使用 Azure PowerShell 创建托管多个网站的应用程序网关Create an application gateway that hosts multiple web sites using Azure PowerShell

创建应用程序网关时,可以使用 Azure Powershell 配置多个网站的托管You can use Azure Powershell to configure the hosting of multiple web sites when you create an application gateway. 本教程使用虚拟机规模集定义后端地址池。In this tutorial, you define backend address pools using virtual machines scale sets. 然后,基于所拥有的域配置侦听器和规则,以确保 Web 流量可到达池中的相应服务器。You then configure listeners and rules based on domains that you own to make sure web traffic arrives at the appropriate servers in the pools. 本教程假定你拥有多个域,并使用示例 www.contoso.comwww.fabrikam.comThis tutorial assumes that you own multiple domains and uses examples of www.contoso.com and www.fabrikam.com.

本教程介绍如何执行下列操作:In this tutorial, you learn how to:

  • 设置网络Set up the network
  • 创建应用程序网关Create an application gateway
  • 创建后端侦听器Create backend listeners
  • 创建路由规则Create routing rules
  • 使用后端池创建虚拟机规模集Create virtual machine scale sets with the backend pools
  • 在域中创建 CNAME 记录Create a CNAME record in your domain

多站点路由示例

如果没有 Azure 订阅,可在开始前创建一个试用帐户If you don't have an Azure subscription, create a Trial before you begin.

Note

本文进行了更新,以便使用新的 Azure PowerShell Az 模块。This article has been updated to use the new Azure PowerShell Az module. 你仍然可以使用 AzureRM 模块,至少在 2020 年 12 月之前,它将继续接收 bug 修补程序。You can still use the AzureRM module, which will continue to receive bug fixes until at least December 2020. 若要详细了解新的 Az 模块和 AzureRM 兼容性,请参阅新 Azure Powershell Az 模块简介To learn more about the new Az module and AzureRM compatibility, see Introducing the new Azure PowerShell Az module. 有关 Az 模块安装说明,请参阅安装 Azure PowerShellFor Az module installation instructions, see Install Azure PowerShell.

如果选择在本地安装并使用 PowerShell,则本教程需要 Azure PowerShell 模块 1.0.0 或更高版本。If you choose to install and use the PowerShell locally, this tutorial requires the Azure PowerShell module version 1.0.0 or later. 若要查找版本,请运行 Get-Module -ListAvailable AzTo find the version, run Get-Module -ListAvailable Az . 如果需要进行升级,请参阅 Install Azure PowerShell module(安装 Azure PowerShell 模块)。If you need to upgrade, see Install Azure PowerShell module. 如果在本地运行 PowerShell,则还需运行 Login-AzAccount -Environment AzureChinaCloud 来创建与 Azure 的连接。If you are running PowerShell locally, you also need to run Login-AzAccount -Environment AzureChinaCloud to create a connection with Azure.

创建资源组Create a resource group

资源组是在其中部署和管理 Azure 资源的逻辑容器。A resource group is a logical container into which Azure resources are deployed and managed. 使用 New-AzResourceGroup 创建 Azure 资源组。Create an Azure resource group using New-AzResourceGroup.

New-AzResourceGroup -Name myResourceGroupAG -Location chinanorth

创建网络资源Create network resources

使用 New-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig 创建子网配置。Create the subnet configurations using New-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig. 使用 New-AzVirtualNetwork 和子网配置创建虚拟网络。Create the virtual network using New-AzVirtualNetwork with the subnet configurations. 最后使用 New-AzPublicIpAddress 创建公共 IP 地址。And finally, create the public IP address using New-AzPublicIpAddress. 这些资源用于提供与应用程序网关及其关联资源的网络连接。These resources are used to provide network connectivity to the application gateway and its associated resources.

$backendSubnetConfig = New-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig `
  -Name myBackendSubnet `
  -AddressPrefix 10.0.1.0/24

$agSubnetConfig = New-AzVirtualNetworkSubnetConfig `
  -Name myAGSubnet `
  -AddressPrefix 10.0.2.0/24

$vnet = New-AzVirtualNetwork `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Location chinanorth `
  -Name myVNet `
  -AddressPrefix 10.0.0.0/16 `
  -Subnet $backendSubnetConfig, $agSubnetConfig

$pip = New-AzPublicIpAddress `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Location chinanorth `
  -Name myAGPublicIPAddress `
  -AllocationMethod Dynamic

创建应用程序网关Create an application gateway

创建 IP 配置和前端端口Create the IP configurations and frontend port

使用 New-AzApplicationGatewayIPConfiguration 将前面创建的子网关联到应用程序网关。Associate the subnet that you previously created to the application gateway using New-AzApplicationGatewayIPConfiguration. 使用 New-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendIPConfig 将公共 IP 地址分配给应用程序网关。Assign the public IP address to the application gateway using New-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendIPConfig.

$vnet = Get-AzVirtualNetwork `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myVNet

$subnet=$vnet.Subnets[0]

$gipconfig = New-AzApplicationGatewayIPConfiguration `
  -Name myAGIPConfig `
  -Subnet $subnet

$fipconfig = New-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendIPConfig `
  -Name myAGFrontendIPConfig `
  -PublicIPAddress $pip

$frontendport = New-AzApplicationGatewayFrontendPort `
  -Name myFrontendPort `
  -Port 80

创建后端池和设置Create the backend pools and settings

使用 New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool 为应用程序网关创建第一个后端地址池。Create the first backend address pool for the application gateway using New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool. 使用 New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendHttpSettings 配置池的设置。Configure the settings for the pool using New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendHttpSettings.

$contosoPool = New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool `
  -Name contosoPool

$fabrikamPool = New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool `
  -Name fabrikamPool

$poolSettings = New-AzApplicationGatewayBackendHttpSettings `
  -Name myPoolSettings `
  -Port 80 `
  -Protocol Http `
  -CookieBasedAffinity Enabled `
  -RequestTimeout 120

创建侦听器和规则Create the listeners and rules

应用程序网关需要侦听器才能适当地将流量路由到后端地址池。Listeners are required to enable the application gateway to route traffic appropriately to the backend address pools. 在本教程中,将为两个域创建两个侦听器。In this tutorial, you create two listeners for your two domains. 在此示例中,将为域 www.contoso.comwww.fabrikam.com 创建侦听器。In this example, listeners are created for the domains of www.contoso.com and www.fabrikam.com.

使用 New-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener 以及前面创建的前端配置和前端端口创建第一个侦听器。Create the first listener using New-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener with the frontend configuration and frontend port that you previously created. 侦听器需要使用规则来了解哪个后端池使用传入流量。A rule is required for the listener to know which backend pool to use for incoming traffic. 使用 New-AzApplicationGatewayRequestRoutingRule 创建一个名为 contosoRule 的基本规则。Create a basic rule named contosoRule using New-AzApplicationGatewayRequestRoutingRule.

$contosolistener = New-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener `
  -Name contosoListener `
  -Protocol Http `
  -FrontendIPConfiguration $fipconfig `
  -FrontendPort $frontendport `
  -HostName "www.contoso.com"

$fabrikamlistener = New-AzApplicationGatewayHttpListener `
  -Name fabrikamListener `
  -Protocol Http `
  -FrontendIPConfiguration $fipconfig `
  -FrontendPort $frontendport `
  -HostName "www.fabrikam.com"

$contosoRule = New-AzApplicationGatewayRequestRoutingRule `
  -Name contosoRule `
  -RuleType Basic `
  -HttpListener $contosoListener `
  -BackendAddressPool $contosoPool `
  -BackendHttpSettings $poolSettings

$fabrikamRule = New-AzApplicationGatewayRequestRoutingRule `
  -Name fabrikamRule `
  -RuleType Basic `
  -HttpListener $fabrikamListener `
  -BackendAddressPool $fabrikamPool `
  -BackendHttpSettings $poolSettings

创建应用程序网关Create the application gateway

现在已创建所需的支持资源,请使用 New-AzApplicationGatewaySku 为应用程序网关指定参数,然后再使用 New-AzApplicationGateway 创建它。Now that you created the necessary supporting resources, specify parameters for the application gateway using New-AzApplicationGatewaySku, and then create it using New-AzApplicationGateway.

$sku = New-AzApplicationGatewaySku `
  -Name Standard_Medium `
  -Tier Standard `
  -Capacity 2

$appgw = New-AzApplicationGateway `
  -Name myAppGateway `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Location chinanorth `
  -BackendAddressPools $contosoPool, $fabrikamPool `
  -BackendHttpSettingsCollection $poolSettings `
  -FrontendIpConfigurations $fipconfig `
  -GatewayIpConfigurations $gipconfig `
  -FrontendPorts $frontendport `
  -HttpListeners $contosoListener, $fabrikamListener `
  -RequestRoutingRules $contosoRule, $fabrikamRule `
  -Sku $sku

创建虚拟机规模集Create virtual machine scale sets

在此示例中,将创建两个虚拟机规模集以支持所创建的两个后端池。In this example, you create two virtual machine scale sets that support the two backend pools that you created. 创建的规模集分别名为 myvmss1myvmss2The scale sets that you create are named myvmss1 and myvmss2. 每个规模集包含两个在其上安装了 IIS 的虚拟机实例。Each scale set contains two virtual machine instances on which you install IIS. 配置 IP 设置时将规模集分配给后端池。You assign the scale set to the backend pool when you configure the IP settings.

$vnet = Get-AzVirtualNetwork `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myVNet

$appgw = Get-AzApplicationGateway `
  -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
  -Name myAppGateway

$contosoPool = Get-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool `
  -Name contosoPool `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw

$fabrikamPool = Get-AzApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPool `
  -Name fabrikamPool `
  -ApplicationGateway $appgw

for ($i=1; $i -le 2; $i++)
{
  if ($i -eq 1) 
  {
    $poolId = $contosoPool.Id
  }
  if ($i -eq 2)
  {
    $poolId = $fabrikamPool.Id
  }

  $ipConfig = New-AzVmssIpConfig `
    -Name myVmssIPConfig$i `
    -SubnetId $vnet.Subnets[1].Id `
    -ApplicationGatewayBackendAddressPoolsId $poolId

  $vmssConfig = New-AzVmssConfig `
    -Location chinanorth `
    -SkuCapacity 2 `
    -SkuName Standard_DS2 `
    -UpgradePolicyMode Automatic

  Set-AzVmssStorageProfile $vmssConfig `
    -ImageReferencePublisher MicrosoftWindowsServer `
    -ImageReferenceOffer WindowsServer `
    -ImageReferenceSku 2016-Datacenter `
    -ImageReferenceVersion latest
    -OsDiskCreateOption FromImage

  Set-AzVmssOsProfile $vmssConfig `
    -AdminUsername azureuser `
    -AdminPassword "Azure123456!" `
    -ComputerNamePrefix myvmss$i

  Add-AzVmssNetworkInterfaceConfiguration `
    -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmssConfig `
    -Name myVmssNetConfig$i `
    -Primary $true `
    -IPConfiguration $ipConfig

  New-AzVmss `
    -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
    -Name myvmss$i `
    -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmssConfig
}

安装 IISInstall IIS

$publicSettings = @{ "fileUris" = (,"https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Azure/azure-docs-powershell-samples/master/application-gateway/iis/appgatewayurl.ps1"); 
  "commandToExecute" = "powershell -ExecutionPolicy Unrestricted -File appgatewayurl.ps1" }

for ($i=1; $i -le 2; $i++)
{
  $vmss = Get-AzVmss `
    -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
    -VMScaleSetName myvmss$i

  Add-AzVmssExtension -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmss `
    -Name "customScript" `
    -Publisher "Microsoft.Compute" `
    -Type "CustomScriptExtension" `
    -TypeHandlerVersion 1.8 `
    -Setting $publicSettings

  Update-AzVmss `
    -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG `
    -Name myvmss$i `
    -VirtualMachineScaleSet $vmss
}

在域中创建 CNAME 记录Create CNAME record in your domain

使用其公共 IP 地址创建应用程序网关后,可以获取 DNS 地址并使用它在域中创建 CNAME 记录。After the application gateway is created with its public IP address, you can get the DNS address and use it to create a CNAME record in your domain. 可以使用 Get-AzPublicIPAddress 获取应用程序网关的 DNS 地址。You can use Get-AzPublicIPAddress to get the DNS address of the application gateway. 复制 DNSSettings 的 fqdn 值并使用它作为所创建的 CNAME 记录的值。Copy the fqdn value of the DNSSettings and use it as the value of the CNAME record that you create. 不建议使用 A 记录,因为重新启动应用程序网关后 VIP 可能会变化。The use of A-records is not recommended because the VIP may change when the application gateway is restarted.

Get-AzPublicIPAddress -ResourceGroupName myResourceGroupAG -Name myAGPublicIPAddress

测试应用程序网关Test the application gateway

在浏览器的地址栏中输入域名。Enter your domain name into the address bar of your browser. 例如, http://www.contoso.com。Such as, http://www.contoso.com.

在应用程序网关中测试 contoso 站点

将地址更改为其他域,应看到类似下例所示的内容:Change the address to your other domain and you should see something like the following example:

在应用程序网关中测试 fabrikam 站点

清理资源Clean up resources

如果不再需要资源组、应用程序网关和所有相关资源,可以使用 Remove-AzResourceGroup 将其删除。When no longer needed, remove the resource group, application gateway, and all related resources using Remove-AzResourceGroup.

Remove-AzResourceGroup -Name myResourceGroupAG

后续步骤Next steps

在本教程中,你已学习了如何执行以下操作:In this tutorial, you learned how to:

  • 设置网络Set up the network
  • 创建应用程序网关Create an application gateway
  • 创建后端侦听器Create backend listeners
  • 创建路由规则Create routing rules
  • 使用后端池创建虚拟机规模集Create virtual machine scale sets with the backend pools
  • 在域中创建 CNAME 记录Create a CNAME record in your domain