Azure 中的网络性能监视器解决方案Network Performance Monitor solution in Azure

网络性能监视器符号

网络性能监视器是一项基于云的混合网络监视解决方案,可帮助你监视网络基础结构中不同点之间的网络性能。Network Performance Monitor is a cloud-based hybrid network monitoring solution that helps you monitor network performance between various points in your network infrastructure. 它还可以监视到服务和应用程序终结点的网络连接,以及 Azure ExpressRoute 的性能。It also helps you monitor network connectivity to service and application endpoints and monitor the performance of Azure ExpressRoute.

网络性能监视器可检测诸如流量黑洞、路由错误之类的网络问题,以及传统网络监视方法无法检测到的问题。Network Performance Monitor detects network issues like traffic blackholing, routing errors, and issues that conventional network monitoring methods aren't able to detect. 只要突破网络链接的阈值,解决方案就会生成警报并进行通知。The solution generates alerts and notifies you when a threshold is breached for a network link. 它还可以确保及时检测到网络性能问题,然后确定问题根源所在的特定网络段或设备。It also ensures timely detection of network performance issues and localizes the source of the problem to a particular network segment or device.

网络性能监视器提供以下三种用途广泛的功能:Network Performance Monitor offers three broad capabilities:

  • 性能监视器:可跨云部署和本地位置、多个数据中心和分支机构、任务关健型多层应用程序或微服务监视网络连接。Performance Monitor: You can monitor network connectivity across cloud deployments and on-premises locations, multiple data centers, and branch offices and mission-critical multitier applications or microservices. 使用性能监视器,可以在用户产生抱怨之前检测到网络问题。With Performance Monitor, you can detect network issues before users complain.

  • 服务连接监视器:可以监视从用户到所关注的服务的连接,确定路径中存在的具体基础结构,并识别网络瓶颈的发生位置。Service Connectivity Monitor: You can monitor the connectivity from your users to the services you care about, determine what infrastructure is in the path, and identify where network bottlenecks occur. 可以赶在用户之前了解中断情况,沿网络路径查看问题的具体位置。You can know about outages before your users, and see the exact location of the issues along your network path.

    此功能可以用来执行基于 HTTP、HTTPS、TCP 和 ICMP 的测试,以近实时的方式或根据历史事实的方式监视服务的可用性和响应时间。This capability helps you perform tests based on HTTP, HTTPS, TCP, and ICMP to monitor in near real time or historically the availability and response time of your service. 还可以监视网络在多大程度上造成了包丢失和延迟。You also can monitor the contribution of the network in packet loss and latency. 使用网络拓扑图可以隔离导致网络速度下降的问题点。With a network topology map, you can isolate network slowdowns. 凭借每个跃点上的延迟数据,可以确定从节点到服务这一段网络路径中出现的问题点。You can identify problem spots that occur along the network path from the node to the service, with latency data on each hop. 可以通过内置的测试在不使用任何预配置的情况下监视 Office 365 和 Dynamics CRM 的网络连接。With built-in tests, you can monitor network connectivity to Office 365 and Dynamics CRM without any preconfiguration. 可以使用此功能监视到任何支持 TCP 的终结点(例如网站、SaaS 应用程序、PaaS 应用程序和 SQL 数据库)的网络连接。With this capability, you can monitor network connectivity to any TCP-capable endpoint, such as websites, SaaS applications, PaaS applications, and SQL databases.

  • ExpressRoute 监视器:通过 Azure ExpressRoute 监视分支办事处与 Azure 之间的端到端连接和性能。ExpressRoute Monitor: Monitor end-to-end connectivity and performance between your branch offices and Azure, over Azure ExpressRoute.

支持的区域Supported Regions

NPM 可从以下任一区域托管的工作区监视世界上任何地方网络和应用程序之间的连接:NPM can monitor connectivity between networks and applications in any part of the world, from a workspace that is hosted in one of the following regions:

  • 中国东部 2China East 2

安装和配置Set up and configure

安装并配置代理Install and configure agents

使用将 Windows 计算机连接到 Azure Monitor 中的基本过程安装代理。Use the basic processes to install agents at Connect Windows computers to Azure Monitor.

