与对文件和文件夹进行备份相关的常见问题Common questions about backing up files and folders

本文解答了与使用 Azure 备份服务中的 Azure 恢复服务 (MARS) 代理对文件和文件夹进行备份相关的常见问题。This article answers common questions abound backing up files and folders with the Azure Recovery Services (MARS) Agent in the Azure Backup service.

配置备份Configure backups

可以从何处下载最新版本的 MARS 代理?Where can I download the latest version of the MARS agent?

备份 Windows Server 计算机、System Center DPM 和 Azure 备份服务器时使用的最新 MARS 代理可供下载The latest MARS agent used when backing up Windows Server machines, System Center DPM, and Azure Backup server is available for download.

保管库凭据的有效期是多长时间?How long are vault credentials valid?

保管库凭据会在 10 天后过期。Vault credentials expire after 10 days. 如果凭据文件过期,请重新从 Azure 门户下载该文件。If the credentials file expires, download the file again from the Azure portal.

可以从哪些驱动器备份文件和文件夹?From what drives can I back up files and folders?

无法备份以下类型的驱动器/卷:You can't back up the following types of drives and volumes:

  • 可移动媒体:所有备份项源必须报告为“固定”。Removable media: All backup item sources must report as fixed.
  • 只读卷:为使卷影复制服务 (VSS) 起作用,卷必须是可写的。Read-only volumes: The volume must be writable for the volume shadow copy service (VSS) to function.
  • 脱机卷:为使 VSS 起作用,卷必须是联机的。Offline volumes: The volume must be online for VSS to function.
  • 网络共享:卷必须位于需要使用联机备份进行备份的服务器本地。Network shares: The volume must be local to the server to be backed up using online backup.
  • BitLocker 保护的卷:必须先解锁卷,才能备份。BitLocker-protected volumes: The volume must be unlocked before the backup can occur.
  • 文件系统标识:NTFS 是受支持的唯一文件系统。File System Identification: NTFS is the only file system supported.

支持哪些文件和文件夹类型?What file and folder types are supported?

详细了解支持备份的文件和文件夹类型。Learn more about the types of files and folders supported for backup.

是否可以使用 MARS 代理在 Azure VM 上备份文件和文件夹?Can I use the MARS agent to back up files and folders on an Azure VM?

是的。Yes. Azure 备份使用 Azure VM 代理的 VM 扩展为 Azure VM 提供 VM 级备份。Azure Backup provides VM-level backup for Azure VMs using the VM extension for the Azure VM agent. 如果你希望在 VM 的来宾 Windows 操作系统上备份文件和文件夹,可以安装 MARS 代理来执行该操作。If you want to back up files and folders on the guest Windows operating system on the VM, you can install the MARS agent to do that.

是否可以使用 MARS 代理在 Azure VM 的临时存储上备份文件和文件夹?Can I use the MARS agent to back up files and folders on temporary storage for the Azure VM?

是的。Yes. 安装 MARS 代理,将来宾 Windows 操作系统上的文件和文件夹备份到临时存储。Install the MARS agent, and back up files and folders on the guest Windows operating system to temporary storage.

  • 擦除临时存储数据后,备份作业会失败。Backup jobs fail when temporary storage data is wiped out.
  • 如果临时存储数据被删除,则你只能还原到非易失性存储。If the temporary storage data is deleted, you can only restore to non-volatile storage.

如何将服务器注册到其他区域?How do I register a server to another region?

备份数据会发送到服务器注册到的保管库的数据中心。Backup data is sent to the datacenter of the vault in which the server is registered. 更改数据中心的最简便方法是卸载并重新安装代理,然后将计算机注册到所需区域中的新保管库。The easiest way to change the datacenter is to uninstall and reinstall the agent, and then register the machine to a new vault in the region you need.

MARS 代理是否支持 Windows Server 2012 重复数据删除?Does the MARS agent support Windows Server 2012 deduplication?

是的。Yes. MARS 代理在准备备份操作时会将消除了重复的数据转换为常规数据。The MARS agent converts the deduplicated data to normal data when it prepares the backup operation. 然后,它将对数据进行优化以便备份、对数据进行加密,然后将已加密的数据发送到保管库。It then optimizes the data for backup, encrypts the data, and then sends the encrypted data to the vault.

是否需要管理员权限才能安装和配置 MARS 代理?Do I need administrator permissions to install and configure the MARS agent?

是的,使用 MARS 控制台安装 MARS 代理和配置备份要求用户是受保护服务器上的本地管理员。Yes, the installation of the MARS Agent and configuration of backups using the MARS console need the user to be a local administrator on the protected server.

管理备份Manage backups

如果我重命名了为备份配置的 Windows 计算机,将会发生什么情况?What happens if I rename a Windows machine configured for backup?

重命名 Windows 计算机时,所有当前已配置的备份都将停止。When you rename a Windows machine, all currently configured backups are stopped.

  • 你需要向备份保管库注册新的计算机名称。You need to register the new machine name with the Backup vault.
  • 向保管库注册新名称时,第一个操作是“完整”备份。When you register the new name with the vault, the first operation is a full backup.
  • 如果需要恢复备份到采用旧服务器名称的保管库的数据,请使用“恢复数据”向导中用于还原到其他位置的选项。If you need to recover data backed up to the vault with the old server name, use the option to restore to an alternate location in the Recover Data Wizard. 了解详细信息Learn more.

用于备份的最大文件路径长度是多少?What is the maximum file path length for backup?

MARS 代理依赖于 NTFS,并使用受 Windows API 限制的文件路径长度规范。The MARS agent relies on NTFS, and uses the filepath length specification limited by the Windows API. 如果你要保护的文件长于所允许的值,请备份父文件夹或磁盘驱动器。If the files you want to protect are longer than the allowed value, back up the parent folder or the disk drive.

文件路径中允许什么字符?What characters are allowed in file paths?

MARS 代理依赖于 NTFS,并允许使用文件名/路径中支持的字符The MARS agent relies on NTFS, and allows supported characters in file names/paths.

出现“尚未为此服务器配置 Azure 备份”警告The warning "Azure Backups have not been configured for this server" appears

当本地服务器上存储的备份计划设置与备份保管库中存储的设置不同时,可能会出现此警告,即使你已配置了备份策略也是如此。This warning can appear even though you've configured a backup policy, when the backup schedule settings stored on the local server aren't the same as the settings stored in the backup vault.

  • 当服务器或设置恢复为已知良好状态后,备份计划可能会变得不同步。When the server or the settings have been recovered to a known good state, backup schedules can become unsynchronized.
  • 如果收到此警告,请重新配置备份策略,并立即运行按需备份,以便将本地服务器与 Azure 重新同步。If you receive this warning, configure the backup policy again, and then run an on-demand backup to resynchronize the local server with Azure.

管理备份缓存文件夹Manage the backup cache folder

针对缓存文件夹的最小大小要求是什么?What's the minimum size requirement for the cache folder?

缓存文件夹的大小取决于要备份的数据量。The size of the cache folder determines the amount of data that you are backing up.

  • 缓存文件夹卷的可用空间应当至少为备份数据总大小的 5-10%。The cache folder volumes should have free space that equals at least 5-10% of the total size of backup data.
  • 如果卷的可用空间少于 5%,请增大卷大小,或遵循这些步骤将缓存文件夹移到具有足够空间的卷。If the volume has less than 5% free space, either increase the volume size, or move the cache folder to a volume with enough space by following these steps.
  • 如果备份 Windows 系统状态,包含缓存文件夹的卷中需有额外的 30-35 GB 可用空间。If you backup Windows System State, you'll need an additional 30-35 GB of free space in the volume containing the cache folder.

如何检查暂存文件夹是否有效并可访问?How to check if scratch folder is valid and accessible?

