使用 Microsoft Azure 恢复服务 (MARS) 代理进行备份的支持矩阵Support matrix for backup with the Microsoft Azure Recovery Services (MARS) agent

可以使用 Azure 备份服务备份本地计算机和应用,以及 Azure 虚拟机 (VM)。You can use the Azure Backup service to back up on-premises machines and apps and to back up Azure virtual machines (VMs). 本文汇总了使用 Microsoft Azure 恢复服务 (MARS) 代理备份计算机时的支持设置和限制。This article summarizes support settings and limitations when you use the Microsoft Azure Recovery Services (MARS) agent to back up machines.

MARS 代理The MARS agent

Azure 备份使用 MARS 代理将本地计算机和 Azure VM 中的数据备份到 Azure 中的恢复服务保管库。Azure Backup uses the MARS agent to back up data from on-premises machines and Azure VMs to a backup Recovery Services vault in Azure. MARS 代理可以:The MARS agent can:

  • 在本地 Windows 计算机上运行,使这些计算机能够直接备份到 Azure 中的备份恢复服务保管库。Run on on-premises Windows machines so that they can back up directly to a backup Recovery Services vault in Azure.
  • 在 Windows VM 上运行,使这些 VM 能够直接备份到保管库。Run on Windows VMs so that they can back up directly to a vault.
  • 在 Microsoft Azure 备份服务器 (MABS) 或 System Center Data Protection Manager (DPM) 服务器上运行。Run on Microsoft Azure Backup Server (MABS) or a System Center Data Protection Manager (DPM) server. 在此方案中,计算机和工作负荷将备份到 MABS 或 DPM 服务器。In this scenario, machines and workloads back up to MABS or to the DPM server. 然后,MARS 代理将此服务器备份到 Azure 中的保管库。The MARS agent then backs up this server to a vault in Azure.

备注

Azure 备份不支持自动调整夏令时 (DST) 时钟。Azure Backup doesn't support automatic adjustment of clock for daylight savings time (DST). 修改策略以确保考虑到夏令时,以防止实际时间和计划备份时间之间出现差异。Modify the policy to ensure daylight savings is taken into account to prevent discrepancy between the actual time and scheduled backup time.

备份选项取决于该代理的安装位置。Your backup options depend on where the agent is installed. 有关详细信息,请参阅使用 MARS 代理的 Azure 备份体系结构For more information, see Azure Backup architecture using the MARS agent. 有关 MABS 和 DPM 备份体系结构的信息,请参阅备份到 DPM 或 MABSFor information about MABS and DPM backup architecture, see Back up to DPM or MABS. 另请参阅备份体系结构的要求Also see requirements for the backup architecture.

安装Installation 详细信息Details
下载最新的 MARS 代理Download the latest MARS agent 可以从保管库下载最新版本的代理,或者直接下载它You can download the latest version of the agent from the vault, or download it directly.
直接在计算机上安装Install directly on a machine 可以直接在本地 Windows 服务器上安装 MARS 代理,或者在运行任意受支持操作系统的 Windows VM 上安装它。You can install the MARS agent directly on an on-premises Windows server or on a Windows VM that's running any of the supported operating systems.
在备份服务器上安装Install on a backup server 将 DPM 或 MABS 设置为备份到 Azure 时,可以在服务器上下载并安装 MARS 代理。When you set up DPM or MABS to back up to Azure, you download and install the MARS agent on the server. 可在备份服务器支持矩阵中的受支持操作系统上安装该代理。You can install the agent on supported operating systems in the backup server support matrix.

备注

默认情况下,启用了备份的 Azure VM 上安装了 Azure 备份扩展。By default, Azure VMs that are enabled for backup have an Azure Backup extension installation. 此扩展备份整个 VM。This extension backs up the entire VM. 若要备份特定的文件夹和文件而不是整个 VM,可以在 Azure VM 上同时安装并运行 MARS 代理和该扩展。You can install and run the MARS agent on an Azure VM alongside the extension if you want to back up specific folders and files, rather than the complete VM. 在 Azure VM 上运行 MARS 代理时,该代理会备份 VM 上的临时存储中的文件或文件夹。When you run the MARS agent on an Azure VM, it backs up files or folders that are in temporary storage on the VM. 如果从临时存储中删除了文件或文件夹,或者删除了临时存储,则备份将会失败。Backups fail if the files or folders are removed from the temporary storage or if the temporary storage is removed.

