Azure 负载均衡器的 IPv6 概述Overview of IPv6 for Azure Load Balancer

备注

此内容已由适用于 Azure VNet 的 IPv6 概述取代。This content has been superseded by IPv6 for Azure VNet Overview. Azure 建议新的 IPv6 部署使用适用于 Azure 虚拟网络的新 IPv6 功能。Azure recommends new IPv6 deployments use the new IPv6 for Azure Virtual Networks features.

备注

Azure 负载均衡器支持两种不同的类型:“基本”和“标准”。Azure Load Balancer supports two different types: Basic and Standard. 本文介绍基本负载均衡器。This article discusses Basic Load Balancer. 有关标准负载均衡器的详细信息,请参阅标准负载均衡器概述For more information about Standard Load Balancer, see Standard Load Balancer overview.

面向 Internet 的基本 SKU 负载均衡器可以使用 IPv6 地址进行部署。Basic SKU Internet-facing load balancers can be deployed with an IPv6 address. 除了 IPv4 连接以外,这还可以实现以下功能:In addition to IPv4 connectivity, this enables the following capabilities:

  • 通过负载均衡器在公共 Internet 客户端与 Azure 虚拟机 (VM) 之间建立本机端到端 IPv6 连接。Native end-to-end IPv6 connectivity between public Internet clients and Azure Virtual Machines (VMs) through the load balancer.
  • 在 VM 与公共 Internet 上已启用 IPv6 的客户端之间建立本机端到端 IPv6 输出连接。Native end-to-end IPv6 outbound connectivity between VMs and public Internet IPv6-enabled clients.

下图演示了 Azure 负载均衡器的 IPv6 功能。The following picture illustrates the IPv6 functionality for Azure Load Balancer.

使用 IPv6 的 Azure 负载均衡器

部署后,已启用 IPv4 或 IPv6 的 Internet 客户端可与面向 Internet 的 Azure 负载均衡器公共 IPv4 或 IPv6 地址(或主机名)通信。Once deployed, an IPv4 or IPv6-enabled Internet client can communicate with the public IPv4 or IPv6 addresses (or hostnames) of the Azure Internet-facing Load Balancer. 负载均衡器使用网络地址转换 (NAT) 将 IPv6 数据包路由到 VM 的专用 IPv6 地址。The load balancer routes the IPv6 packets to the private IPv6 addresses of the VMs using network address translation (NAT). IPv6 Internet 客户端无法与 VM 的 IPv6 地址直接通信。The IPv6 Internet client cannot communicate directly with the IPv6 address of the VMs.

功能Features

通过 Azure Resource Manager 部署的本机 IPv6 支持提供以下功能:Native IPv6 support for VMs deployed via Azure Resource Manager provides:

  1. 为 Internet 上的 IPv6 客户端提供负载均衡的 IPv6 服务Load-balanced IPv6 services for IPv6 clients on the Internet
  2. 在 VM上提供本机 IPv6 和 IPv4 终结点(“双堆栈”)Native IPv6 and IPv4 endpoints on VMs ("dual stacked")
  3. 提供入站和出站流量发起的本机 IPv6 连接Inbound and outbound-initiated native IPv6 connections
  4. 支持的协议(如 TCP、UDP 和 HTTP(S))可以启用各种服务体系结构Supported protocols such as TCP, UDP, and HTTP(S) enable a full range of service architectures

优点Benefits

此功能具有以下主要优点:This functionality enables the following key benefits:

  • 要求新应用程序只能由使用 IPv6 的客户端访问,符合政府法规Meet government regulations requiring that new applications be accessible to IPv6-only clients
  • 可让移动和物联网 (IOT) 开发人员使用双堆栈 (IPv4+IPv6) Azure 虚拟机解决不断发展的移动和 IOT 市场需求Enable mobile and Internet of things (IOT) developers to use dual-stacked (IPv4+IPv6) Azure Virtual Machines to address the growing mobile & IOT markets

