Azure SQL 数据库功能Azure SQL Database Features

Azure SQL 数据库服务与最新稳定版本的 SQL Server 共享一个通用代码库。Azure SQL Database service shares a common code base with the latest stable version of SQL Server. 大多数标准 SQL 语言、查询处理和数据库管理功能在 SQL Server 和 Azure SQL 数据库中都是相同的。Most of the standard SQL language, query processing, and database management features are identical in SQL Server and Azure SQL Database. 在 SQL Server 和所有风格的 Azure SQL 数据库中通用的功能如下:The features that are common in SQL Server and all flavors of Azure SQL Database are:

Azure SQL 数据库将管理数据库并保证其高可用性。Azure SQL Database manages your databases and guarantees their high-availability. 可能影响高可用性或无法在 PaaS 领域中使用的某些功能在 Azure SQL 数据库中会受到限制。Some features that might affect high-availability or cannot be used in PaaS world have limited functionalities in Azure SQL Database. 此外,某些数据库功能取决于创建的 Azure SQL 数据库的类型。In addition, some database features depend on the type of Azure SQL Database that you create. 下表描述了这些功能。These features are described in the tables below. 使用 Azure SQL 数据库,可以作为托管实例、单一数据库或弹性池的一部分创建一个数据库。With Azure SQL Database, you can create a database as part of a managed instance, as a single database, or as part of an elastic pool. 如需有关差异的更多详细信息,请查看单一数据库和弹性池托管实例中的相关页面。If you need more details about the differences, you can find them in the separate pages for Single database and Elastic pools or Managed Instance.

SQL 功能SQL features

下表列出了 SQL Server 的主要功能,并说明该功能在托管实例或单一数据库和弹性池中是部分受支持还是完全受支持,同时提供了该功能的详细信息链接。The following table lists the major features of SQL Server and provides information about whether the feature is partially or fully supported in Managed Instance or Single Database and Elastic pools, with a link to more information about the feature.

