Azure IoT 中心是什么?What is Azure IoT Hub?

IoT 中心托管服务在云中进行托管,充当中央消息中心,用于 IoT 应用程序与其管理的设备之间的双向通信。IoT Hub is a managed service, hosted in the cloud, that acts as a central message hub for bi-directional communication between your IoT application and the devices it manages. 可以使用 Azure IoT 中心,将数百万 IoT 设备和云托管解决方案后端之间建立可靠又安全的通信,生成 IoT 解决方案。You can use Azure IoT Hub to build IoT solutions with reliable and secure communications between millions of IoT devices and a cloud-hosted solution backend. 几乎可以将任何设备连接到 IoT 中心。You can connect virtually any device to IoT Hub.

IoT 中心支持设备与云之间的双向通信。IoT Hub supports communications both from the device to the cloud and from the cloud to the device. IoT 中心支持多种消息传递模式,例如设备到云的遥测、从设备上传文件以及从云控制设备的请求-回复方式。IoT Hub supports multiple messaging patterns such as device-to-cloud telemetry, file upload from devices, and request-reply methods to control your devices from the cloud. IoT 中心的监视功能可跟踪各种事件(例如设备创建、设备故障和设备连接),有助于维持解决方案的良好运行。IoT Hub monitoring helps you maintain the health of your solution by tracking events such as device creation, device failures, and device connections.

IoT 中心的功能有助于生成可缩放且功能完整的 IoT 解决方案,例如管理制造业中使用的工业设备、跟踪医疗保健中宝贵的资产以及监视办公大楼使用情况。IoT Hub's capabilities help you build scalable, full-featured IoT solutions such as managing industrial equipment used in manufacturing, tracking valuable assets in healthcare, and monitoring office building usage.

缩放解决方案Scale your solution

IoT 中心可扩展为数百万个同时连接的设备,以及每秒数百万个事件以支持 IoT 工作负载。IoT Hub scales to millions of simultaneously connected devices and millions of events per second to support your IoT workloads. 有关缩放 IoT 中心的详细信息,请参阅 IoT 中心缩放For more information about scaling your IoT Hub, see IoT Hub Scaling. 若要详细了解 IoT 中心提供的多层服务以及如何最好地满足可伸缩性需求,请查看定价页To learn more about the multiple tiers of service offered by IoT Hub and how to best fit your scalability needs, check out the pricing page.

保护通信Secure your communications

IoT 中心为发送数据的设备提供保护信道。IoT Hub gives you a secure communication channel for your devices to send data.

  • 通过对每个设备进行身份验证,可以安全地将每个设备连接到 IoT 中心,并且安全地管理这些设备。Per-device authentication enables each device to connect securely to IoT Hub and for each device to be managed securely.

  • 可以完全控制设备访问,并可以根据每个设备的级别控制连接。You have complete control over device access and can control connections at the per-device level.

  • IoT 中心设备预配服务在设备首次启动时,自动将设备提供给正确的 IoT 中心。The IoT Hub Device Provisioning Service automatically provisions devices to the right IoT hub when the device first boots up.

  • 多种身份验证类型支持各种设备功能:Multiple authentication types support a variety of device capabilities:

    • 基于 SAS 令牌的身份验证可快速启动 IoT 解决方案。SAS token-based authentication to quickly get started with your IoT solution.
    • 单个 X.509 证书身份验证,用于安全、以标准为基础的身份验证。Individual X.509 certificate authentication for secure, standards-based authentication.
    • X.509 CA 身份验证,用于简单、以标准为基础的注册。X.509 CA authentication for simple, standards-based enrollment.

路由设备数据Route device data

内置的消息路由功能可以灵活地设置基于规则的自动消息扇出:Built-in message routing functionality gives you flexibility to setup automatic rules-based message fan-out:

  • 使用消息路由控制你的中心发送设备遥测数据的位置。Use message routing to control where your hub sends device telemetry.

  • 无需支付额外费用,即可将消息路由到多个终结点。There is no additional cost to route messages to multiple endpoints.

  • 无代码路由规则替代了自定义消息调度程序代码。No-code routing rules take the place of custom message dispatcher code.

与其他服务集成Integrate with other services

可以将 IoT 中心与其他 Azure 服务集成,生成完整的端对端解决方案。You can integrate IoT Hub with other Azure services to build complete, end-to-end solutions. 例如,使用:For example, use:

配置和控制设备Configure and control your devices

可以通过一系列的内置功能,管理连接到 IoT 中心的设备。You can manage your devices connected to IoT Hub with an array of built-in functionality.

  • 存储、同步和查询设备元数据和所有设备的状态信息。Store, synchronize, and query device metadata and state information for all your devices.
  • 根据每个设备或设备的共同功能设置设备状态。Set device state either per-device or based on common characteristics of devices.
  • 通过信息路由集成自动响应报告设备的状态更改。Automatically respond to a device-reported state change with message routing integration.

使解决方案具有高可用性Make your solution highly available

IoT 中心的服务级别协议提供 99.9% 的可用性。There's a 99.9% Service Level Agreement for IoT Hub. 完整 Azure SLA 说明了 Azure 作为整体的保证可用性。The full Azure SLA explains the guaranteed availability of Azure as a whole.

连接数据Connect your devices

使用 Azure IoT 设备 SDK 库,生成在设备上运行且与 IoT 中心集成的应用程序。Use the Azure IoT device SDK libraries to build applications that run on your devices and interact with IoT Hub. 支持的平台包括多个 Linux 分发版、Windows 和实时操作系统。Supported platforms include multiple Linux distributions, Windows, and real-time operating systems. 支持的语言包括:Supported languages include:

  • CC
  • C#C#
  • JavaJava
  • PythonPython
  • Node.js。Node.js.

IoT 中心和设备 SDK 支持用于连接设备的以下协议:IoT Hub and the device SDKs support the following protocols for connecting devices:

  • HTTPSHTTPS
  • AMQPAMQP
  • 基于 WebSockets 的 AMQPAMQP over WebSockets
  • MQTTMQTT
  • 基于 WebSocket 的 MQTTMQTT over WebSockets

如果解决方案无法使用设备库,则设备可以使用 MQTT v3.1.1、HTTPS 1.1 或 AMQP 1.0 协议,以本地化的方式连接到中心。If your solution cannot use the device libraries, devices can use the MQTT v3.1.1, HTTPS 1.1, or AMQP 1.0 protocols to connect natively to your hub.

如果解决方案无法使用其中一种支持的协议,则可以将 IoT 中心扩展到支持自定义协议:If your solution cannot use one of the supported protocols, you can extend IoT Hub to support custom protocols:

配额和限制Quotas and limits

每个 Azure 订阅都有默认的配额限制以防止服务滥用,并且这些限制可能会影响 IoT 解决方案的作用域。Each Azure subscription has default quota limits in place to prevent service abuse, and these limits could impact the scope of your IoT solution. 每个订阅的当前限制是每个订阅 50 个 IoT 中心。The current limit on a per-subscription basis is 50 IoT hubs per subscription. 可以通过联系支持人员,请求增加配额。You can request quota increases by contacting support. 有关详细信息,请参阅 IoT 中心配额和限制For more information, see IoT Hub Quotas and Throttling. 有关配额限制的详细信息,请参阅以下文章之一:For more details on quota limits, see one of the following articles:

后续步骤Next steps

若要尝试端对端的 IoT 解决方案,请参阅 IoT 中心快速入门:To try out an end-to-end IoT solution, check out the IoT Hub quickstarts: