080/video/test.htm and you should see something like the following example:

在应用程序网关中测试视频 URL

后续步骤Next steps

本文介绍了如何执行以下操作:In this article, you learned how to:

  • 设置网络Set up the network
  • 使用 URL 映射创建应用程序网关Create an application gateway with URL map
  • 使用后端池创建虚拟机规模集Create virtual machine scale sets with the backend pools

若要了解有关应用程序网关及其关联资源的详细信息,请继续阅读操作指南文章。To learn more about application gateways and their associated resources, continue to the how-to articles.