SQL 功能SQL Feature 单一数据库和弹性池Single databases and elastic pools 托管实例Managed instances
Always EncryptedAlways Encrypted 是 - 请参阅证书存储密钥保管库Yes - see Cert store and Key vault 是 - 请参阅证书存储密钥保管库Yes - see Cert store and Key vault
Always On 可用性组Always On Availability Groups 每个数据库都保证 99.99-99.995% 可用性99.99-99.995% availability is guaranteed for every database. 简要介绍如何使用 Azure SQL 数据库确保业务连续性中对灾难恢复进行了讨论Disaster recovery is discussed in Overview of business continuity with Azure SQL Database 每个数据库都保证 99.99.% 可用性,并且不能由用户管理99.99.% availability is guaranteed for every database and cannot be managed by user. 简要介绍如何使用 Azure SQL 数据库确保业务连续性中对灾难恢复进行了讨论。Disaster recovery is discussed in Overview of business continuity with Azure SQL Database. 使用自动故障转移组在另一个区域中配置辅助 Always On 托管实例。Use Auto-failover groups to configure secondary Always On Managed Instance in another region. 不能将其他 SQL Server 实例和单一数据库用作托管实例的辅助数据库。Other SQL Server instances and Single databases cannot be used as secondaries for Managed Instance.
附加数据库Attach a database No No
审核Auditing Yes ,但有一些差异Yes, with some differences
Azure Active Directory (AAD) 身份验证Azure Active Directory (AAD) authentication 是的。Yes. 仅限 AAD 用户。AAD users only. 是的。Yes. 包括服务器级 AAD 登录名。Including server-level AAD logins.
备份命令BACKUP command 否,仅系统启动的自动备份 - 请参阅自动备份No, only system-initiated automatic backups - see Automated backups 是,用户发起的仅将备份复制到 Azure Blob 存储的操作(用户无法发起自动系统备份)- 请参阅备份差异Yes, user initiated copy-only backups to Azure Blob Storage (automatic system backups cannot be initiated by user) - see Backup differences
内置函数Built-in functions 大多数 - 请参阅单个函数Most - see individual functions 是 - 请参阅存储过程、函数和触发器差异Yes - see Stored procedures, functions, triggers differences
BULK INSERT 语句BULK INSERT statement 是,但是只能从充当源的 Azure Blob 存储进行。Yes, but just from Azure Blob storage as a source. 是,但是只能从充当源的 Azure Blob 存储进行 - 请参阅差异Yes, but just from Azure Blob Storage as a source - see differences.
证书和非对称密钥Certificates and asymmetric keys 是,无法访问文件系统完成 BACKUPCREATE 操作。Yes, without access to file system for BACKUP and CREATE operations. 是,无法访问文件系统完成 BACKUPCREATE 操作 - 请参阅证书差异Yes, without access to file system for BACKUP and CREATE operations - see certificate differences.
更改数据捕获 - CDCChange data capture - CDC No Yes
排序规则 - 服务器/实例Collation - server/instance 否,始终使用默认的逻辑服务器排序规则 SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_ASNo, default logical server collation SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS is always used. 是,可以在创建实例时设置,以后不可更新。Yes, can be set when the instance is created and cannot be updated later.
列存储索引Columnstore indexes 是 - 高级层、标准层 - S3 及以上层、常规用途层、业务关键层和超大规模层Yes - Premium tier, Standard tier - S3 and above, General Purpose tier, Business Critical, and HyperScale tiers Yes
公共语言运行时 - CLRCommon language runtime - CLR No 是,但无权在 CREATE ASSEMBLY 语句中访问文件系统 - 请参阅 CLR 差异Yes, but without access to file system in CREATE ASSEMBLY statement - see CLR differences
凭据Credentials 是,但是仅限数据库范围的凭据Yes, but only database scoped credentials. 是,但仅支持 Azure Key VaultSHARED ACCESS SIGNATURE,请参阅详细信息Yes, but only Azure Key Vault and SHARED ACCESS SIGNATURE are supported see details
