快速入门:使用 Azure PowerShell 创建服务总线队列Quickstart: Use Azure PowerShell to create a Service Bus queue

本快速入门介绍如何使用 PowerShell 创建消息命名空间并在该命名空间中创建队列,以及如何获取该命名空间上的授权凭据,以便将消息发送到服务总线队列及从中接收消息。This quickstart describes how to send and receive messages to and from a Service Bus queue, using PowerShell to create a messaging namespace and a queue within that namespace, and to obtain the authorization credentials on that namespace. 然后该过程展示了如何使用 .NET Standard 库从此队列发送和接收消息。The procedure then shows how to send and receive messages from this queue using the .NET Standard library.

备注

本文进行了更新,以便使用新的 Azure PowerShell Az 模块。This article has been updated to use the new Azure PowerShell Az module. 你仍然可以使用 AzureRM 模块,至少在 2020 年 12 月之前,它将继续接收 bug 修补程序。You can still use the AzureRM module, which will continue to receive bug fixes until at least December 2020. 若要详细了解新的 Az 模块和 AzureRM 兼容性,请参阅新 Azure Powershell Az 模块简介To learn more about the new Az module and AzureRM compatibility, see Introducing the new Azure PowerShell Az module. 有关 Az 模块安装说明,请参阅安装 Azure PowerShellFor Az module installation instructions, see Install Azure PowerShell.

什么是 Service Bus 队列?What are Service Bus queues?

服务总线队列支持中转消息传送通信模型。Service Bus queues support a brokered messaging communication model. 在使用队列时,分布式应用程序的组件不会直接相互通信,而是通过充当中介(代理)的队列交换消息。When using queues, components of a distributed application do not communicate directly with each other; instead they exchange messages via a queue, which acts as an intermediary (broker). 消息创建方(发送方)将消息传送到队列,并继续对其进行处理。A message producer (sender) hands off a message to the queue and then continues its processing. 消息使用方(接收方)以异步方式从队列中提取消息并对其进行处理。Asynchronously, a message consumer (receiver) pulls the message from the queue and processes it. 创建方不必等待使用方的答复即可继续处理并发送更多消息。The producer does not have to wait for a reply from the consumer in order to continue to process and send further messages. 队列为一个或多个竞争使用方提供先入先出 (FIFO) 消息传递方式。Queues offer First In, First Out (FIFO) message delivery to one or more competing consumers. 也就是说,接收方通常会按照消息添加到队列中的顺序来接收并处理消息,并且每条消息仅由一个消息使用方接收并处理。That is, messages are typically received and processed by the receivers in the order in which they were added to the queue, and each message is received and processed by only one message consumer.

QueueConcepts

服务总线队列是一种可用于各种应用场景的通用技术:Service Bus queues are a general-purpose technology that can be used for a wide variety of scenarios:

  • 多层 Azure 应用程序中 Web 角色和辅助角色之间的通信。Communication between web and worker roles in a multi-tier Azure application.
  • 混合解决方案中本地应用程序和 Azure 托管应用程序之间的通信。Communication between on-premises apps and Azure-hosted apps in a hybrid solution.
  • 在不同组织或组织的各部门中本地运行的分布式应用程序组件之间的通信。Communication between components of a distributed application running on-premises in different organizations or departments of an organization.

利用队列,可以更轻松地缩放应用程序,并增强体系结构的弹性。Using queues enables you to scale your applications more easily, and enable more resiliency to your architecture.

先决条件Prerequisites

若要完成本教程,请确保已安装:To complete this tutorial, make sure you have installed:

本快速入门要求运行最新版本的 Azure PowerShell。This quickstart requires that you are running the latest version of Azure PowerShell. 如需进行安装或升级,请参阅安装和配置 Azure PowerShellIf you need to install or upgrade, see Install and Configure Azure PowerShell.

登录 AzureSign in to Azure

  1. 首先,如果尚未安装服务总线 PowerShell 模块,请安装:First, install the Service Bus PowerShell module, if you haven't already:

    Install-Module Az.ServiceBus
    
  2. 运行以下命令来登录到 Azure:Run the following command to sign in to Azure:

    Connect-AzAccount -Environment AzureChinaCloud
    
  3. 发出以下命令来设置当前的订阅上下文,或者查看当前活动的订阅:Issue the following commands to set the current subscription context, or to see the currently active subscription:

    Select-AzSubscription -SubscriptionName "MyAzureSubName" 
    Get-AzContext
    

预配资源Provision resources

在 PowerShell 提示符下,发出以下命令以预配服务总线资源。From the PowerShell prompt, issue the following commands to provision Service Bus resources. 请务必将所有占位符替换为适当的值:Be sure to replace all placeholders with the appropriate values:

# Create a resource group 
New-AzResourceGroup -Name my-resourcegroup -Location chinaeast

# Create a Messaging namespace
New-AzServiceBusNamespace -ResourceGroupName my-resourcegroup -NamespaceName namespace-name -Location chinaeast

# Create a queue 
New-AzServiceBusQueue -ResourceGroupName my-resourcegroup -NamespaceName namespace-name -Name queue-name -EnablePartitioning $False

# Get primary connection string (required in next step)
Get-AzServiceBusKey -ResourceGroupName my-resourcegroup -Namespace namespace-name -Name RootManageSharedAccessKey

Get-AzServiceBusKey cmdlet 运行后,将所选的连接字符串和队列名称复制并粘贴到记事本等临时位置。After the Get-AzServiceBusKey cmdlet runs, copy and paste the connection string and the queue name you selected, to a temporary location such as Notepad. 在下一步中将要使用它。You will need it in the next step.

发送和接收消息Send and receive messages

创建命名空间和队列并且拥有所需的凭据后,便可以发送和接收消息。After the namespace and queue are created, and you have the necessary credentials, you are ready to send and receive messages. 可以在此 GitHub 示例文件夹中检查代码。You can examine the code in this GitHub sample folder.

若要运行此代码,请执行以下操作:To run the code, do the following:

  1. 通过发出以下命令克隆服务总线 GitHub 存储库Clone the Service Bus GitHub repository by issuing the following command:

    git clone https://github.com/Azure/azure-service-bus.git
    
  2. 导航到示例文件夹 azure-service-bus\samples\DotNet\GettingStarted\BasicSendReceiveQuickStart\BasicSendReceiveQuickStartNavigate to the sample folder azure-service-bus\samples\DotNet\GettingStarted\BasicSendReceiveQuickStart\BasicSendReceiveQuickStart.

  3. 如果尚未这样做,请使用以下 PowerShell cmdlet 获取连接字符串。If you have not done so already, obtain the connection string using the following PowerShell cmdlet. 请务必将 my-resourcegroupnamespace-name 替换为具体值:Be sure to replace my-resourcegroup and namespace-name with your specific values:

    Get-AzServiceBusKey -ResourceGroupName my-resourcegroup -Namespace namespace-name -Name RootManageSharedAccessKey
    
  4. 在 PowerShell 提示符下,键入以下命令:At the PowerShell prompt, type the following command:

    dotnet build
    
  5. 导航到 bin\Debug\netcoreapp2.0 文件夹。Navigate to the bin\Debug\netcoreapp2.0 folder.

  6. 键入以下命令以运行程序。Type the following command to run the program. 请务必将 myConnectionString 替换为先前获取的值,将 myQueueName 替换为所创建队列的名称:Be sure to replace myConnectionString with the value you previously obtained, and myQueueName with the name of the queue you created:

    dotnet BasicSendReceiveQuickStart.dll -ConnectionString "myConnectionString" -QueueName "myQueueName"
    
  7. 观察发送到队列并随后从队列中接收的 10 条消息:Observe 10 messages being sent to the queue, and subsequently received from the queue:

    程序输出

清理资源Clean up resources

运行以下命令来删除资源组、命名空间和所有相关资源:Run the following command to remove the resource group, namespace, and all related resources:

Remove-AzResourceGroup -Name my-resourcegroup

了解示例代码Understand the sample code

此部分包含有关示例代码功能的更多详细信息。This section contains more details about what the sample code does.

获取连接字符串和队列Get connection string and queue

连接字符串和队列名称作为命令行参数传递给 Main() 方法。The connection string and queue name are passed to the Main() method as command-line arguments. Main() 声明了两个字符串变量来保存这些值:Main() declares two string variables to hold these values:

static void Main(string[] args)
{
    string ServiceBusConnectionString = "";
    string QueueName = "";

    for (int i = 0; i < args.Length; i++)
    {
        var p = new Program();
        if (args[i] == "-ConnectionString")
        {
            Console.WriteLine($"ConnectionString: {args[i+1]}");
            ServiceBusConnectionString = args[i + 1]; 
        }
        else if(args[i] == "-QueueName")
        {
            Console.WriteLine($"QueueName: {args[i+1]}");
            QueueName = args[i + 1];
        }                
    }

    if (ServiceBusConnectionString != "" && QueueName != "")
        MainAsync(ServiceBusConnectionString, QueueName).GetAwaiter().GetResult();
    else
    {
        Console.WriteLine("Specify -Connectionstring and -QueueName to execute the example.");
        Console.ReadKey();
    }                            
}

然后,Main() 方法启动异步消息循环 MainAsync()The Main() method then starts the asynchronous message loop, MainAsync().