缓存文件夹支持Cache folder support

使用 MARS 代理备份数据时,该代理将创建数据的快照并将其存储在本地缓存文件夹中,然后将数据发送到 Azure。When you use the MARS agent to back up data, the agent takes a snapshot of the data and stores it in a local cache folder before it sends the data to Azure. 缓存(暂存)文件夹有几项要求:The cache (scratch) folder has several requirements:

缓存Cache 详细信息Details
大小Size 缓存文件夹中的可用空间应至少为备份数据总大小的 5% 到 10%。Free space in the cache folder should be at least 5 to 10 percent of the overall size of your backup data.
位置Location 缓存文件夹必须存储在要备份的计算机本地,并且该计算机必须联机。The cache folder must be locally stored on the machine that's being backed up, and it must be online. 缓存文件夹不应位于网络共享、可移动媒体或脱机卷上。The cache folder shouldn't be on a network share, on removable media, or on an offline volume.
文件夹Folder 不应在已删除重复数据的卷、已压缩文件夹、稀疏文件夹或具有重分析点的文件夹中加密缓存文件夹。The cache folder shouldn't be encrypted on a deduplicated volume or in a folder that's compressed, that's sparse, or that has a reparse point.
位置更改Location changes 可以通过停止备份引擎 (net stop bengine),并将缓存文件夹复制到新驱动器来更改缓存位置。You can change the cache location by stopping the backup engine (net stop bengine) and copying the cache folder to a new drive. (确保新驱动器有足够的空间。)然后,将 HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows Azure Backup 下的两个注册表项(Config/ScratchLocationConfig/CloudBackupProvider/ScratchLocation)更新为新位置,并重启引擎。(Ensure the new drive has sufficient space.) Then update two registry entries under HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows Azure Backup (Config/ScratchLocation and Config/CloudBackupProvider/ScratchLocation) to the new location and restart the engine.

网络和访问支持Networking and access support

URL 和 IP 访问URL and IP access

MARS 代理需要以下 URL 的访问权限:The MARS agent needs access to these URLs:

  • http://www.msftncsi.com/ncsi.txt
  • *.azure.cn*.azure.cn
  • *.WindowsAzure.cn*.WindowsAzure.cn
  • *.MicrosoftOnline.cn*.MicrosoftOnline.cn
  • *.chinacloudapi.cn*.chinacloudapi.cn

以及以下 IP 地址:And to these IP addresses:

  • 20.190.128.0/1820.190.128.0/18
  • 40.126.0.0/1840.126.0.0/18

对上面列出的所有 URL 和 IP 地址的访问都使用端口 443 上的 HTTPS 协议。Access to all of the URLs and IP addresses listed above uses the HTTPS protocol on port 443.

Azure ExpressRoute 支持Azure ExpressRoute support

可以使用公共对等互连(适用于旧线路)和 Microsoft 对等互连通过 Azure ExpressRoute 备份数据。You can back up your data over Azure ExpressRoute with public peering (available for old circuits) and Microsoft peering. 不支持通过专用对等互连进行备份。Backup over private peering isn't supported.

使用公共对等互连:确保访问以下域/地址:With public peering: Ensure access to the following domains/addresses:

  • http://www.msftncsi.com/ncsi.txt
  • microsoft.com
  • .WindowsAzure.com
  • .partner.microsoftonline.cn
  • .chinacloudapi.cn

使用 Microsoft 对等互连,选择以下服务/区域和相关社区值:With Microsoft peering, select the following services/regions and relevant community values:

  • Azure Active Directory (12076:5060)Azure Active Directory (12076:5060)
  • Azure 区域(取决于恢复服务保管库的位置)Azure Region (according to the location of your Recovery Services vault)
  • Azure 存储(根据恢复服务保管库的位置)Azure Storage (according to the location of your Recovery Services vault)

有关详细信息,请参阅 ExpressRoute 路由要求For more information, see the ExpressRoute routing requirements.

备注

对于新线路,公共对等互连已弃用。Public Peering is deprecated for new circuits.

专用终结点支持Private Endpoint support

现在可以使用专用终结点将数据从服务器安全地备份到恢复服务保管库。You can now use Private Endpoints to back up your data securely from servers to your Recovery Services vault. 由于 Azure Active Directory 目前不支持专用终结点,因此需要分别允许 Azure Active Directory 所需的 IP 和 FQDN 进行出站访问。Since Azure Active Directory doesn't currently support private endpoints, IPs and FQDNs required for Azure Active Directory will need to be allowed outbound access separately.