  1. 默认情况下,暂存文件夹位于 \Program Files\Azure Recovery Services Agent\ScratchBy default scratch folder is located at \Program Files\Azure Recovery Services Agent\Scratch

  2. 请确保暂存文件夹的路径与下面显示的注册表项的值相符:Make sure the path of your scratch folder location matches with the values of the registry key entries shown below:

    注册表路径Registry path 注册表项Registry Key ValueValue
    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Azure Backup\Config ScratchLocationScratchLocation 新缓存文件夹位置New cache folder location
    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Azure Backup\Config\CloudBackupProvider ScratchLocationScratchLocation 新缓存文件夹位置New cache folder location

如何更改 MARS 代理的缓存位置?How do I change the cache location for the MARS agent?

  1. 通过在权限提升的命令提示符下运行以下命令来停止备份引擎:Run this command in an elevated command prompt to stop the Backup engine:

    Net stop obengine

  2. 如果已配置系统状态备份,请打开“磁盘管理”,然后卸载名称采用 "CBSSBVol_<ID>" 格式的磁盘。If you have configured System State backup, open Disk Management and unmount the disk(s) with names in the format "CBSSBVol_<ID>".

  3. 默认情况下,暂存文件夹位于 \Program Files\Azure Recovery Services Agent\ScratchBy default, the scratch folder is located at \Program Files\Azure Recovery Services Agent\Scratch

  4. 将整个 \Scratch 文件夹复制到具有足够空间的另一驱动器。Copy the entire \Scratch folder to a different drive that has sufficient space. 请务必复制内容,而不是移动内容。Ensure the contents are copied, not moved.

  5. 使用最近移动的暂存文件夹的路径更新以下注册表项。Update the following registry entries with the path of the newly moved scratch folder.

    注册表路径Registry path 注册表项Registry Key ValueValue
    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Azure Backup\Config ScratchLocationScratchLocation 新暂存文件夹的位置New scratch folder location
    HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Azure Backup\Config\CloudBackupProvider ScratchLocationScratchLocation 新暂存文件夹的位置New scratch folder location
  6. 在提升的命令提示符下重启备份引擎:Restart the Backup engine at an elevated command prompt:

    Net stop obengine
    
    Net start obengine
    
  7. 运行按需备份。Run an on-demand backup. 在使用新位置成功完成备份后,可以删除原始缓存文件夹。After the backup finishes successfully using the new location, you can remove the original cache folder.

缓存文件夹应当位于何处?Where should the cache folder be located?

建议不要将缓存文件夹放在以下位置:The following locations for the cache folder aren't recommended:

  • 网络共享/可移动媒体:缓存文件夹必须位于需要使用联机备份进行备份的服务器本地。Network share/removable media: The cache folder must be local to the server that needs backing up using online backup. 不支持网络位置或可移动媒体,例如 U 盘。Network locations or removable media like USB drives aren't supported.
  • 脱机卷:缓存文件夹必须联机才能使用 Azure 备份代理执行预期的备份Offline volumes: The cache folder must be online for expected backup using Azure Backup Agent

缓存文件夹是否有任何不受支持的属性?Are there any attributes of the cache folder that aren't supported?

缓存文件夹不支持以下属性或其组合:The following attributes or their combinations are not supported for the cache folder:

  • 加密Encrypted
  • 已删除重复数据De-duplicated
  • 压缩Compressed
  • 稀疏Sparse
  • 重分析点Reparse-Point

缓存文件夹和元数据 VHD 没有 Azure 备份代理所需的属性。The cache folder and the metadata VHD don't have the necessary attributes for the Azure Backup agent.

是否有办法调整用于备份的带宽量?Is there a way to adjust the amount of bandwidth used for backup?

是的,可以使用 MARS 代理中的“更改属性”选项来调整带宽和定时。Yes, you can use the Change Properties option in the MARS agent to adjust the bandwidth and timing. 了解详细信息Learn more.

