使用 Azure Key Vault 中自己的密钥在 SQL 托管实例中实现透明数据加密

适用于:Azure SQL 托管实例

此 PowerShell 脚本实例使用 Azure Key Vault 中的密钥为 Azure SQL 托管实例配置使用客户托管密钥的透明数据加密 (TDE)。 这通常称为 TDE 的创建自己的密钥 (BYOK) 方案。 若要了解详细信息,请参阅使用客户管理的密钥进行 Azure SQL 透明数据加密

先决条件

如果没有 Azure 试用版订阅,请在开始前创建一个试用版订阅

注意

本文使用 Azure Az PowerShell 模块,这是与 Azure 交互时推荐使用的 PowerShell 模块。 若要开始使用 Az PowerShell 模块,请参阅安装 Azure PowerShell。 若要了解如何迁移到 Az PowerShell 模块,请参阅 将 Azure PowerShell 从 AzureRM 迁移到 Az

使用 PowerShell 需要 Azure PowerShell 2.3.2 或更高版本。 如果需要升级,请参阅安装 Azure PowerShell 模块,或运行以下示例脚本,以便为当前用户安装该模块:

Install-Module -Name Az -AllowClobber -Scope CurrentUser

此外,还需要运行 Connect-AzAccount 以创建与 Azure 的连接。

示例脚本

# You will need an existing Managed Instance as a prerequisite for completing this script.
# See https://docs.azure.cn/sql-database/scripts/sql-database-create-configure-managed-instance-powershell

# Log in to your Azure account:
Connect-AzAccount -Environment AzureChinaCloud

# If there are multiple subscriptions, choose the one where AKV is created: 
Set-AzContext -SubscriptionId "subscription ID"

# Install the Az.Sql PowerShell package if you are running this PowerShell locally (uncomment below):
# Install-Module -Name Az.Sql

# 1. Create Resource and setup Azure Key Vault (skip if already done)

# Create Resource group (name the resource and specify the location)
$location = "chinaeast2" # specify the location
$resourcegroup = "MyRG" # specify a new RG name
New-AzResourceGroup -Name $resourcegroup -Location $location

# Create new Azure Key Vault with a globally unique VaultName and soft-delete option turned on:
$vaultname = "MyKeyVault" # specify a globally unique VaultName
New-AzKeyVault -VaultName $vaultname -ResourceGroupName $resourcegroup -Location $location

# Authorize Managed Instance to use the AKV (wrap/unwrap key and get public part of key, if public part exists): 
$objectid = (Set-AzSqlInstance -ResourceGroupName $resourcegroup -Name "MyManagedInstance" -AssignIdentity).Identity.PrincipalId
Set-AzKeyVaultAccessPolicy -BypassObjectIdValidation -VaultName $vaultname -ObjectId $objectid -PermissionsToKeys get,wrapKey,unwrapKey

# Allow access from trusted Azure services: 
Update-AzKeyVaultNetworkRuleSet -VaultName $vaultname -Bypass AzureServices

# Allow access from your client IP address(es) to be able to complete remaining steps: 
Update-AzKeyVaultNetworkRuleSet -VaultName $vaultname -IpAddressRange "xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/xx"

# Turn the network rules ON by setting the default action to Deny: 
Update-AzKeyVaultNetworkRuleSet -VaultName $vaultname -DefaultAction Deny


# 2. Provide TDE Protector key (skip if already done)

# First, give yourself necessary permissions on the AKV, (specify your account instead of contoso.com):
Set-AzKeyVaultAccessPolicy -VaultName $vaultname -UserPrincipalName "myaccount@contoso.com" -PermissionsToKeys create,import,get,list

# The recommended way is to import an existing key from a .pfx file. Replace "<PFX private key password>" with the actual password below:
$keypath = "c:\some_path\mytdekey.pfx" # Supply your .pfx path and name
$securepfxpwd = ConvertTo-SecureString -String "<PFX private key password>" -AsPlainText -Force 
$key = Add-AzKeyVaultKey -VaultName $vaultname -Name "MyTDEKey" -KeyFilePath $keypath -KeyFilePassword $securepfxpwd

# ...or get an existing key from the vault:
# $key = Get-AzKeyVaultKey -VaultName $vaultname -Name "MyTDEKey"

# Alternatively, generate a new key directly in Azure Key Vault (recommended for test purposes only - uncomment below):
# $key = Add-AzureKeyVaultKey -VaultName $vaultname -Name MyTDEKey -Destination Software -Size 2048

# 3. Set up BYOK TDE on Managed Instance:

# Assign the key to the Managed Instance:
# $key = 'https://contoso.vault.azure.cn/keys/contosokey/01234567890123456789012345678901'
Add-AzSqlInstanceKeyVaultKey -KeyId $key.id -InstanceName "MyManagedInstance" -ResourceGroupName $resourcegroup

# Set TDE operation mode to BYOK: 
Set-AzSqlInstanceTransparentDataEncryptionProtector -Type AzureKeyVault -InstanceName "MyManagedInstance" -ResourceGroup $resourcegroup -KeyId $key.id

后续步骤

有关 Azure PowerShell 的详细信息,请参阅 Azure PowerShell 文档

SQL 托管实例的其他 PowerShell 脚本示例可在 Azure SQL 托管实例 PowerShell 脚本中找到。