跨数据库/三部分名称查询Cross-database/three-part name queries 否 - 请参阅弹性查询No - see Elastic queries 是,外加弹性查询Yes, plus Elastic queries
跨数据库事务Cross-database transactions No 是,在实例中。Yes, within the instance. 对于跨实例查询,请参阅链接服务器的差异See Linked server differences for cross-instance queries.
数据库邮件 - DbMailDatabase mail - DbMail No Yes
数据库镜像Database mirroring No No
数据库快照Database snapshots No No
DBCC 语句DBCC statements 大多数 - 请参阅单个语句Most - see individual statements 是 - 请参阅 DBCC 差异Yes - see DBCC differences
DDL 语句DDL statements 大多数 - 请参阅单个语句Most - see individual statements 是 - 请参阅 T-SQL 差异Yes - see T-SQL differences
DDL 触发器DDL triggers 仅数据库Database only Yes
分布式分区视图Distributed partition views No Yes
分布式事务 - MS DTCDistributed transactions - MS DTC 否 - 请参阅弹性事务No - see Elastic transactions 否 - 请参阅链接服务器的差异No - see Linked server differences. 尝试在迁移过程中将多个分布式 SQL Server 实例中的数据库整合到一个托管实例中。Try to consolidate databases from several distributed SQL Server instances into one managed instance during migration.
DML 触发器DML triggers 大多数 - 请参阅单个语句Most - see individual statements Yes
DMVDMVs 大多数 - 请参阅单个 DMVMost - see individual DMVs 是 - 请参阅 T-SQL 差异Yes - see T-SQL differences
事件通知Event notifications 否 - 请参阅警报No - see Alerts No
表达式Expressions Yes Yes
扩展事件 (XEvent)Extended events (XEvent) 部分 - 请参阅 SQL 数据库中的扩展事件Some - see Extended events in SQL Database 是 - 请参阅扩展事件的差异Yes - see Extended events differences
扩展的存储过程Extended stored procedures No No
文件和文件组Files and file groups 仅限主文件组Primary file group only 是的。Yes. 文件路径是自动分配的,不能在 ALTER DATABASE ADD FILE 语句中指定文件位置。File paths are automatically assigned and the file location cannot be specified in ALTER DATABASE ADD FILE statement.
文件流Filestream No No
全文搜索 (FTS)Full-text search (FTS) 是,但不支持第三方断字符Yes, but third-party word breakers are not supported 是,但不支持第三方断字符Yes, but third-party word breakers are not supported
函数Functions 大多数 - 请参阅单个函数Most - see individual functions 是 - 请参阅存储过程、函数和触发器差异Yes - see Stored procedures, functions, triggers differences
内存中优化In-memory optimization 是 - 仅限“高级”和“业务关键”层级对非持久性内存中对象(例如表类型)的支持有限Yes - Premium and Business Critical tiers only Limited support for non-persistent In-Memory objects such as table types 是 - 仅限业务关键层Yes - Business Critical tier only
语言元素Language elements 大多数 - 请参阅单个元素Most - see individual elements 是 - 请参阅 T-SQL 差异Yes - see T-SQL differences
链接服务器Linked servers 否 - 请参阅弹性查询No - see Elastic query 是的。Yes. 仅适用于没有分布式事务的 SQL Server 和 SQL 数据库Only to SQL Server and SQL Database without distributed transactions.
从文件(CSV、Excel)中读取数据的链接服务器Linked servers that read from files (CSV, Excel) 否。No. 使用 BULK INSERTOPENROWSET 来替代 CSV 格式。Use BULK INSERT or OPENROWSET as an alternative for CSV format. 否。No. 使用 BULK INSERTOPENROWSET 来替代 CSV 格式。Use BULK INSERT or OPENROWSET as an alternative for CSV format.
日志传送Log shipping 每个数据库均包含高可用性High availability is included with every database. 简要介绍如何使用 Azure SQL 数据库确保业务连续性中对灾难恢复进行了讨论Disaster recovery is discussed in Overview of business continuity with Azure SQL Database 原生作为 DMS 迁移过程的一部分内置。Natively built in as a part of DMS migration process. 不可用作高可用性解决方案,因为每个数据库都附带其他高可用性方法,并且我们不建议使用日志传送作为高可用性替代方案。Not available as High availability solution, because other High availability methods are included with every database and it is not recommended to use Log-shipping as HA alternative. 简要介绍如何使用 Azure SQL 数据库确保业务连续性中对灾难恢复进行了讨论。Disaster recovery is discussed in Overview of business continuity with Azure SQL Database. 不可用作数据库之间的复制机制 - 请使用业务关键层自动故障转移组事务复制中的辅助副本作为替代方案。Not available as a replication mechanism between databases - use secondary replicas on Business Critical tier, auto-failover groups, or transactional replication as the alternatives.
登录名和用户Logins and users 是,但是 CREATEALTER 登录语句不提供所有选项(没有 Windows 和服务器级别 Azure Active Directory 登录名)。Yes, but CREATE and ALTER login statements do not offer all the options (no Windows and server-level Azure Active Directory logins). 不支持 EXECUTE AS LOGIN - 请改用 EXECUTE AS USEREXECUTE AS LOGIN is not supported - use EXECUTE AS USER instead. 是,但有一些差异Yes, with some differences. 不支持 Windows 登录名,应将其替换为 Azure Active Directory 登录名。Windows logins are not supported and they should be replaced with Azure Active Directory logins.
批量导入中的最小日志记录Minimal logging in bulk import 否,仅支持完整恢复模式。No, only Full Recovery model is supported. 否,仅支持完整恢复模式。No, only Full Recovery model is supported.
修改系统数据Modifying system data No Yes
OLE 自动化OLE Automation No No
OPENDATASOURCEOPENDATASOURCE No 是,仅适用于其他 Azure SQL 数据库和 SQL Server。Yes, only to other Azure SQL Databases and SQL Servers. 请参阅 T-SQL 差异See T-SQL differences
OPENQUERYOPENQUERY No 是,仅适用于其他 Azure SQL 数据库和 SQL Server。Yes, only to other Azure SQL Databases and SQL Servers. 请参阅 T-SQL 差异See T-SQL differences
OPENROWSETOPENROWSET 是,只是为了从 Azure Blob 存储导入。Yes, only to import from Azure Blob storage. 是,仅适用于其他 Azure SQL 数据库和 SQL Server,以及从 Azure Blob 存储进行导入的操作。Yes, only to other Azure SQL Databases and SQL Servers, and to import from Azure Blob storage. 请参阅 T-SQL 差异See T-SQL differences
运算符Operators 大多数 - 请参阅单个运算符Most - see individual operators 是 - 请参阅 T-SQL 差异Yes - see T-SQL differences
PolybasePolybase 否。No. 可以使用 OPENROWSET 函数查询 Azure Blob 存储上的文件中的数据。You can query data in the files placed on Azure Blob Storage using OPENROWSET function. 否。No. 可以使用 OPENROWSET 函数查询 Azure Blob 存储上的文件中的数据。You can query data in the files placed on Azure Blob Storage using OPENROWSET function.
查询通知Query Notifications No Yes
恢复模型Recovery models 仅支持保证高可用性的完整恢复。Only Full Recovery that guarantees high availability is supported. “简单”和“批量日志记录”恢复模式不可用。Simple and Bulk Logged recovery models are not available. 仅支持保证高可用性的完整恢复。Only Full Recovery that guarantees high availability is supported. “简单”和“批量日志记录”恢复模式不可用。Simple and Bulk Logged recovery models are not available.
资源调控器Resource governor No Yes
RESTORE 语句RESTORE statements No 是,对 Azure Blob 存储上的备份文件使用必需的 FROM URL 选项。Yes, with mandatory FROM URL options for the backups files placed on Azure Blob Storage. 请参阅还原差异See Restore differences
从备份还原数据库Restore database from backup 仅从自动备份 - 请参阅 SQL 数据库恢复From automated backups only - see SQL Database recovery 从自动备份 - 请参阅 SQL 数据库恢复;从 Azure Blob 存储中的完整备份 - 请参阅备份差异From automated backups - see SQL Database recovery and from full backups placed on Azure Blob Storage - see Backup differences