代理安装位置Where to install the agents

  • 性能监视器:将 Log Analytics 代理安装在至少一个已连接到每个子网的节点上。需要监视从每个子网到其他子网的网络连接。Performance Monitor: Install Log Analytics agents on at least one node connected to each subnetwork from which you want to monitor network connectivity to other subnetworks.

    要监视某个网络链接,请在该链接的两个终结点上安装代理。To monitor a network link, install agents on both endpoints of that link. 如果不确定网络的拓扑,请在具有关键工作负荷且这些负荷之间的网络性能需要进行监视的服务器上安装代理。If you're unsure about the topology of your network, install the agents on servers with critical workloads between which you want to monitor the network performance. 例如,如果需要监视 Web 服务器和运行 SQL 的服务器之间的网络连接,请将代理安装在这两个服务器上。For example, if you want to monitor the network connection between a web server and a server running SQL, install an agent on both servers. 代理会监视主机之间的网络连接(链接),而不是主机本身。Agents monitor network connectivity (links) between hosts, not the hosts themselves.

  • 服务连接监视器:要监视节点到服务终结点的网络连接,需在每个此类节点上安装 Log Analytics 代理。Service Connectivity Monitor: Install an Log Analytics agent on each node from which you want to monitor the network connectivity to the service endpoint. 例如,假设要监视从标记为 O1、O2 和 O3 的办公网站到 Office 365 的网络连接。An example is if you want to monitor network connectivity to Office 365 from your office sites labeled O1, O2, and O3. 分别在 O1、O2 和 O3 中的至少一个节点上安装 Log Analytics 代理。Install the Log Analytics agent on at least one node each in O1, O2, and O3.

  • ExpressRoute 监视器:在 Azure 虚拟网络中安装至少一个 Log Analytics 代理。ExpressRoute Monitor: Install at least one Log Analytics agent in your Azure virtual network. 并在通过 ExpressRoute 专用对等互连连接的本地子网中安装至少一个代理。Also install at least one agent in your on-premises subnetwork, which is connected through ExpressRoute private peering.

配置 Log Analytics 代理的监视功能Configure Log Analytics agents for monitoring

网络性能监视器使用综合事务来监视源代理和目标代理之间的网络性能。Network Performance Monitor uses synthetic transactions to monitor network performance between source and destination agents. 在性能监视器和服务连接性监视器功能中,可选择 TCP 或 ICMP 作为监视协议。You can choose between TCP and ICMP as the protocol for monitoring in Performance Monitor and Service Connectivity Monitor capabilities. 只有 TCP 可用作 ExpressRoute 监视器的监视协议。Only TCP is available as the monitoring protocol for ExpressRoute Monitor. 请确保防火墙允许在 Log Analytics 代理之间通信,这些代理用于监视选定的协议。Make sure that the firewall allows communication between the Log Analytics agents used for monitoring on the protocol you choose.

  • TCP 协议:如果选择 TCP 作为用于监视的协议,请在用于网络性能监视器和 ExpressRoute 监视器的代理上打开防火墙端口,确保代理能够互相连接。TCP protocol: If you choose TCP as the protocol for monitoring, open the firewall port on the agents used for Network Performance Monitor and ExpressRoute Monitor to make sure that the agents can connect to each other. 若要打开端口,请使用管理员权限在 PowerShell 窗口中运行不带任何参数的 EnableRules.ps1 PowerShell 脚本。To open the port, run the EnableRules.ps1 PowerShell script without any parameters in a PowerShell window with administrative privileges.