使用 MARS 代理备份本地资源时,请确保已将本地网络(包含要备份的资源)与包含保管库的专用终结点的 Azure VNet 对等互连。When you use the MARS Agent to back up your on-premises resources, make sure your on-premises network (containing your resources to be backed up) is peered with the Azure VNet that contains a private endpoint for the vault. 然后可以继续安装 MARS 代理并配置备份。You can then continue to install the MARS agent and configure backup. 但必须确保仅通过对等互连网络进行所有备份通信。However, you must ensure all communication for backup happens through the peered network only.

如果在某个 MARS 代理注册到保管库后删除了该保管库的专用终结点,则需要向该保管库重新注册容器。If you remove private endpoints for the vault after a MARS agent has been registered to it, you'll need to re-register the container with the vault. 不需要停止对它们的保护。You don't need to stop protection for them.

了解有关 Azure 备份的专用终结点的详细信息。Read more about private endpoints for Azure Backup.

限制支持Throttling support

功能Feature 详细信息Details
带宽控制Bandwidth control Supported. 在 MARS 代理中,使用“更改属性”来调整带宽。****In the MARS agent, use Change Properties to adjust bandwidth.
网络限制Network throttling 不适用于运行 Windows Server 2008 R2、Windows Server 2008 SP2 或 Windows 7 的备份计算机。Not available for backed-up machines that run Windows Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008 SP2, or Windows 7.

支持的操作系统Supported operating systems

备注

MARS 代理不支持 Windows Server Core SKU。The MARS agent does not support Windows Server Core SKUs.

可以使用 MARS 代理在以下运行的操作系统上直接备份到 Azure:You can use the MARS agent to back up directly to Azure on the operating systems listed below that run on:

  1. 本地 Windows 服务器On-premises Windows Servers
  2. 运行 Windows 的 Azure VMAzure VMs running Windows

所有操作系统必须是 64 位,并且应该运行最新的服务包和更新。The operating systems must be 64 bit and should be running the latest services packs and updates. 下表汇总了这些操作系统:The following table summarizes these operating systems:

操作系统Operating system 文件/文件夹Files/folders 系统状态System state 软件/模块要求Software/Module requirements
Windows 10(Enterprise、Pro、Home)Windows 10 (Enterprise, Pro, Home) Yes No 检查软件/模块要求的相应服务器版本Check the corresponding server version for software/module requirements
Windows 8.1(Enterprise、Pro)Windows 8.1 (Enterprise, Pro) Yes No 检查软件/模块要求的相应服务器版本Check the corresponding server version for software/module requirements
Windows 8(Enterprise、Pro)Windows 8 (Enterprise, Pro) Yes No 检查软件/模块要求的相应服务器版本Check the corresponding server version for software/module requirements
Windows Server 2016(Standard、Datacenter、Essentials)Windows Server 2016 (Standard, Datacenter, Essentials) Yes Yes - .NET 4.5- .NET 4.5
- Windows PowerShell- Windows PowerShell
- 最新兼容的 Microsoft VC++ 可再发行包- Latest Compatible Microsoft VC++ Redistributable
- Microsoft 管理控制台 (MMC) 3.0- Microsoft Management Console (MMC) 3.0
Windows Server 2012 R2(Standard、Datacenter、Foundation、Essentials)Windows Server 2012 R2 (Standard, Datacenter, Foundation, Essentials) Yes Yes - .NET 4.5- .NET 4.5
- Windows PowerShell- Windows PowerShell
- 最新兼容的 Microsoft VC++ 可再发行包- Latest Compatible Microsoft VC++ Redistributable
- Microsoft 管理控制台 (MMC) 3.0- Microsoft Management Console (MMC) 3.0
Windows Server 2012(Standard、Datacenter、Foundation)Windows Server 2012 (Standard, Datacenter, Foundation) Yes Yes - .NET 4.5- .NET 4.5
-Windows PowerShell-Windows PowerShell
- 最新兼容的 Microsoft VC++ 可再发行包- Latest Compatible Microsoft VC++ Redistributable
- Microsoft 管理控制台 (MMC) 3.0- Microsoft Management Console (MMC) 3.0
- 部署映像服务和管理 (DISM.exe)- Deployment Image Servicing and Management (DISM.exe)
Windows Storage Server 2016/2012 R2/2012(Standard、Workgroup)Windows Storage Server 2016/2012 R2/2012 (Standard, Workgroup) Yes No - .NET 4.5- .NET 4.5
- Windows PowerShell- Windows PowerShell
- 最新兼容的 Microsoft VC++ 可再发行包- Latest Compatible Microsoft VC++ Redistributable
- Microsoft 管理控制台 (MMC) 3.0- Microsoft Management Console (MMC) 3.0
Windows Server 2019(Standard、Datacenter、Essentials)Windows Server 2019 (Standard, Datacenter, Essentials) Yes Yes - .NET 4.5- .NET 4.5
- Windows PowerShell- Windows PowerShell
- 最新兼容的 Microsoft VC++ 可再发行包- Latest Compatible Microsoft VC++ Redistributable
- Microsoft 管理控制台 (MMC) 3.0- Microsoft Management Console (MMC) 3.0

有关详细信息,请参阅支持的 MABS 和 DPM 操作系统For more information, see Supported MABS and DPM operating systems.

结束支持的操作系统Operating Systems at end of support

以下操作系统已结束支持,强烈建议升级操作系统以继续受到保护。The following operating systems are at the end of support and it's strongly recommended to upgrade the operating system to continue to stay protected.

如果现有承诺阻止升级操作系统,请考虑将 Windows 服务器迁移到 Azure VM,并利用 Azure VM 备份继续受到保护。If existing commitments prevent upgrading the operating system, consider migrating the Windows servers to Azure VMs and leverage Azure VM backups to continue staying protected. 访问此处的迁移页面,以获取有关迁移 Windows 服务器的详细信息。Visit the migration page here for more information about migrating your Windows server.

对于无法升级操作系统或迁移到 Azure 的本地或托管环境,请激活计算机的扩展安全更新,以继续受到保护和支持。For on-premises or hosted environments, where you can't upgrade the operating system or migrate to Azure, activate Extended Security Updates for the machines to continue staying protected and supported. 请注意,仅特定版本才有资格获得扩展安全更新。Notice that only specific editions are eligible for Extended Security Updates. 访问常见问题解答页面以了解详细信息。Visit the FAQ page to learn more.

操作系统Operating system 文件/文件夹Files/folders 系统状态System state 软件/模块要求Software/Module requirements
Windows 7(Ultimate、Enterprise、Pro、Home Premium/Basic、Starter)Windows 7 (Ultimate, Enterprise, Pro, Home Premium/Basic, Starter) Yes No 检查软件/模块要求的相应服务器版本Check the corresponding server version for software/module requirements
Windows Server 2008 R2(Standard、Enterprise、Datacenter、Foundation)Windows Server 2008 R2 (Standard, Enterprise, Datacenter, Foundation) Yes Yes - .NET 3.5、.NET 4.5- .NET 3.5, .NET 4.5
- Windows PowerShell- Windows PowerShell
- 兼容的 Microsoft VC++ 可再发行包- Compatible Microsoft VC++ Redistributable
- Microsoft 管理控制台 (MMC) 3.0- Microsoft Management Console (MMC) 3.0
- 部署映像服务和管理 (DISM.exe)- Deployment Image Servicing and Management (DISM.exe)
Windows Server 2008 SP2(Standard、Datacenter、Foundation)Windows Server 2008 SP2 (Standard, Datacenter, Foundation) Yes No - .NET 3.5、.NET 4.5- .NET 3.5, .NET 4.5
- Windows PowerShell- Windows PowerShell
- 兼容的 Microsoft VC++ 可再发行包- Compatible Microsoft VC++ Redistributable
- Microsoft 管理控制台 (MMC) 3.0- Microsoft Management Console (MMC) 3.0
- 部署映像服务和管理 (DISM.exe)- Deployment Image Servicing and Management (DISM.exe)
- Virtual Server 2005 Base + KB KB948515- Virtual Server 2005 base + KB KB948515

备份限制Backup limits

大小限制Size limits

Azure 备份会限制可备份的文件或文件夹数据源大小。Azure Backup limits the size of a file or folder data source that can be backed up. 在单个卷中备份的项大小不能超过下表中汇总的大小:The items that you back up from a single volume can't exceed the sizes summarized in this table:

操作系统Operating system 大小限制Size limit
Windows Server 2012 或更高版本Windows Server 2012 or later 54,400 GB54,400 GB
Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 1,700 GB1,700 GB
Windows Server 2008 SP2Windows Server 2008 SP2 1,700 GB1,700 GB
Windows 8 或更高版本Windows 8 or later 54,400 GB54,400 GB
Windows 7Windows 7 1,700 GB1,700 GB

其他限制Other limitations

  • MARS 不支持在单个保管库中保护多台同名计算机。MARS doesn't support protection of multiple machines with the same name to a single vault.