将数据库还原到 SQL ServerRestore database to SQL Server 否。No. 使用 BACPAC 或 BCP 而不是本机还原。Use BACPAC or BCP instead of native restore. 否,因为托管实例中使用的 SQL Server 数据库引擎的版本高于本地使用的任何 SQL Server RTM 版本。No, because SQL Server Database Engine used in Managed Instance has higher version than any RTM version of SQL Server used on-premises. 改用 BACPAC、BCP 或事务复制。Use BACPAC, BCP, or Transactional replication instead.
语义搜索Semantic search No No
Service BrokerService Broker No 是,但仅限在实例中。Yes, but only within the instance. 如果使用远程 Service Broker 路由,请在迁移期间尝试将多个分布式 SQL Server 实例中的数据库整合到一个托管实例中,并只使用本地路由。If you are using remote Service Broker routes, try to consolidate databases from several distributed SQL Server instances into one managed instance during migration and use only local routes. 请参阅 Service Broker 差异See Service Broker differences
服务器配置设置Server configuration settings No 是 - 请参阅 T-SQL 差异Yes - see T-SQL differences
SET 语句Set statements 大多数 - 请参阅单个语句Most - see individual statements 是 - 请参阅 T-SQL 差异Yes - see T-SQL differences
SQL Server 代理SQL Server Agent 否 - 请参阅弹性作业No - see Elastic jobs 是 - 请参阅 SQL Server 代理差异Yes - see SQL Server Agent differences
SQL Server 审核SQL Server Auditing 否 - 请参阅 SQL 数据库审核No - see SQL Database auditing 是 - 请参阅审核差异Yes - see Auditing differences
系统存储函数System stored functions 大多数 - 请参阅单个函数Most - see individual functions 是 - 请参阅存储过程、函数和触发器差异Yes - see Stored procedures, functions, triggers differences
系统存储过程System stored procedures 部分 - 请参阅单个存储过程Some - see individual stored procedures 是 - 请参阅存储过程、函数和触发器差异Yes - see Stored procedures, functions, triggers differences
系统表System tables 部分 - 请参阅单个表Some - see individual tables 是 - 请参阅 T-SQL 差异Yes - see T-SQL differences
系统目录视图System catalog views 部分 - 请参阅单个视图Some - see individual views 是 - 请参阅 T-SQL 差异Yes - see T-SQL differences
TempDBTempDB 是的。Yes. 每个数据库的每个核心为 32GB 大小32GB size per core for every database. 是的。Yes. 整个 GP 层的每个 vCore 为 24GB 大小,受 BC 层上的实例大小限制24GB size per vCore for entire GP tier and limited by instance size on BC tier
临时表Temporary tables 本地和数据库范围的全局临时表Local and database-scoped global temporary tables 本地和实例范围的全局临时表Local and instance-scoped global temporary tables
时区选择Time zone choice No ,必须在创建托管实例时配置。Yes, and it must be configured when the Managed Instance is created.
跟踪标志Trace flags No 是,但仅支持有限的全局跟踪标志集。Yes, but only limited set of global trace flags. 请参阅 DBCC 差异See DBCC differences
事务复制Transactional Replication 是,仅限事务性和快照复制订户Yes, Transactional and snapshot replication subscriber only 是,目前为公共预览版Yes, in public preview. 请参阅此处的约束。See the constraints here.
透明数据加密 (TDE)Transparent data encryption (TDE) 是 - 仅限“常规用途”和“业务关键”服务层级Yes - General Purpose and Business Critical service tiers only Yes
Windows 身份验证Windows authentication No No
Windows Server 故障转移群集Windows Server Failover Clustering 否。No. 每个数据库附带提供高可用性的其他技术。Other techniques that provide high availability are included with every database. 简要介绍如何使用 Azure SQL 数据库确保业务连续性中对灾难恢复进行了讨论Disaster recovery is discussed in Overview of business continuity with Azure SQL Database 否。No. 每个数据库附带提供高可用性的其他技术。Other techniques that provide high availability are included with every database. 简要介绍如何使用 Azure SQL 数据库确保业务连续性中对灾难恢复进行了讨论Disaster recovery is discussed in Overview of business continuity with Azure SQL Database

平台功能Platform capabilities

Azure 平台提供许多 PaaS 功能,可以增大标准数据库功能的价值。Azure platform provides a number of PaaS capabilities that are added as an additional value to the standard Database features. 可将许多外部服务与 Azure SQL 数据库服务配合使用。There is a number of external services that can be used with Azure SQL Database service.

平台功能Platform Feature 单一数据库和弹性池Single databases and elastic pools 托管实例Managed instances
活动异地复制Active geo-replication 是 - 除超大规模之外的所有服务层级Yes - all service tiers other than hyperscale 否,请参阅用作替代方案的自动故障转移组No, see Auto-failover groups as an alternative
自动故障转移组Auto-failover groups 是 - 除超大规模之外的所有服务层级Yes - all service tiers other than hyperscale 是,请参阅自动故障转移组Yes, see Auto-failover groups
自动缩放Auto-scale 是,但仅限无服务器模型Yes, but only in serverless model. 在非服务器模式下,可以快速联机更改服务层级(更改 vCore、存储或 DTU)。In the non-serverless model, the change of service tier (change of vCore, storage, or DTU) is fast and online. 更改服务层级只会造成极短时间的停机,甚至不会导致任何停机。The service tier change requires minimal or no downtime. 否,需要选择预留的计算和存储。No, you need to choose reserved compute and storage. 可联机更改服务层级(vCore 或最大存储),只会造成极短时间的停机,甚至不会导致任何停机。The change of service tier (vCore or max storage) is online and requires minimal or no downtime.
自动备份Automatic backups 是的。Yes. 完整备份每 7 天一次,差异备份每 12 小时一次,日志备份每 5-10 分钟一次。Full backups are taken every 7 days, differential 12 hours, and log backups every 5-10 min. 是的。Yes. 完整备份每 7 天一次,差异备份每 12 小时一次,日志备份每 5-10 分钟一次。Full backups are taken every 7 days, differential 12 hours, and log backups every 5-10 min.
自动优化(索引)Automatic tuning (indexes) Yes No
Azure 资源运行状况Azure Resource Health Yes No
备份保留Backup retention 是的。Yes. 默认为 7 天,最长 35 天。7 days default, max 35 days. 是的。Yes. 默认为 7 天,最长 35 天。7 days default, max 35 days.
数据迁移服务 (DMS)Data Migration Service (DMS) Yes Yes
文件系统访问File system access 否。No. 使用 BULK INSERTOPENROWSET 作为替代方法来访问和加载 Azure Blob 存储中的数据。Use BULK INSERT or OPENROWSET to access and load data from Azure Blob Storage as an alternative. 否。No. 使用 BULK INSERTOPENROWSET 作为替代方法来访问和加载 Azure Blob 存储中的数据。Use BULK INSERT or OPENROWSET to access and load data from Azure Blob Storage as an alternative.
异地还原Geo-restore 是 - 除超大规模之外的所有服务层级Yes - all service tiers other than hyperscale 是 - 除超大规模之外的所有服务层级Yes - all service tiers other than hyperscale
超大规模体系结构Hyperscale architecture Yes No
长期备份保留 - LTRLong-term backup retention - LTR 是,将自动创建的备份最长保留 10 年。Yes, keep automatically taken backups up to 10 years. 还不可以。Not yet. 使用 COPY_ONLY 手动备份作为临时解决方法。Use COPY_ONLY manual backups as a temporary workaround.
暂停/恢复Pause/resume 是,在无服务器模型Yes, in serverless model No
基于策略的管理Policy-based management No No
公共 IP 地址Public IP address 是的。Yes. 访问权限可以使用防火墙或服务终结点来限制。The access can be restricted using firewall or service endpoints. 是的。Yes. 需要显式启用,且必须在 NSG 规则中启用端口 3342。Needs to be explicitly enabled and port 3342 must be enabled in NSG rules. 可根据需要禁用公共 IP。Public IP can be disabled if needed. 有关更多详细信息,请参阅公共终结点See Public endpoint for more details.
数据库时间点还原Point in time database restore 是 - 除超大规模之外的所有服务层级 - 请参阅 SQL 数据库恢复Yes - all service tiers other than hyperscale - see SQL Database recovery 是 - 请参阅 SQL 数据库恢复Yes - see SQL Database recovery
资源池Resource pools 是,用作弹性池Yes, as Elastic pools 是的。Yes. 单个托管实例可以包含多个共享同一资源池的数据库A single managed instance can have multiple databases that share the same pool of resources
纵向扩展或缩减(联机)Scaling up or down (online) 是,可以更改 DTU、预留的 vCore 数或最大存储,这只会造成极短时间的停机。Yes, you can either change DTU or reserved vCores or max storage with the minimal downtime. 是,可以更改预留的 vCore 数或最大存储,这只会造成极短时间的停机。Yes, you can change reserved vCores or max storage with the minimal downtime.
SQL 别名SQL Alias 否,使用 DNS 别名No, use DNS Alias 否,请使用 Clicongf 在客户端计算机上设置别名。No, use Clicongf to set up alias on the client machines.
SQL 数据同步SQL Data Sync Yes No
SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS)SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS) 否,Azure Analysis Services 是一项单独的 Azure 云服务。No, Azure Analysis Services is a separate Azure cloud service. 否,Azure Analysis Services 是一项单独的 Azure 云服务。No, Azure Analysis Services is a separate Azure cloud service.
SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS)SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) 是,使用 Azure 数据工厂 (ADF) 环境中的托管 SSIS ,其中程序包存储在由 Azure SQL 数据库承载的 SSISDB 中并在 Azure SSIS 集成运行时 (IR) 上执行,请参阅在 ADF 中创建 Azure-SSIS IRYes, with a managed SSIS in Azure Data Factory (ADF) environment, where packages are stored in SSISDB hosted by Azure SQL Database and executed on Azure SSIS Integration Runtime (IR), see Create Azure-SSIS IR in ADF. 否。No.
SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS)SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS) 否 - 请参阅 Power BINo - see Power BI 否 - 请参阅 Power BINo - see Power BI
Query Performance Insights (QPI)Query Performance Insights (QPI) Yes 否。No. 使用 SQL Server Management Studio 和 Azure Data Studio 中的内置报告。Use built-in reports in SQL Server Management Studio and Azure Data Studio.
VNetVNet 部分支持,可以使用 VNet 终结点进行受限访问Partial, it enables restricted access using VNet Endpoints 是,托管实例注入到客户的 VNet 中。Yes, Managed Instance is injected in customer's VNet. 请参阅子网VNetSee subnet and VNet
VNet 服务终结点VNet Service endpoint Yes No
VNet 全球对等互连VNet Global peering 是,使用专用 IP 和服务终结点Yes, using Private IP and service endpoints 否,由于 VNet 全球对等互连中的负载均衡器约束不支持托管实例No, Managed Instance is not supported due to Load balancer constraint in VNet global peering.