    该脚本可创建解决方案所需的注册表项。The script creates registry keys required by the solution. 它还会创建 Windows 防火墙规则,允许代理创建彼此之间的 TCP 连接。It also creates Windows Firewall rules to allow agents to create TCP connections with each other. 该脚本创建的注册表项指定是否记录调试日志和该日志文件的路径。The registry keys created by the script specify whether to log the debug logs and the path for the logs file. 该脚本还会定义用于通信的代理 TCP 端口。The script also defines the agent TCP port used for communication. 该脚本会自动设置这些注册表项的值。The values for these keys are automatically set by the script. 请勿手动更改这些注册表项。Don't manually change these keys. 默认打开的端口为 8084。The port opened by default is 8084. 通过向该脚本提供参数 portNumber 即可使用自定义端口。You can use a custom port by providing the parameter portNumber to the script. 在运行该脚本的所有计算机上使用相同端口。Use the same port on all the computers where the script is run.

    备注

    此脚本仅在本地配置 Windows 防火墙。The script configures only Windows Firewall locally. 如果有网络防火墙,请确保该防火墙允许流量去往网络性能监视器使用的 TCP 端口。If you have a network firewall, make sure that it allows traffic destined for the TCP port used by Network Performance Monitor.

    备注

    不需为服务连接性监视器运行 EnableRules.ps1 PowerShell 脚本。You don't need to run the EnableRules.ps1 PowerShell script for Service Connectivity Monitor.

  • ICMP 协议:如果选择 ICMP 作为用于监视的协议,请启用以下防火墙规则,以便可靠地利用 ICMP:ICMP protocol: If you choose ICMP as the protocol for monitoring, enable the following firewall rules to reliably utilize ICMP:

    netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="NPMDICMPV4Echo" protocol="icmpv4:8,any" dir=in action=allow 
    netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="NPMDICMPV6Echo" protocol="icmpv6:128,any" dir=in action=allow 
    netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="NPMDICMPV4DestinationUnreachable" protocol="icmpv4:3,any" dir=in action=allow 
    netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="NPMDICMPV6DestinationUnreachable" protocol="icmpv6:1,any" dir=in action=allow 
    netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="NPMDICMPV4TimeExceeded" protocol="icmpv4:11,any" dir=in action=allow 
    netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="NPMDICMPV6TimeExceeded" protocol="icmpv6:3,any" dir=in action=allow 
    

配置解决方案Configure the solution

  1. 将网络性能监视器解决方案从 Azure 市场添加到工作区。Add the Network Performance Monitor solution to your workspace from the Azure marketplace. 也可以使用从解决方案库中添加 Azure Monitor 解决方案中所述的过程。You also can use the process described in Add Azure Monitor solutions from the Solutions Gallery.

  2. 打开 Log Analytics 工作区,然后选择“概览”磁贴。Open your Log Analytics workspace, and select the Overview tile.

  3. 选择消息为 “解决方案需要进行额外配置” 的 “网络性能监视器” 磁贴。Select the Network Performance Monitor tile with the message Solution requires additional configuration.

    网络性能监视器磁贴

  4. 在“安装”页的“常用设置”视图中,可以看到用于安装 Log Analytics 代理并配置代理监视功能的选项。On the Setup page, you see the option to install Log Analytics agents and configure the agents for monitoring in the Common Settings view. 如上所述,如果安装并配置了 Log Analytics 代理,请选择“安装”视图来配置要使用的功能。As previously explained, if you installed and configured Log Analytics agents, select the Setup view to configure the capability you want to use.

    性能监视器:在“默认”性能监视器规则中选择用于综合事务的协议,然后选择“保存并继续”。Performance Monitor: Choose the protocol to use for synthetic transactions in the Default Performance Monitor rule, and select Save & Continue. 此协议选择仅适用于系统生成的默认规则。This protocol selection only holds for the system-generated default rule. 每次显式创建性能监视器规则时,均需要选择协议。You need to choose the protocol each time you create a Performance Monitor rule explicitly. 始终可以转到“性能监视器”选项卡中的“默认”规则设置(这在完成第 0 天的配置后显示),在以后更改协议。You can always move to the Default rule settings on the Performance Monitor tab (it appears after you complete your day-0 configuration) and change the protocol later. 如果不需要性能监视器功能,则可在“性能监视器”选项卡的“默认”规则设置中禁用默认规则。If you don't want the Performance Monitor capability, you can disable the default rule from the Default rule settings on the Performance Monitor tab.