支持备份的文件类型Supported file types for backup

类型Type 支持Support
已加密*Encrypted* Supported.
CompressedCompressed Supported.
稀疏Sparse Supported.
压缩和稀疏Compressed and sparse Supported.
硬链接Hard links 不支持。Not supported. 跳过。Skipped.
重分析点Reparse point 不支持。Not supported. 跳过。Skipped.
加密和稀疏Encrypted and sparse 不支持。Not supported. 跳过。Skipped.
压缩流Compressed stream 不支持。Not supported. 跳过。Skipped.
稀疏流Sparse stream 不支持。Not supported. 跳过。Skipped.
OneDrive(同步的文件是稀疏流)OneDrive (synced files are sparse streams) 不支持。Not supported.
已启用 DFS 复制的文件夹Folders with DFS Replication enabled 不支持。Not supported.

* 确保 MARS 代理有权访问所需的证书,以便访问加密的文件。* Ensure that the MARS agent has access to the required certificates to access the encrypted files. 无法访问的文件将被跳过。Inaccessible files will be skipped.

支持备份的驱动器或卷Supported drives or volumes for backup

驱动器/卷Drive/volume 支持Support 详细信息Details
只读卷Read-only volumes 不支持Not supported 卷必须可写才能正常使用卷影复制服务 (VSS)。Volume Copy Shadow Service (VSS) works only if the volume is writable.
脱机卷Offline volumes 不支持Not supported 卷必须联机才能正常使用 VSS。VSS works only if the volume is online.
网络共享Network share 不支持Not supported 卷必须位于服务器本地。The volume must be local on the server.
BitLocker 锁定卷BitLocker-locked volumes 不支持Not supported 必须先解锁卷才能开始备份。The volume must be unlocked before the backup starts.
文件系统标识File system identification 不支持Not supported 仅支持 NTFS。Only NTFS is supported.
可移动媒体Removable media 不支持Not supported 所有备份项源必须处于固定状态。**All backup item sources must have a fixed status.
已删除重复数据的驱动器Deduplicated drives 支持Supported Azure 备份将删除了重复项的数据转换为正常数据。Azure Backup converts deduplicated data to normal data. 它可以优化、加密、存储数据并将其发送到保管库。It optimizes, encrypts, stores, and sends the data to the vault.

初始脱机备份支持Support for initial offline backup

Azure 备份支持“脱机种子设定”,以使用磁盘将初始备份数据传输到 Azure。**Azure Backup supports offline seeding to transfer initial backup data to Azure by using disks. 如果初始备份的大小可能会达到 TB 量级,则此项支持很有帮助。This support is helpful if your initial backup is likely to be in the size range of terabytes (TBs). 支持以下脱机备份:Offline backup is supported for:

  • 直接备份运行 MARS 代理的本地计算机上的文件和文件夹。Direct backup of files and folders on on-premises machines that are running the MARS agent.
  • 备份 DPM 服务器或 MABS 中的工作负荷和文件。Backup of workloads and files from a DPM server or MABS.

脱机备份不可用于系统状态文件。Offline backup can't be used for system state files.

数据还原支持Support for data restoration

使用 Azure 备份的即时还原功能可以先还原数据,然后再将数据复制到保管库。By using the Instant Restore feature of Azure Backup, you can restore data before it's copied to the vault. 要备份的计算机必须运行 .NET Framework 4.5.2 或更高版本。The machine you're backing up must be running .NET Framework 4.5.2 or higher.

无法将备份还原到运行较低 操作系统版本的目标计算机。Backups can't be restored to a target machine that's running an earlier version of the operating system. 例如,在 Windows 8 或更高版本上,可以还原在 Windows 7 计算机中创建的备份。For example, a backup taken from a computer that's running Windows 7 can be restored on Windows 8 or later. 但是,在 Windows 8 计算机中创建的备份无法还原到 Windows 7 计算机。But a backup taken from a computer that's running Windows 8 can't be restored on a computer that's running Windows 7.

后续步骤Next steps