详细信息和限制Details and limitations

详细信息Details

  • Azure DNS 服务包含 IPv4 A 和 IPv6 AAAA 名称记录,可对负载均衡器的两种记录做出响应。The Azure DNS service contains both IPv4 A and IPv6 AAAA name records and responds with both records for the load balancer. 客户端选择要与哪个地址(IPv4 或 IPv6)通信。The client chooses which address (IPv4 or IPv6) to communicate with.
  • 当 VM 与已连接到公共 Internet IPv6 的设备发起连接时,VM 的源 IPv6 地址是经网络地址转换 (NAT) 后的负载均衡器公共 IPv6 地址。When a VM initiates a connection to a public Internet IPv6-connected device, the VM's source IPv6 address is network address translated (NAT) to the public IPv6 address of the load balancer.
  • 运行 Linux 操作系统的 VM 必须配置为通过 DHCP 接收 IPv6 IP 地址。VMs running the Linux operating system must be configured to receive an IPv6 IP address via DHCP. Azure 库中的许多 Linux 映像已配置为支持 IPv6,不需要修改。Many of the Linux images in the Azure Gallery are already configured to support IPv6 without modification. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Configuring DHCPv6 for Linux VMsFor more information, see Configuring DHCPv6 for Linux VMs
  • 如果选择在负载均衡器中使用运行状况探测,请创建 IPv4 探测,并将它同时用于 IPv4 和 IPv6 终结点。If you choose to use a health probe with your load balancer, create an IPv4 probe and use it with both the IPv4 and IPv6 endpoints. 如果 VM 上的服务中断,IPv4 和 IPv6 终结点将脱离轮换。If the service on your VM goes down, both the IPv4 and IPv6 endpoints are taken out of rotation.

限制Limitations

  • 无法在 Azure 门户中添加 IPv6 负载均衡规则。You cannot add IPv6 load balancing rules in the Azure portal. 只能通过模板、CLI 或 PowerShell 创建规则。The rules can only be created through the template, CLI, PowerShell.
  • 无法将现有 VM 升级为使用 IPv6 地址。You may not upgrade existing VMs to use IPv6 addresses. 为此必须部署新 VM。You must deploy new VMs.
  • 可将单个 IPv6 地址分配给每个 VM 中的单个网络接口。A single IPv6 address can be assigned to a single network interface in each VM.
  • 无法将公共 IPv6 地址分配给 VM,The public IPv6 addresses cannot be assigned to a VM. 只能分配给负载均衡器。They can only be assigned to a load balancer.
  • 无法为公共 IPv6 地址配置反向 DNS 查找。You cannot configure the reverse DNS lookup for your public IPv6 addresses.
  • 使用 IPv6 地址的 VM 不能是 Azure 云服务的成员。The VMs with the IPv6 addresses cannot be members of an Azure Cloud Service. 这些 VM 不能连接到 Azure 虚拟网络 (VNet),也不能通过其 IPv4 地址相互通信。They can be connected to an Azure Virtual Network (VNet) and communicate with each other over their IPv4 addresses.
  • 可将专用 IPv6 地址部署到资源组中的单个 VM,但无法通过规模集部署到资源组。Private IPv6 addresses can be deployed on individual VMs in a resource group but cannot be deployed into a resource group via Scale Sets.
  • Azure VM 无法通过 IPv6 连接到其他 VM、其他 Azure 服务或本地设备,Azure VMs cannot connect over IPv6 to other VMs, other Azure services, or on-premises devices. 只能通过 IPv6 来与 Azure 负载均衡器通信。They can only communicate with the Azure load balancer over IPv6. 但是,它们可以使用 IPv4 来与其他这些资源通信。However, they can communicate with these other resources using IPv4.
  • 双堆栈 (IPv4+IPv6) 部署支持 IPv4 的网络安全组 (NSG) 保护。Network Security Group (NSG) protection for IPv4 is supported in dual-stack (IPv4+IPv6) deployments. NSG 不适用于 IPv6 终结点。NSGs do not apply to the IPv6 endpoints.
  • VM 上的 IPv6 终结点不会直接在 Internet 上公开,The IPv6 endpoint on the VM is not exposed directly to the internet. 而是位于负载均衡器的后面。It is behind a load balancer. 通过 IPv6 只能访问负载均衡器规则中指定的端口。Only the ports specified in the load balancer rules are accessible over IPv6.
  • 当前不支持更改 IPv6 的 IdleTimeout 参数。Changing the IdleTimeout parameter for IPv6 is currently not supported. 该参数默认为 4 分钟。The default is four minutes.
  • 当前不支持更改 IPv6 的 loadDistributionMethod 参数。Changing the loadDistributionMethod parameter for IPv6 is currently not supported.
  • 当前不支持保留 IPv6 IP(其中 IPAllocationMethod = static)。Reserved IPv6 IPs (where IPAllocationMethod = static) are currently not supported.
  • 不支持 NAT64(将 IPv6 转换为 IPv4)。NAT64 (translation of IPv6 to IPv4) is not supported.
  • 当前不支持将引用 IPv6 子网的辅助 NIC 附加到后端池 。Attaching a secondary NIC that refers to an IPv6 subnet to a back-end pool is currently not supported.

后续步骤Next steps

了解如何部署使用 IPv6 的负载均衡器。Learn how to deploy a load balancer with IPv6.