    “性能监视器”视图

    服务连接监视器:此功能提供内置的预配置测试,用于监视从代理到 Office 365 和 Dynamics 365 的网络连接。Service Connectivity Monitor: The capability provides built-in preconfigured tests to monitor network connectivity to Office 365 and Dynamics 365 from your agents. 通过选中 Office 365 和 Dynamics 365 服务旁边的复选框,选择需要监视的服务。Choose the Office 365 and Dynamics 365 services that you want to monitor by selecting the check boxes beside them. 要选择要从其进行监视的代理,请选择“添加代理”。To choose the agents from which you want to monitor, select Add Agents. 如果不希望使用此功能,或希望在以后进行设置,请不要做出任何选择,而是选择“保存并继续”。If you don't want to use this capability or want to set it up later, don't choose anything and select Save & Continue.

    “服务连接监视器”视图

    ExpressRoute 监视器:选择“立即发现”,以便发现所有已连接到 Azure 订阅(通过此 Log Analytics 工作区进行链接)中的虚拟网络的 ExpressRoute 专用对等互连。ExpressRoute Monitor: Select Discover Now to discover all the ExpressRoute private peerings that are connected to the virtual networks in the Azure subscription linked with this Log Analytics workspace.

    ExpressRoute 监视器”视图

    完成发现操作以后,发现的线路和对等互连就会列在表中。After the discovery is finished, the discovered circuits and peerings are listed in a table.

    “网络性能监视器配置”页

针对这些线路和对等互连的监视功能一开始处于禁用状态。The monitoring for these circuits and peerings is initially in a disabled state. 选择要监视的每个资源,然后从右侧的详细信息视图中配置相应的监视功能。Select each resource that you want to monitor, and configure monitoring for them from the details view on the right. 选择“保存”以保存配置。Select Save to save the configuration. 要了解详细信息,请参阅“配置 ExpressRoute 监视”一文。To learn more, see the "Configure ExpressRoute monitoring" article.

安装完成以后,数据的填充需要 30 分钟到 1 小时。After the setup is finished, it takes 30 minutes to an hour for the data to populate. 当解决方案正从网络聚合数据时,网络性能监视器“概览”磁贴中会显示“解决方案需要进行额外配置”消息。While the solution aggregates data from your network, you see the message Solution requires additional configuration on the Network Performance Monitor Overview tile. 收集数据并为其编制索引以后,“概览”磁贴会变化,并以摘要形式告知网络运行状况。After the data is collected and indexed, the Overview tile changes and informs you of your network health in a summary. 然后,你可以对安装了 Log Analytics 代理的节点以及从环境中发现的子网的监视进行编辑。You then can edit the monitoring of the nodes on which Log Analytics agents are installed, as well as the subnets discovered from your environment.

编辑子网和节点的监视设置Edit monitoring settings for subnets and nodes

配置页的 “子网” 选项卡中会列出至少安装了一个代理的所有子网。All subnets with at least one agent installed are listed on the Subnetworks tab on the configuration page.

启用或禁用对特定子网的监视:To enable or disable monitoring of particular subnetworks:

  1. 选中或清除 子网 ID 旁的复选框。Select or clear the check box next to the subnetwork ID. 然后,请确保根据情况选中或清除“用于监视”。Then make sure that Use for Monitoring is selected or cleared, as appropriate. 可以选择或清除多个子网。You can select or clear multiple subnets. 禁用时,不会监视子网,但会更新代理以停止 ping 其他代理。When disabled, subnetworks aren't monitored, and the agents are updated to stop pinging other agents.
  2. 在特定子网中选择要监视的节点。Choose the nodes that you want to monitor in a particular subnetwork. 从列表中选择子网,并在包含未监视节点的列表与包含已监视节点的列表之间移动所需节点。Select the subnetwork from the list, and move the required nodes between the lists that contain unmonitored and monitored nodes. 可以向子网添加自定义说明。You can add a custom description to the subnetwork.
  3. 选择“保存”以保存配置。Select Save to save the configuration.