工具Tools

Azure SQL 数据库支持使用各种数据工具来帮助管理数据。Azure SQL database supports various data tools that can help you to manage your data.

工具Tool 单一数据库和弹性池Single databases and elastic pools 托管实例Managed instances
Azure 门户Azure portal Yes Yes
Azure CLIAzure CLI Yes Yes
Azure Data StudioAzure Data Studio Yes Yes
Azure PowershellAzure Powershell Yes Yes
BACPAC 文件(导出)BACPAC file (export) 是 - 请参阅 SQL 数据库导出Yes - see SQL Database export 是 - 请参阅 SQL 数据库导出Yes - see SQL Database export
BACPAC 文件(导入)BACPAC file (import) 是 - 请参阅 SQL 数据库导入Yes - see SQL Database import 是 - 请参阅 SQL 数据库导入Yes - see SQL Database import
Data Quality Services (DQS)Data Quality Services (DQS) No No
Master Data Services (MDS)Master Data Services (MDS) No No
SMOSMO Yes 是,版本 150Yes version 150
SQL Server Data Tools (SSDT)SQL Server Data Tools (SSDT) Yes Yes
SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) Yes 是,18.0 和更高版本Yes version 18.0 and higher
SQL Server PowerShellSQL Server PowerShell Yes Yes
SQL Server ProfilerSQL Server Profiler 否 - 请参阅扩展事件No - see Extended events Yes
System Center Operations Manager (SCOM)System Center Operations Manager (SCOM) Yes 是,处于预览状态Yes, in preview

迁移方法Migration methods

可以使用不同的迁移方法在 SQL Server、单一数据库和托管实例数据库之间移动数据。You can use different migration methods to move your data between SQL Server, Single Database, and Managed Instance databases. 某些方法是联机的,在运行迁移时,它们会拾取对源所做的全部更改;在脱机方法中,当迁移正在进行时,你需要停止正在修改源中数据的工作负荷。Some methods are Online and picking-up all changes that are made on the source while you are running migration, while in Offline methods you need to stop your workload that is modifying data on the source while the migration is in progress.

SourceSource 单一数据库和弹性池Single database and elastic pool 托管实例Managed Instance
SQL Server(本地、Azure VM、Amazon RDS)SQL Server (on-prem, AzureVM, Amazon RDS) 联机: 数据迁移服务 (DMS)事务复制Online: Data Migration Service (DMS), Transactional Replication
脱机: BACPAC 文件(导入)、BCPOffline: BACPAC file (import), BCP
联机: 数据迁移服务 (DMS)事务复制Online: Data Migration Service (DMS), Transactional Replication
脱机: 本机备份/还原、BACPAC 文件(导入)、BCP、快照复制Offline: Native backup/restore, BACPAC file (import), BCP, Snapshot replication
单一数据库Single database 脱机: BACPAC 文件(导入)、BCPOffline: BACPAC file (import), BCP 脱机: BACPAC 文件(导入)、BCPOffline: BACPAC file (import), BCP
托管实例Managed Instance 联机: 事务复制Online: Transactional Replication
脱机: BACPAC 文件(导入)、BCP、快照复制Offline: BACPAC file (import), BCP, Snapshot replication
联机: 事务复制Online: Transactional Replication
脱机: 跨实例时间点还原(Azure PowerShellAzure CLI)、本机备份/还原BACPAC 文件(导入)、BCP、快照复制Offline: Cross-instance point-in-time restore (Azure PowerShell or Azure CLI), Native backup/restore, BACPAC file (import), BCP, Snapshot replication

后续步骤Next steps

有关 Azure SQL 数据库风格的详细信息,请参阅:For more information about the Azure SQL Database flavors, see: