弹性数据库工具词汇表Elastic Database tools glossary

Azure SQL 数据库中的弹性数据库工具功能的术语定义如下。The following terms are defined for the Elastic Database tools, a feature of Azure SQL Database. 这些工具用于管理分片映射,包括客户端库拆分/合并工具弹性池查询The tools are used to manage shard maps, and include the client library, the split-merge tool, elastic pools, and queries.

使用弹性数据库工具添加分片使用 RecoveryManager 类解决分片映射问题中用到了这些术语。These terms are used in Adding a shard using Elastic Database tools and Using the RecoveryManager class to fix shard map problems.

弹性缩放术语

数据库:Azure SQL 数据库。Database: An Azure SQL database.

依赖于数据的路由:使应用程序能够连接到给定了特定分片键的分片的功能。Data dependent routing: The functionality that enables an application to connect to a shard given a specific sharding key. 请参阅依赖于数据的路由See Data dependent routing. 多分片查询进行比较。Compare to Multi-Shard Query.

全局分片映射分片集内分片键及其各自分片之间的映射。Global shard map: The map between sharding keys and their respective shards within a shard set. 全局分片映射存储在分片映射管理器中。The global shard map is stored in the shard map manager. 局部分片映射进行比较。Compare to local shard map.

列表分片映射:在其中单独映射分片键的分片映射。List shard map: A shard map in which sharding keys are mapped individually. 范围分片映射进行比较。Compare to Range Shard Map.

局部分片映射:局部分片映射(存储在分片上)包含驻留在该分片上的 shardlet 的映射。Local shard map: Stored on a shard, the local shard map contains mappings for the shardlets that reside on the shard.

多分片查询:能够针对多个分片发出查询;使用 UNION ALL 语义(也称为“扇出查询”)返回结果集。Multi-shard query: The ability to issue a query against multiple shards; results sets are returned using UNION ALL semantics (also known as "fan-out query"). 依赖于数据的路由进行比较。Compare to data dependent routing.

多租户单租户:下面显示的是单租户数据库和多租户数据库:Multi-tenant and Single-tenant: This shows a single-tenant database and a multi-tenant database:

单租户数据库和多租户数据库

下面显示的是分片单租户数据库和多租户数据库。Here is a representation of sharded single and multi-tenant databases.

单租户数据库和多租户数据库

范围分片映射:分片分发策略在其中基于多个连续值范围的分片映射。Range shard map: A shard map in which the shard distribution strategy is based on multiple ranges of contiguous values.

引用表:未进行分片,但在分片间进行复制的表。Reference tables: Tables that are not sharded but are replicated across shards. 例如,可以在引用表中存储邮政编码。For example, zip codes can be stored in a reference table.

分片:用于存储分片数据集中的数据的 Azure SQL 数据库。Shard: An Azure SQL database that stores data from a sharded data set.

分片弹性:执行横向缩放纵向缩放的能力。Shard elasticity: The ability to perform both horizontal scaling and vertical scaling.

分片表:已进行分片的表,即在基于其分片键值的分片中分发其数据。Sharded tables: Tables that are sharded, i.e., whose data is distributed across shards based on their sharding key values.

分片键:确定如何在分片上分发数据的列值。Sharding key: A column value that determines how data is distributed across shards. 值类型可以是下列其中一项:intbigintvarbinaryuniqueidentifierThe value type can be one of the following: int, bigint, varbinary, or uniqueidentifier.

分片集:属于分片映射管理器中相同分片映射的分片集合。Shard set: The collection of shards that are attributed to the same shard map in the shard map manager.

Shardlet:与分片上分片键的单个值相关联的所有数据。Shardlet: All of the data associated with a single value of a sharding key on a shard. 当重新分发分片表时,shardlet 是可能的数据移动的最小单元。A shardlet is the smallest unit of data movement possible when redistributing sharded tables.

分片映射:分片键及其各自分片之间的映射集。Shard map: The set of mappings between sharding keys and their respective shards.

分片映射管理器:包含分片映射、分片位置和一个或多个分片集的映射的管理对象和数据存储。Shard map manager: A management object and data store that contains the shard map(s), shard locations, and mappings for one or more shard sets.

映射

动词Verbs

横向缩放:通过将分片添加到分片映射或删除分片,向外(或向内)扩展分片集合的行为。Horizontal scaling: The act of scaling out (or in) a collection of shards by adding or removing shards to a shard map, as shown below.

横向缩放与纵向缩放

合并:将 shardlet 从两个分片移动到一个分片,并且相应地更新分片映射的行为。Merge: The act of moving shardlets from two shards to one shard and updating the shard map accordingly.

Shardlet 移动:将单个 shardlet 移动到不同分片的行为。Shardlet move: The act of moving a single shardlet to a different shard.

分片:基于分片键对多个数据库上结构相同的数据进行水平分区的行为。Shard: The act of horizontally partitioning identically structured data across multiple databases based on a sharding key.

拆分:将几个 shardlet 从一个分片移动到另一个(通常是新的)分片的行为。Split: The act of moving several shardlets from one shard to another (typically new) shard. 由用户提供的作为拆分点的分片键。A sharding key is provided by the user as the split point.

纵向缩放:向上(或向下)缩放单个分片的计算大小的行为。Vertical Scaling: The act of scaling up (or down) the compute size of an individual shard. 例如,将分片从标准版更改为高级版(这会导致需要更多的计算资源)。For example, changing a shard from Standard to Premium (which results in more computing resources).

其他资源Additional resources

尚未使用弹性数据库工具?Not using elastic database tools yet? 请查看入门指南Check out our Getting Started Guide.