选择要监视的节点Choose nodes to monitor

所有已安装代理的节点都会列在“节点”选项卡上。All the nodes that have an agent installed on them are listed on the Nodes tab.

  1. 选择要监视的节点或清除要停止监视的节点。Select or clear the nodes that you want to monitor or stop monitoring.
  2. 选中“用于监视”,或清除它(视情况而定)。Select Use for Monitoring, or clear it, as appropriate.
  3. 选择“其他安全性验证” 。Select Save.

配置所需功能:Configure the capabilities you want:

数据收集详细信息Data collection details

收集丢失与延迟信息时,如果选择 TCP 作为协议,网络性能监视器使用 TCP SYN-SYNACK-ACK 握手数据包。To collect loss and latency information, Network Performance Monitor uses TCP SYN-SYNACK-ACK handshake packets when you choose TCP as the protocol. 如果选择 ICMP 作为协议,网络性能监视器使用 ICMP ECHO ICMP ECHO REPLY。Network Performance Monitor uses ICMP ECHO ICMP ECHO REPLY when you choose ICMP as the protocol. 此外,还使用跟踪路由来获取拓扑信息。Trace route is also used to get topology information.

下表显示了数据收集方法,以及有关如何为网络性能监视器收集数据的其他详细信息。The following table shows data collection methods and other details about how data is collected for Network Performance Monitor.

平台Platform 直接代理Direct agent System Center Operations Manager 代理System Center Operations Manager agent Azure 存储Azure Storage 需要 Operations Manager?Operations Manager required? Operations Manager 代理数据通过管理组发送Operations Manager agent data sent via management group 收集频率Collection frequency
WindowsWindows 每隔 5 秒发送 TCP 握手/ICMP ECHO 消息,每隔 3 分钟发送数据TCP handshakes/ICMP ECHO messages every 5 seconds, data sent every 3 minutes

解决方案使用综合事务来评估网络的运行状况。The solution uses synthetic transactions to assess the health of the network. 在网络中各个点安装的 Log Analytics 代理会相互交换 TCP 数据包或 ICMP Echo。Log Analytics agents installed at various points in the network exchange TCP packets or ICMP Echo with one another. 代理是使用 TCP 数据包还是 ICMP Echo 取决于选择用于监视的协议。Whether the agents use TCP packets or ICMP Echo depends on the protocol you selected for monitoring. 在此过程中,代理将了解往返时间和丢包情况(如果有)。In the process, agents learn the round-trip time and packet loss, if any. 每个代理还会定期对其他代理执行跟踪路由,以全部找出网络中必须测试的各种路由。Periodically, each agent also performs a trace route to other agents to find all the various routes in the network that must be tested. 使用此数据,代理就可以推断出网络延迟和丢包数字。Using this data, the agents can deduce the network latency and packet loss figures. 每隔五秒重复执行测试。The tests are repeated every five seconds. 代理聚合数据三分钟,然后数据将上传到 Azure Monitor 中的 Log Analytics 工作区。Data is aggregated for about three minutes by the agents before it's uploaded to the Log Analytics workspace in Azure Monitor.

备注

尽管代理相互频繁地通信,但它们在进行测试时并不会产生大量网络流量。Although agents communicate with each other frequently, they don't generate significant network traffic while conducting the tests. 代理仅仅依靠 TCP SYN-SYNACK-ACK 握手数据包确定丢失和延迟。Agents rely only on TCP SYN-SYNACK-ACK handshake packets to determine the loss and latency. 不会交换任何数据包。No data packets are exchanged. 在此过程中,代理只在需要时才会进行相互通信。During this process, agents communicate with each other only when needed. 代理通信拓扑经过优化,可减少网络流量。The agent communication topology is optimized to reduce network traffic.

使用解决方案Use the solution

网络性能监视器“概览”磁贴Network Performance Monitor Overview tile

在启用了网络性能监视器解决方案后,“概览”页中的解决方案磁贴会提供网络运行状况的快速概览。After you enable the Network Performance Monitor solution, the solution tile on the Overview page provides a quick overview of the network health.

