ExpressRoute 线路预配工作流和线路状态ExpressRoute workflows for circuit provisioning and circuit states

本文从较高层面引导完成服务预配和路由配置工作流。This article walks you through service provisioning and routing configuration workflows at a high level. 以下部分概述了用于端到端预配 ExpressRoute 线路的任务。The following sections outline the tasks to provision an ExpressRoute circuit end-to-end.

工作流步骤Workflow steps

1.先决条件1. Prerequisites

确保满足先决条件。Ensure that the prerequisites are met. 有关完整列表,请参阅先决条件和清单For a full list, see Prerequisites and checklist.

  • Azure 订阅已创建。An Azure subscription has been created.
  • 已与 ExpressRoute 合作伙伴建立了物理连接,或通过ExpressRoute Direct 配置了物理连接。Physical connectivity has been established with the ExpressRoute partner or configured via ExpressRoute Direct. 查看位置,请参阅位置和合作伙伴,以查看跨对等互连位置的 ExpressRoute 合作伙伴和 ExpressRoute Direct 连接。Review location, see Locations and partners to view ExpressRoute partner and ExpressRoute Direct connectivity across peering locations.

2.订购连接或配置 ExpressRoute Direct2. Order connectivity or configure ExpressRoute Direct

从服务提供商订购连接或配置 ExpressRoute Direct 连接。Order connectivity from the service provider or configure ExpressRoute Direct.

ExpressRoute 合作伙伴模型ExpressRoute partner model

从服务提供商订购连接。Order connectivity from the service provider. 此过程根据情况而有所不同。This process varies. 有关如何订购连接的详细信息,请联系连接服务提供商。Contact your connectivity provider for more details about how to order connectivity.

  • 选择 ExpressRoute 合作伙伴Select the ExpressRoute partner
  • 选择对等互连位置Select the peering location
  • 选择带宽Select the bandwidth
  • 选择计费模型Select the billing model
  • 选择标准或高级外接程序Select standard or premium add-on

ExpressRoute Direct 模型ExpressRoute Direct model

  • 跨对等互连位置查看可用的 ExpressRoute Direct 容量。View available ExpressRoute Direct capacity across peering locations.
  • 通过在 Azure 订阅中创建 ExpressRoute Direct 资源来保留端口。Reserve ports by creating the ExpressRoute Direct resource in your Azure subscription.
  • 请求并接收授权书,并从对等互连位置提供商处订购物理交叉连接。Request and receive the Letter of Authorization and order the physical cross connections from the peering location provider.
  • 使用 Azure Monitor 启用管理员状态并查看轻型级别和物理链接。Enable admin state and view light levels and physical link using Azure Monitor.

3.创建 ExpressRoute 线路3. Create an ExpressRoute circuit

ExpressRoute 合作伙伴模型ExpressRoute partner model

验证 ExpressRoute 合作伙伴是否已准备好预配连接。Verify that the ExpressRoute partner is ready to provision connectivity. 从发布服务密钥的那一刻起,将对 ExpressRoute 线路进行计费。Your ExpressRoute circuit is billed from the moment a service key is issued. 使用创建 ExpressRoute 线路中的说明来创建线路。Use the instructions in Create an ExpressRoute circuit to create your circuit.

ExpressRoute Direct 模型ExpressRoute Direct model

确保跨两个链接启用了物理链接和管理状态。Ensure that the physical link and admin state are enabled across both links. 有关指导,请参阅如何配置 ExpressRoute DirectRefer to How to configure ExpressRoute Direct for guidance. 从发布服务密钥的那一刻起,将对 ExpressRoute 线路进行计费。Your ExpressRoute circuit is billed from the moment a service key is issued. 使用创建 ExpressRoute 线路中的说明来创建线路。Use the instructions in Create an ExpressRoute circuit to create your circuit.

4.服务提供商预配连接4. Service provider provisions connectivity

本部分仅适用于 ExpressRoute 合作伙伴连接模型:This section only pertains to the ExpressRoute partner connectivity model:

  • 向连接服务提供商提供服务密钥 (s-key)。Provide the service key (s-key) to the connectivity provider.
  • 提供连接服务提供商所需的其他信息(例如 VPN ID)。Provide additional information needed by the connectivity provider (for example, VPN ID).
  • 如果由提供商管理路由配置,请提供必要的详细信息。If the provider manages the routing configuration, provide the necessary details.