还原Restore

管理Manage

如果我忘记了通行短语,是否可以恢复?Can I recover if I forgot my passphrase? 在还原期间,Azure 备份代理需要通过通行短语(在注册期间提供)解密备份的数据。The Azure Backup agent requires a passphrase (that you provided during registration) to decrypt the backed-up data during restore. 请查看以下方案,了解用于处理通行短语丢失问题的选项:Review the scenarios below to understand your options for handling a lost passphrase:

原始计算机Original Machine
(创建备份的源计算机)(source machine where backups were taken)
通行短语Passphrase 可用选项Available Options
可用Available 丢失Lost 如果原始计算机(在其中创建备份的计算机)可用且仍在同一个恢复服务保管库中注册,则你可以遵循这些步骤重新生成通行短语。If your original machine (where backups were taken) is available and still registered with the same Recovery Services vault, then you can regenerate the passphrase by following these steps.
丢失Lost 丢失Lost 无法恢复数据或数据不可用Not possible to recover the data or data is not available

考虑以下情况:Consider the following conditions:

  • 如果在同一台原始计算机上卸载并重新注册代理时使用了:If you uninstall and re-register the agent on the same original machine with
    • 相同的通行短语,则可以还原已备份的数据。Same passphrase, then you will be able to restore your backed-up data.
    • 不同的通行短语,则无法还原已备份的数据。Different passphrase, then you will not be able to restore your backed-up data.
  • 如果在不同的计算机上安装代理时使用了:If you install the agent on a different machine with
    • 相同的通行短语(在原始计算机中使用的通行短语),则可以还原已备份的数据。Same passphrase (used in the original machine), then you will be able to restore your backed-up data.
    • 不同的通行短语,则无法还原已备份的数据。Different passphrase, you will not be able to restore your backed-up data.
  • 如果原始计算机已损坏(阻止你通过 MARS 控制台重新生成通行短语),但你可以还原或访问 MARS 代理使用的原始暂存文件夹,则你也许可以还原(如果忘记了密码)。If your original machine is corrupted (preventing you from regenerating the passphrase through the MARS console), but you can restore or access the original scratch folder used by the MARS agent, then you might be able to restore (if you forgot the password). 若要获取更多帮助,请联系客户支持人员。For more assistance, contact Customer Support.

如果丢失了原始计算机(在其中创建备份的计算机),如何予以恢复?How do I recover if I lost my original machine (where backups were taken)?

如果你持有原始计算机的相同通行短语(在注册期间提供的通行短语),可将备份的数据还原到备用计算机。If you have the same passphrase (that you provided during registration) of the original machine, then you can restore the backed-up data to an alternate machine. 请查看以下方案了解还原选项。Review the scenarios below to understand your restore options.

原始计算机Original Machine 通行短语Passphrase 可用选项Available Options
丢失Lost 可用Available 可以在另一台计算机上安装并注册 MARS 代理,该计算机包含你在注册原始计算机期间提供的相同通行短语。You can install and register the MARS agent on another machine with the same passphrase that you provided during registration of the original machine. 选择“恢复选项” > “另一位置”执行还原。 Choose Recovery Option > Another location to perform your restore. 有关详细信息,请参阅此文For more information, see this article.
丢失Lost 丢失Lost 无法恢复数据或数据不可用Not possible to recover the data or data is not available

如果取消正在进行的还原作业,会发生什么情况?What happens if I cancel an ongoing restore job?

如果取消正在进行的还原作业,则还原过程会停止。If an ongoing restore job is canceled, the restore process stops. 在取消之前还原的所有文件将保留在已配置的目标位置(原始位置或备用位置),而不进行任何回退。All files restored before the cancellation stay in configured destination (original or alternate location), without any rollbacks.

MARS 代理是否可以备份和还原针对文件、文件夹和卷设置的 ACL?Does the MARS agent back up and restore ACLs set on files, folders, and volumes?

  • MARS 代理可以备份针对文件、文件夹和卷上设置的 ACLThe MARS agent backs up ACLs set on files, folders, and volumes
  • 对于卷还原恢复选项,MARS 代理将提供一个选项,用于跳过还原所要恢复的文件或文件夹的 ACL 权限。For Volume Restore recovery option, the MARS agent provides an option to skip restoring ACL permissions to the file or folder being recovered
  • 对于单个文件和文件夹的恢复选项,MARS 代理将还原 ACL 权限(不提供跳过 ACL 还原的选项)。For the individual file and folders recovery option, the MARS agent will restore with ACL permissions (there is no option to skip ACL restore).

后续步骤Next steps

了解如何备份 Windows 计算机。Learn how to back up a Windows machine.