网络性能监视器“概览”磁贴

网络性能监视器仪表板Network Performance Monitor dashboard

  • 排名靠前的网络运行状况事件:本页提供系统中最新运行状况事件和警报的列表以及事件发生后所经过的时间。Top Network Health Events: This page provides a list of the most recent health events and alerts in the system and the time since the events have been active. 每当监视规则的所选指标(丢失、延迟、响应时间或带宽利用率)的值超出阈值时,就会生成运行状况事件或警报。A health event or alert is generated whenever the value of the chosen metric (loss, latency, response time, or bandwidth utilization) for the monitoring rule exceeds the threshold.

  • ExpressRoute 监视器:本页提供解决方案监视的各个 ExpressRoute 对等互连连接的运行状况摘要。ExpressRoute Monitor: This page provides health summaries for the various ExpressRoute peering connections the solution monitors. “拓扑”磁贴显示在网络中受监视的通过 ExpressRoute 线路的网络路径数。The Topology tile shows the number of network paths through the ExpressRoute circuits that are monitored in your network. 选择此磁贴转到“拓扑”视图。Select this tile to go to the Topology view.

  • 服务连接监视器:本页提供所创建的不同测试的运行状况摘要。Service Connectivity Monitor: This page provides health summaries for the different tests you created. “拓扑”磁贴显示受监视的终结点数。The Topology tile shows the number of endpoints that are monitored. 选择此磁贴转到“拓扑”视图。Select this tile to go to the Topology view.

  • 性能监视器:本页提供解决方案监视的“网络”链接和“子网”链接的运行状况摘要。Performance Monitor: This page provides health summaries for the Network links and Subnetwork links that the solution monitors. “拓扑”磁贴显示在网络中受监视的网络路径数。The Topology tile shows the number of network paths that are monitored in your network. 选择此磁贴转到“拓扑”视图。Select this tile to go to the Topology view.

  • 常见查询:本页包含一组用于直接提取网络监视原始数据的搜索查询。Common Queries: This page contains a set of search queries that fetch raw network monitoring data directly. 可以基于这些查询创建用于生成自定义报表的查询。You can use these queries as a starting point to create your own queries for customized reporting.

    网络性能监视器仪表板

深入了解Drill down for depth

可以选择解决方案仪表板中的各个链接来进一步了解任何感兴趣部分。You can select various links on the solution dashboard to drill down deeper into any area of interest. 例如,看到警报或不正常的网络链接出现在仪表板上时,可选择它进一步进行调查。For example, when you see an alert or an unhealthy network link appear on the dashboard, select it to investigate further. 会转到列出该特定网络链接的所有子网链接的页面。A page lists all the subnetwork links for the particular network link. 可以看到每个子网链接的丢失、延迟和运行状况状态。You can see the loss, latency, and health status of each subnetwork link. 可以快速找到引发问题的子网链接。You can quickly find out which subnetwork link causes problems. 选择“查看节点链接” ,查看不正常的子网链接的所有节点链接。Select View node links to see all the node links for the unhealthy subnet link. 然后,可以查看个别节点到节点链接,找到不正常的节点链接。Then, you can see individual node-to-node links and find the unhealthy node links.

选择 “查看拓扑” ,查看源节点和目标节点之间路由的逐跳拓扑。Select View topology to view the hop-by-hop topology of the routes between the source and destination nodes. 不正常的路由显示为红色。The unhealthy routes appear in red. 可以查看每个跃点导致的延迟,从而快速确定网络特定部分的问题。You can view the latency contributed by each hop so that you can quickly identify the problem to a particular portion of the network.

网络状态记录器控件Network State Recorder control

每个视图显示特定时间点的网络运行状况快照。Each view displays a snapshot of your network health at a particular point in time. 默认会显示最新的状态。By default, the most recent state is shown. 页面顶部栏显示该状态所处的时间点。The bar at the top of the page shows the point in time for which the state is displayed. 要查看先前某时间的网络运行状况快照,请选择“操作”。To view a snapshot of your network health at a previous time, select Actions. 查看最新状态时,还可以启用或禁用任何页面的自动刷新。You also can enable or disable auto-refresh for any page while you view the latest state.

网络状态记录器

趋势图Trend charts

在向下钻取的每个级别,都可以看到适用指标的趋势。At each level that you drill down, you can see the trend of the applicable metric. 这些指标包括丢失、延迟、响应时间或带宽利用率。It can be loss, latency, response time, or bandwidth utilization. 要更改趋势的时间间隔,请使用图表顶部的时间控制。To change the time interval for the trend, use the time control at the top of the chart.

趋势图从历史角度呈现了性能指标的性能。Trend charts show you a historical perspective of the performance of a performance metric. 某些网络问题本质上是瞬时发生的,仅通过查看该网络的当前状态难以捕获。Some network issues are transient in nature and are hard to catch by looking at only the current state of the network. 问题可能会快速浮现并在有人注意到之前就消失,只在之后的某个时间点才会再次出现。Issues can surface quickly and disappear before anyone notices, only to reappear at a later point in time. 此类瞬时问题对于应用程序管理员而言也比较棘手。Such transient issues also can be difficult for application administrators. 这些问题常常表现为应用程序响应时间原因不明的增加,即使所有应用程序组件看起来都平稳地运行时也会如此。The issues often show up as unexplained increases in application response time, even when all application components appear to run smoothly.

通过查看趋势图,可以轻松检测到此类问题。You can easily detect these kinds of issues by looking at a trend chart. 该问题表现为网络延迟或数据包丢失突增。The issue appears as a sudden spike in network latency or packet loss. 要调查此问题,请使用网络状态记录器控件查看问题发生时的时间点的网络快照和拓扑。To investigate the issue, use the Network State Recorder control to view the network snapshot and topology for that point in time when the issue occurred.

趋势图

拓扑图Topology map

网络性能监视器显示交互式拓扑图中源节点和目标节点之间路由的逐跳拓扑。Network Performance Monitor shows you the hop-by-hop topology of routes between the source and destination endpoint on an interactive topology map. 要查看拓扑图,请选择解决方案仪表板上的“拓扑”磁贴。To view the topology map, select the Topology tile on the solution dashboard. 还可以选择向下钻取页面上的“查看拓扑”链接。You also can select the View topology link on the drill-down pages.

拓扑图会显示源和目标之间存在多少个路由,以及数据包会采用哪条路径。The topology map displays how many routes are between the source and destination and what paths the data packets take. 由每个网络跃点导致的延迟也是可见的。The latency contributed by each network hop is also visible. 所有总路径延迟高出阈值(在相应的监视规则中设置)的路径都显示为红色。All the paths for which the total path latency is above the threshold (set in the corresponding monitoring rule) are shown in red.

在拓扑图上选择某个节点或将光标悬停在其上方时,会看到诸如 FQDN 和 IP 地址之类的节点属性。When you select a node or hover over it on the topology map, you see the node properties, such as FQDN and IP address. 选择跃点查看其 IP 地址。Select a hop to see its IP address. 可以通过观察网络跃点导致的延迟来确定有问题的网络跃点。You can identify the troublesome network hop by noticing the latency it contributes. 要筛选特定路由,请使用可折叠的操作窗格中的筛选器。To filter particular routes, use the filters in the collapsible action pane. 要简化网络拓扑,请通过使用操作窗格中的滑块隐藏中间跃点。To simplify the network topologies, hide the intermediate hops by using the slider in the action pane. 可以使用鼠标滚轮来放大或缩小拓扑图。You can zoom in or zoom out of the topology map by using your mouse wheel.

图中所示的拓扑为第 3 层拓扑,不包含第 2 层的设备和连接。The topology shown in the map is layer 3 topology and doesn't contain layer 2 devices and connections.

拓扑图

Azure Monitor 中的日志查询Log queries in Azure Monitor

通过网络性能监视器仪表板和向下钻取页面以图形方式显示的所有数据也可以在日志查询中以本地方式使用。All data that is exposed graphically through the Network Performance Monitor dashboard and drill-down pages is also available natively in log queries. 可对存储库中的数据执行交互式分析,并关联来自不同源的数据。You can perform interactive analysis of data in the repository and correlate data from different sources. 还可以创建自定义警报和视图,并将数据导出到 Excel、Power BI 或可共享的链接。You also can create custom alerts and views and export the data to Excel, Power BI, or a shareable link. 仪表板的 “常见查询” 区域中有一些查询非常有用,可以基于这些查询创建自己的查询和报表。The Common Queries area in the dashboard has some useful queries that you can use as the starting point to create your own queries and reports.

警报Alerts

网络性能监视器使用 Azure Monitor 的警报功能。Network Performance Monitor uses the alerting capabilities of Azure Monitor.

这意味着使用操作组管理所有通知。This means that all notifications are managed using action groups.

如果你是通过 Log Analytics 创建警报的 NPM 用户:If you are an NPM user creating an alert via Log Analytics:

  1. 你将看到一个链接,该链接可将你重定向到 Azure 门户。You will see a link that will redirect you to Azure portal. 单击该链接以访问门户。Click it to access the portal.
  2. 单击“网络性能监视器解决方案”磁贴。Click the Network Performance Monitor solution tile.
  3. 导航到“配置”。Navigate to Configure.
  4. 选择要针对其创建警报的测试,并按照下述步骤进行操作。Select the test you want to create an alert on and follow the below mentioned steps.

如果你是通过 Azure 门户创建警报的 NPM 用户:If you are an NPM user creating an alert via Azure Portal:

  1. 可以选择直接输入电子邮件,也可以选择通过操作组创建警报。You can choose to enter your email directly or you can choose to create alerts via action groups.
  2. 如果选择直接输入电子邮件,则将创建名为 NPM Email ActionGroup 的操作组,并将电子邮件 ID 添加到该操作组。If you choose to enter your email directly, an action group with the name NPM Email ActionGroup is created and the email id is added to that action group.
  3. 如果选择使用操作组,则需要选择一个以前创建的操作组。If you choose to use action groups, you will have to select an previously created action group. 可以在此处了解如何创建操作组。You can learn how to create an action group here.
  4. 成功创建警报后,可以使用“管理警报”链接来管理警报。Once the alert is successfully created, you can use Manage Alerts link to manage your alerts.

每次创建警报时,NPM 会在 Azure Monitor 中创建基于查询的日志警报规则。Each time you create an alert, NPM creates a query based log alert rule in Azure Monitor. 默认情况下,每隔 5 分钟就会触发此查询。This query is triggered every 5 mins by default. Azure Monitor 不会对创建的前 250 条日志警报规则收取费用,超过 250 条日志警报规则限制的任何警报规则都将按照 Azure Monitor 定价页中的警报定价计费。Azure monitor does not charge for the first 250 log alert rules created, and any alert rules above the 250 log alert rules limit will be billed as per Alerts pricing in Azure Monitor pricing page. 通知将按照 Azure Monitor 定价页中的通知定价单独收费。Notifications are charged separately as per Notifications pricing in Azure Monitor pricing page.

定价Pricing

联机提供了有关定价的信息。Information on pricing is available online.

提供反馈Provide feedback

  • UserVoice:可以发表有关希望我们开发的网络性能监视器功能的想法。UserVoice: You can post your ideas for Network Performance Monitor features that you want us to work on. 请访问 UserVoice 页Visit the UserVoice page.

  • 加入我们的队伍:我们总是希望一直有新客户不断加入我们的队伍。Join our cohort: We're always interested in having new customers join our cohort. 那样,能够在早期接触到新功能并有机会帮助我们改进网络性能监视器。As part of it, you get early access to new features and an opportunity to help us improve Network Performance Monitor. 如果有兴趣加入,请填写此快速调查If you're interested in joining, fill out this quick survey.

后续步骤Next steps

详细了解性能监视器服务连接性监视器ExpressRoute 监视器Learn more about Performance Monitor, Service Connectivity Monitor, and ExpressRoute Monitor.