使用 PowerShell、Azure 门户或 CLI 验证 ExpressRoute 线路预配状态,可确保线路预配成功。You can ensure that the circuit has been provisioned successfully by verifying the ExpressRoute circuit provisioning state using PowerShell, the Azure portal or, CLI.

5.配置路由域5. Configure routing domains

配置路由域Configure routing domains. 如果连接服务提供商管理第 3 层配置,他们将为你的线路配置路由。If your connectivity provider manages Layer 3 configuration, they will configure routing for your circuit. 如果连接服务提供商只提供第 2 层服务或使用 ExpressRoute Direct,必须根据路由要求路由配置文章中所述的每条指导原则来配置路由。If your connectivity provider only offers Layer 2 services or if you are using ExpressRoute Direct, you must configure routing per the guidelines described in the Routing requirements and Routing configuration articles.

对于 Azure 专用对等互连For Azure private peering

启用专用对等互连以连接到部署在 Azure 虚拟网络中的 VM 和云服务。Enable private peering to connect to VMs and cloud services deployed within the Azure virtual network.

  • 路径 1(共 30 条)的对等互连子网Peering subnet for path 1 (/30)
  • 路径 2(共 30 条)的对等互连子网Peering subnet for path 2 (/30)
  • 对等互连的 VLAN IDVLAN ID for peering
  • 对等互连的 ASNASN for peering
  • ExpressRoute ASN = 12076ExpressRoute ASN = 12076
  • MD5 哈希(可选)MD5 Hash (Optional)

对于 Microsoft 对等互连For Microsoft peering

启用此对等互连以访问 Office 365 等 Microsoft 联机服务。Enable this to access Microsoft online services, such as Office 365. 此外,所有的 Azure PaaS 服务也可通过 Microsoft 对等互连访问。Additionally, all Azure PaaS services are accessible through Microsoft peering. 必须确保使用独立的代理/边缘,而不是用于 Internet 的代理/边缘来连接 Microsoft。You must ensure that you use a separate proxy/edge to connect to Microsoft than the one you use for the Internet. 对 ExpressRoute 和 Internet 使用相同的边缘会导致路由不对称,并造成网络连接中断。Using the same edge for both ExpressRoute and the Internet will cause asymmetric routing and cause connectivity outages for your network.

  • 路径 1(共 30 条)的对等互连子网 - 必须是公共 IPPeering subnet for path 1 (/30) - must be public IP
  • 路径 2(共 30 条)的对等互连子网 - 必须是公共 IPPeering subnet for path 2 (/30) - must be public IP
  • 对等互连的 VLAN IDVLAN ID for peering
  • 对等互连的 ASNASN for peering
  • 播发的前缀 - 必须是公共 IP 前缀Advertised prefixes - must be public IP prefixes
  • 客户 ASN(如果与对等互连 ASN 不同,可省略)Customer ASN (optional if different from peering ASN)
  • 用于 IP 和 ASN 验证的 RIR / IRRRIR / IRR for IP and ASN validation
  • ExpressRoute ASN = 12076ExpressRoute ASN = 12076
  • MD5 哈希(可选)MD5 Hash (Optional)

6.开始使用 ExpressRoute 线路6. Start using the ExpressRoute circuit

  • 可以将 Azure 虚拟网络链接到 ExpressRoute 线路,以允许从本地连接到 Azure 虚拟网络。You can link Azure virtual networks to your ExpressRoute circuit to enable connectivity from on-premises to the Azure virtual network. 请参阅将 VNet 链接到线路一文以获取指导。Refer to the Link a VNet to a circuit article for guidance. 这些 VNet 可以位于 ExpressRoute 线路所在的同一 Azure 订阅中,也可以位于不同的订阅中。These VNets can either be in the same Azure subscription as the ExpressRoute circuit, or can be in a different subscription.
  • 通过 Microsoft 对等互连连接到 Azure 服务和 Microsoft 云服务。Connect to Azure services and Microsoft cloud services through Microsoft peering.

ExpressRoute 合作伙伴线路预配状态ExpressRoute partner circuit provisioning states

以下部分概述了 ExpressRoute 线路状态与 ExpressRoute 合作伙伴连接模型的不同之处。The following section outlines the different ExpressRoute circuit states for the ExpressRoute partner connectivity model. 每条 ExpressRoute 合作伙伴线路有两种状态:Each ExpressRoute partner circuit has two states:

  • ServiceProviderProvisioningState 表示连接服务提供商一端的状态。ServiceProviderProvisioningState represents the state on the connectivity provider's side. 该状态可能是 NotProvisioned 、Provisioning 或 Provisioned 。It can either be NotProvisioned, Provisioning, or Provisioned. ExpressRoute 线路必须处于 Provisioned 状态,才能配置对等互连。The ExpressRoute circuit must be in a Provisioned state in order to configure peering. 此状态仅适用于 ExpressRoute 合作伙伴线路,而不会显示在 ExpressRoute Direct 线路的属性中。This state only pertains to ExpressRoute partner circuits and is not displayed in the properties of an ExpressRoute Direct circuit.