消息循环Message loop

MainAsync() 方法使用命令行参数创建队列客户端、调用名为 RegisterOnMessageHandlerAndReceiveMessages() 的接收消息处理程序,并发送消息集:The MainAsync() method creates a queue client with the command-line arguments, calls a receiving message handler named RegisterOnMessageHandlerAndReceiveMessages(), and sends the set of messages:

static async Task MainAsync(string ServiceBusConnectionString, string QueueName)
{
    const int numberOfMessages = 10;
    queueClient = new QueueClient(ServiceBusConnectionString, QueueName);

    Console.WriteLine("======================================================");
    Console.WriteLine("Press any key to exit after receiving all the messages.");
    Console.WriteLine("======================================================");

    // Register QueueClient's MessageHandler and receive messages in a loop
    RegisterOnMessageHandlerAndReceiveMessages();

    // Send Messages
    await SendMessagesAsync(numberOfMessages);

    Console.ReadKey();

    await queueClient.CloseAsync();
}

RegisterOnMessageHandlerAndReceiveMessages() 方法只是设置一些消息处理程序选项,然后调用队列客户端的 RegisterMessageHandler() 方法,该方法开始接收消息:The RegisterOnMessageHandlerAndReceiveMessages() method simply sets a few message handler options, then calls the queue client's RegisterMessageHandler() method, which starts the receiving:

static void RegisterOnMessageHandlerAndReceiveMessages()
{
    // Configure the MessageHandler Options in terms of exception handling, number of concurrent messages to deliver etc.
    var messageHandlerOptions = new MessageHandlerOptions(ExceptionReceivedHandler)
    {
        // Maximum number of Concurrent calls to the callback `ProcessMessagesAsync`, set to 1 for simplicity.
        // Set it according to how many messages the application wants to process in parallel.
        MaxConcurrentCalls = 1,

        // Indicates whether MessagePump should automatically complete the messages after returning from User Callback.
        // False below indicates the Complete will be handled by the User Callback as in `ProcessMessagesAsync` below.
        AutoComplete = false
    };

    // Register the function that will process messages
    queueClient.RegisterMessageHandler(ProcessMessagesAsync, messageHandlerOptions);
} 

发送消息Send messages

消息创建和发送操作发生在 SendMessagesAsync() 方法中:The message creation and send operations occur in the SendMessagesAsync() method:

static async Task SendMessagesAsync(int numberOfMessagesToSend)
{
    try
    {
        for (var i = 0; i < numberOfMessagesToSend; i++)
        {
            // Create a new message to send to the queue
            string messageBody = $"Message {i}";
            var message = new Message(Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(messageBody));

            // Write the body of the message to the console
            Console.WriteLine($"Sending message: {messageBody}");

            // Send the message to the queue
            await queueClient.SendAsync(message);
        }
    }
    catch (Exception exception)
    {
        Console.WriteLine($"{DateTime.Now} :: Exception: {exception.Message}");
    }
}

处理消息Process messages

ProcessMessagesAsync() 方法确认、处理并完成消息的接收:The ProcessMessagesAsync() method acknowledges, processes, and completes the receipt of the messages:

static async Task ProcessMessagesAsync(Message message, CancellationToken token)
{
    // Process the message
    Console.WriteLine($"Received message: SequenceNumber:{message.SystemProperties.SequenceNumber} Body:{Encoding.UTF8.GetString(message.Body)}");

    // Complete the message so that it is not received again.
    await queueClient.CompleteAsync(message.SystemProperties.LockToken);
}

备注

可以使用服务总线资源管理器管理服务总线资源。You can manage Service Bus resources with Service Bus Explorer. 服务总线资源管理器允许用户连接到服务总线命名空间并以一种简单的方式管理消息传送实体。The Service Bus Explorer allows users to connect to a Service Bus namespace and administer messaging entities in an easy manner. 该工具提供高级功能,如导入/导出功能或用于对主题、队列、订阅、中继服务、通知中心和事件中心进行测试的功能。The tool provides advanced features like import/export functionality or the ability to test topic, queues, subscriptions, relay services, notification hubs and events hubs.

后续步骤Next steps

本文介绍了如何创建一个服务总线命名空间并从队列发送和接收消息所需的其他资源。In this article, you created a Service Bus namespace and other resources required to send and receive messages from a queue. 若要详细了解如何编写收发消息的代码,请继续阅读教程的“发送和接收消息”部分。To learn more about writing code to send and receive messages, continue to the tutorials in the Send and receive messages section.