快速入门:在 Azure 门户中创建 Linux 虚拟机Quickstart: Create a Linux virtual machine in the Azure portal

可以通过 Azure 门户创建 Azure 虚拟机 (VM)。Azure virtual machines (VMs) can be created through the Azure portal. Azure 门户是基于浏览器的用户界面,用于创建 VM 及其相关资源。The Azure portal is a browser-based user interface to create VMs and their associated resources. 本快速入门介绍如何使用 Azure 门户部署运行 Ubuntu 16.04 LTS 的 Linux 虚拟机 (VM)。This quickstart shows you how to use the Azure portal to deploy a Linux virtual machine (VM) running Ubuntu 16.04 LTS. 若要查看运行中的 VM,也可以通过 SSH 登录到该 VM 并安装 NGINX Web 服务器。To see your VM in action, you also SSH to the VM and install the NGINX web server.

如果没有 Azure 订阅,可在开始前创建一个试用帐户If you don't have an Azure subscription, create a trial account before you begin.

创建 SSH 密钥对Create SSH key pair

需要一个 SSH 密钥对才能完成本快速入门。You need an SSH key pair to complete this quickstart. 如果已有一个 SSH 密钥对,则可以跳过此步骤。If you already have an SSH key pair, you can skip this step.

打开 bash shell,使用 ssh-keygen 创建一个 SSH 密钥对。Open a bash shell and use ssh-keygen to create an SSH key pair.

ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 2048

上述命令在 ~/.ssh directory 中生成默认名称为 id_rsa 的公钥和私钥。The above command generates public and private keys with the default name of id_rsa in the ~/.ssh directory. 此命令返回公钥的完整路径。The command returns the full path to the public key. 请使用公钥的此路径通过 cat 来显示其内容。Use the path to the public key to display its contents with cat.

cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub

保存此命令的输出。Save the output of this command. 在配置登录到 VM 所需的管理员帐户时,需要用到它。You will need it when configuring your administrator account to log in to your VM.

有关如何创建 SSH 密钥对的更多详细信息,包括 PuTTy 的用法,请参阅如何将 SSH 密钥与 Windows 配合使用For more detailed information on how to create SSH key pairs, including the use of PuTTy, see How to use SSH keys with Windows.

登录 AzureSign in to Azure

登录到 Azure 门户Sign in to the Azure portal.

创建虚拟机Create virtual machine

  1. 在 Azure 门户的左上角,选择“创建资源”。Choose Create a resource in the upper left corner of the Azure portal.

  2. 在 Azure 市场资源列表上方的搜索框中,搜索并选择 Canonical 提供的“Ubuntu Server 16.04 LTS”,然后选择“创建”。In the search box above the list of Azure Marketplace resources, search for and select Ubuntu Server 16.04 LTS by Canonical, then choose Create.

  3. 在“基本信息”选项卡中的“项目详细信息”下,确保选择了正确的订阅,然后在“资源组”下选择“新建”。In the Basics tab, under Project details, make sure the correct subscription is selected and then choose to Create new under Resource group. 在弹出窗口中,键入 myResourceGroup 作为资源组的名称,然后选择“确定”。In the pop-up, type myResourceGroup for the name of the resource group and then choose OK.

    为 VM 创建新的资源组

  4. 在“实例详细信息”下,键入 myVM 作为虚拟机名称,然后选择“中国北部”作为区域Under Instance details, type myVM for the Virtual machine name and choose China North for your your Region. 保留其他默认值。Leave the other defaults.

    “实例详细信息”部分

  5. 在“管理员帐户”下,选择“SSH 公钥”,键入自己的用户名,然后将公钥粘贴到文本框中。Under Administrator account, select SSH public key, type your user name, then paste your public key into the text box. 删除公钥中的任何前导或尾随空格。Remove any leading or trailing white space in your public key.

    管理员帐户

  6. 在“入站端口规则” > “公共入站端口”下,选择“允许所选端口”,然后从下拉列表中选择“SSH (22)”和“HTTP (80)”。Under Inbound port rules > Public inbound ports, choose Allow selected ports and then select SSH (22) and HTTP (80) from the drop-down.

    为 RDP 和 HTTP 打开端口

  7. 保留剩余的默认值,然后选择页面底部的“查看 + 创建”按钮。Leave the remaining defaults and then select the Review + create button at the bottom of the page.

  8. 在“创建虚拟机”页上,可以查看要创建的 VM 的详细信息。On the Create a virtual machine page, you can see the details about the VM you are about to create. 准备好以后,选择“创建”。When you are ready, select Create.

部署 VM 需要数分钟。It will take a few minutes for your VM to be deployed. 部署完成后,请转到下一部分。When the deployment is finished, move on to the next section.

连接到虚拟机Connect to virtual machine

创建与 VM 的 SSH 连接。Create an SSH connection with the VM.

  1. 选择 VM 的概述页面上的“连接”按钮。Select the Connect button on the overview page for your VM.

    门户 9

  2. 在“连接到虚拟机”页面中,请保留默认选项,以使用 IP 地址通过端口 22 进行连接。In the Connect to virtual machine page, keep the default options to connect by IP address over port 22. 在“使用 VM 本地帐户登录”中,将显示一个连接命令。In Login using VM local account a connection command is shown. 单击相应按钮来复制该命令。Click the button to copy the command. 下面的示例展示了 SSH 连接命令的样式:The following example shows what the SSH connection command looks like:

    ssh azureuser@10.111.12.123
    
  3. 使用创建 SSH 密钥对时使用过的 bash shell(例如本地 bash shell)将 SSH 连接命令粘贴到 shell 中,以便创建一个 SSH 会话。Using the same bash shell you used to create your SSH key pair (like your local bash shell) paste the SSH connection command into the shell to create an SSH session.

安装 Web 服务器Install web server

若要查看运行中的 VM,请安装 NGINX Web 服务器。To see your VM in action, install the NGINX web server. 在 SSH 会话中更新包源,然后安装最新的 NGINX 包。From your SSH session, update your package sources and then install the latest NGINX package.

sudo apt-get -y update
sudo apt-get -y install nginx

完成后,键入 exit 以离开 SSH 会话。When done, type exit to leave the SSH session.

查看运行中的 Web 服务器View the web server in action

使用所选的 Web 浏览器查看默认的 NGINX 欢迎页。Use a web browser of your choice to view the default NGINX welcome page. 输入 VM 的公共 IP 地址作为 Web 地址。Enter the public IP address of the VM as the web address. 可以在 VM 概览页上或此前使用过的 SSH 连接字符串中找到公共 IP 地址。The public IP address can be found on the VM overview page or as part of the SSH connection string you used earlier.

NGINX 默认站点

清理资源Clean up resources

不再需要资源组、虚拟机和所有相关的资源时,可将其删除。When no longer needed, you can delete the resource group, virtual machine, and all related resources. 为此,请选择虚拟机的资源组,选择“删除”,然后确认要删除的资源组的名称。To do so, select the resource group for the virtual machine, select Delete, then confirm the name of the resource group to delete.

后续步骤Next steps

在本快速入门中,你部署了一台简单的虚拟机、一条网络安全组规则组和规则,并安装了一台基本 Web 服务器。In this quickstart, you deployed a simple virtual machine, created a Network Security Group and rule, and installed a basic web server. 若要详细了解 Azure 虚拟机,请继续学习 Linux VM 的教程。To learn more about Azure virtual machines, continue to the tutorial for Linux VMs.