  • “状态”表示 Microsoft 的预配状态。Status represents Microsoft's provisioning state. 创建 ExpressRoute 线路时,此属性设置为 EnabledThis property is set to Enabled when you create an ExpressRoute circuit

ExpressRoute 线路的可能状态Possible states of an ExpressRoute circuit

本部分概述了 ExpressRoute 合作伙伴连接模型下创建的 ExpressRoute 线路的可能状态。This section outlines the possible states of an ExpressRoute circuit created under the ExpressRoute partner connectivity model.

创建时At creation time

ExpressRoute 线路会在资源创建时报告以下状态。The ExpressRoute circuit will report the following states at resource creation.

ServiceProviderProvisioningState : NotProvisioned
Status                           : Enabled

连接服务提供商正在预配线路时When the connectivity provider is in the process of provisioning the circuit

连接服务提供商预配线路时,ExpressRoute 线路将报告以下状态。The ExpressRoute circuit will report the following states while the connectivity provider is working to provision the circuit.

ServiceProviderProvisioningState : Provisioning
Status                           : Enabled

连接服务提供商已完成预配过程时When the connectivity provider has completed the provisioning process

连接服务提供商成功预配线路后,ExpressRoute 线路将报告以下状态。The ExpressRoute circuit will report the following states once the connectivity provider has successfully provisioned the circuit.

ServiceProviderProvisioningState : Provisioned
Status                           : Enabled

连接服务提供商正在取消预配线路时When the connectivity provider is deprovisioning the circuit

如果需要取消预配 ExpressRoute 线路,在服务提供商完成取消预配过程后,线路将报告以下状态。If the ExpressRoute circuit needs to be deprovisioned, the circuit will report the following states once the service provider has completed the deprovisioning process.

ServiceProviderProvisioningState : NotProvisioned
Status                           : Enabled

如果需要,可以选择重新启用线路,或运行 PowerShell cmdlet 删除线路。You can choose to re-enable it if needed, or run PowerShell cmdlets to delete the circuit.


ServiceProviderProvisioningState 为 Provisioning 或 Provisioned 时,无法删除线路。A circuit cannot be deleted when the ServiceProviderProvisioningState is Provisioning or Provisioned. 连接服务提供商需要取消预配线路,然后才能将其删除。The connectivity provider needs to deprovision the circuit before it can be deleted. 在 Azure 中删除 ExpressRoute 线路资源之前,Microsoft 将继续对线路进行计费。Microsoft will continue to bill the circuit until the ExpressRoute circuit resource is deleted in Azure.

路由会话配置状态Routing session configuration state

BGP 预配状态会报告是否已在 Microsoft Edge 上启用 BGP 会话。The BGP provisioning state reports if the BGP session has been enabled on the Microsoft edge. 必须启用该状态才能使用专用对等互连或 Microsoft 对等互连。The state must be enabled to use private or Microsoft peering.

必须特意检查 Microsoft 对等互连的 BGP 会话状态。It is important to check the BGP session state especially for Microsoft peering. 除了 BGP 预配状态,还有另一个状态称为 播发的公共前缀状态In addition to the BGP provisioning state, there is another state called advertised public prefixes state. 播发的公共前缀状态必须是“已配置”状态,BGP 会话才能启动,才能进行端到端的路由。The advertised public prefixes state must be in the configured state, both for the BGP session to be up and for your routing to work end-to-end.

如果播发的公共前缀状态设置为需要验证状态,则不会启用 BGP 会话,因为播发的前缀不符合任何路由注册表中的 AS 编号。If the advertised public prefix state is set to a validation needed state, the BGP session is not enabled, as the advertised prefixes did not match the AS number in any of the routing registries.


如果播发的公共前缀状态是“手动验证”状态,则需要向 Microsoft 支持开具支持票证,并提供拥有播发 IP 地址的证明以及相关的自治系统编号。If the advertised public prefixes state is in manual validation state, you need to open a support ticket with Microsoft support and provide evidence that you own the IP addresses advertised along with the associated Autonomous System number.

后续步骤Next steps