关于虚拟中心路由About virtual hub routing

虚拟中心的路由功能由路由器提供,该路由器使用边界网关协议 (BGP) 管理网关之间的所有路由。The routing capabilities in a virtual hub are provided by a router that manages all routing between gateways using Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). 虚拟中心可以包含多个网关,例如站点到站点 VPN 网关、ExpressRoute 网关、点到站点网关、Azure 防火墙。A virtual hub can contain multiple gateways such as a Site-to-site VPN gateway, ExpressRoute gateway, Point-to-site gateway, Azure Firewall. 该路由器还提供与虚拟中心连接的虚拟网络之间的传输连接,最高可支持 50 Gbps 的总吞吐量。This router also provides transit connectivity between virtual networks that connect to a virtual hub and can support up to an aggregate throughput of 50 Gbps. 这些路由功能适用于标准虚拟 WAN 客户。These routing capabilities apply to Standard Virtual WAN customers.

路由概念Routing concepts

以下部分介绍了虚拟中心路由的关键概念。The following sections describe the key concepts in virtual hub routing.

中心路由表Hub route table

虚拟中心路由表可以包含一个或多个路由。A virtual hub route table can contain one or more routes. 路由包括其名称、标签、目标类型、目标前缀列表和要路由的数据包的下一跃点信息。A route includes its name, a label, a destination type, a list of destination prefixes, and next hop information for a packet to be routed. “连接”通常具有一个与路由表关联或传播到路由表的路由配置A Connection typically will have a routing configuration that associated or propagates to a route table

连接Connection

连接是具有路由配置的资源管理器资源。Connections are Resource Manager resources that have a routing configuration. 这四种连接类型为:The four types of connections are:

  • VPN 连接:将 VPN 站点连接到虚拟中心 VPN 网关。VPN connection: Connects a VPN site to a virtual hub VPN gateway.
  • ExpressRoute 连接:将 ExpressRoute 线路连接到虚拟中心 ExpressRoute 网关。ExpressRoute connection: Connects an ExpressRoute circuit to a virtual hub ExpressRoute gateway.
  • P2S 配置连接:将用户 VPN(点到站点)配置连接到虚拟中心用户 VPN(点到站点)网关。P2S configuration connection: Connects a User VPN (Point-to-site) configuration to a virtual hub User VPN (Point-to-site) gateway.
  • 中心虚拟网络连接:将虚拟网络连接到虚拟中心。Hub virtual network connection: Connects virtual networks to a virtual hub.

可以在安装期间为虚拟网络连接设置路由配置。You can set up the routing configuration for a virtual network connection during setup. 默认情况下,所有连接都关联并传播到默认路由表。By default, all connections associate and propagate to the Default route table.

关联Association

每个连接都与一个路由表相关联。Each connection is associated to one route table. 将连接与路由表相关联,使你可以将流量发送到路由表中指定为路由的目标。Associating a connection to a route table allows the traffic to be sent to the destination indicated as routes in the route table. 连接的路由配置将显示关联的路由表。The routing configuration of the connection will show the associated route table. 可以将多个连接关联到相同的路由表。Multiple connections can be associated to the same route table. 所有 VPN、ExpressRoute 和用户 VPN 连接都关联到同一(默认)路由表。All VPN, ExpressRoute, and User VPN connections are associated to the same (default) route table.

默认情况下,所有连接都与虚拟中心中的“默认路由表”相关联。By default, all connections are associated to a Default route table in a virtual hub. 每个虚拟中心都有自己的默认路由表,可以对其进行编辑以添加静态路由。Each virtual hub has its own Default route table, which can be edited to add a static route(s). 如果前缀相同,静态添加的路由优先于动态获取的路由。Routes added statically take precedence over dynamically learned routes for the same prefixes.

关联

传播Propagation

连接将路由动态传播到路由表。Connections dynamically propagate routes to a route table. 在 VPN 连接、ExpressRoute 连接或 P2S 配置连接中,使用 BGP 将路由从虚拟中心传播到本地路由器。With a VPN connection, ExpressRoute connection, or P2S configuration connection, routes are propagated from the virtual hub to the on-premises router using BGP. 路由可以传播到一个或多个路由表。Routes can be propagated to one or multiple route tables.

可为每个虚拟中心使用“无路由表”。A None route table is also available for each virtual hub. 传播到“无路由表”意味着不需要从连接传播路由。Propagating to the None route table implies that no routes are required to be propagated from the connection. VPN、ExpressRoute 和用户 VPN 连接将路由传播到同一组路由表。VPN, ExpressRoute, and User VPN connections propagate routes to the same set of route tables.

关联

标签Labels

标签提供一种对路由表进行逻辑分组的机制。Labels provide a mechanism to logically group route tables. 该机制在将路由从连接传播到多个路由表的过程中尤其有用。This is especially helpful during propagation of routes from connections to multiple route tables. 例如,默认路由表具有一个名为“默认”的内置标签。For example, the Default Route Table has a built in label called 'Default' . 当用户将连接路由传播到“默认”标签时,它会自动应用于虚拟 WAN 中每个中心的所有默认路由表。When users propagate connection routes to 'Default' label, it automatically applies to all the Default Route Tables across every hub in the Virtual WAN.

在虚拟网络连接中配置静态路由Configuring static routes in a virtual network connection

配置静态路由提供了一种机制来引导流量通过下一跃点 IP,这可以是与虚拟中心连接的分支 VNet 中预配的网络虚拟设备 (NVA) 的 IP。Configuring static routes provides a mechanism to steer traffic through a next hop IP, which could be of a Network Virtual Appliance (NVA) provisioned in a Spoke VNet attached to a virtual hub. 静态路由由路由名称、目标前缀列表和下一跃点 IP 组成。The static route is composed of a route name, list of destination prefixes, and a next hop IP.

重置中心Reset Hub

此选项仅可在 Azure 门户中使用,用户可通过此选项将任何失败的资源(例如路由表、中心路由器或虚拟中心资源本身)恢复为其正确预配状态。Available only in the Azure portal , this option provides the user a means to bring any failed resources such as route tables, hub router or the virtual hub resource itself back to its rightful provisioning state. 这是用户在联系 Azure 寻求支持之前可考虑的附加选项。This is an additional option for user to consider prior to contacting Azure for support. 此操作不会重置虚拟中心内的任何网关。This operation does not reset any of the gateways in a virtual hub.

基本和标准虚拟 WAN 中的路由表优先于关联和传播功能集Route tables in Basic and Standard virtual WANs prior to the feature set of Association and Propagation

路由表现在具有关联和传播功能。Route tables now have features for association and propagation. 预先存在的路由表是不具有这些功能的路由表。A pre-existing route table is a route table that does not have these features. 如果中心路由中具有预先存在的路由,并希望使用新功能,请考虑以下事项:If you have pre-existing routes in Hub Routing and would like to use the new capabilities, consider the following:

  • 在虚拟中心中具有预先存在的路由的标准虚拟 WAN 客户Standard Virtual WAN Customers with pre-existing routes in virtual hub:

如果在 Azure 门户中的中心的“路由”部分有预先存在的路由,则需要先将其删除,然后尝试在 Azure 门户中的中心的“路由表”部分创建新的路由表If you have pre-existing routes in Routing section for the hub in Azure portal, you will need to first delete them and then attempt creating new route tables (available in the Route Tables section for the hub in Azure portal)

  • 在虚拟中心中具有预先存在的路由的基本虚拟 WAN 客户:如果你在 Azure 门户中的中心的“路由”部分具有预先存在的路由,则需要首先删除它们,再将虚拟 WAN 从基本版升级到标准版。Basic Virtual WAN Customers with pre-existing routes in virtual hub: If you have pre-existing routes in Routing section for the hub in Azure portal, you will need to first delete them, then upgrade your Basic Virtual WAN to Standard Virtual WAN. 请参阅将虚拟 WAN 从基本版升级到标准版See Upgrade a virtual WAN from Basic to Standard.

虚拟 WAN 路由注意事项Virtual WAN Routing Considerations

配置虚拟 WAN 路由时,请考虑以下事项:Please consider the following when configuring Virtual WAN routing:

  • 所有分支连接(点到站点、站点到站点和 ExpressRoute)都需要与默认路由表关联。All branch connections (Point-to-site, Site-to-site, and ExpressRoute) need to be associated to the Default route table. 这样,所有分支都将具有相同的前缀。That way, all branches will learn the same prefixes.
  • 所有分支连接都需要将它们的路由传播到同一组路由表。All branch connections need to propagate their routes to the same set of route tables. 例如,如果你决定分支应传播到默认路由表,则此配置应在所有分支间保持一致。For example, if you decide that branches should propagate to the Default route table, this configuration should be consistent across all branches. 因此,与默认路由表关联的所有连接都可以访问所有分支。As a result, all connections associated to the Default route table will be able to reach all of the branches.
  • 当前不支持分支到分支通过 Azure 防火墙。Branch-to-branch via Azure Firewall is currently not supported.
  • 在多个区域使用 Azure 防火墙时,所有辐射虚拟网络都必须关联到同一路由表。When using Azure Firewall in multiple regions, all spoke virtual networks must be associated to the same route table. 例如,不可能出现让其中一部分 VNet 通过 Azure 防火墙,而同一虚拟中心的其他 VNet 绕过 Azure 防火墙的情况。For example, having a subset of the VNets going through the Azure Firewall while other VNets bypass the Azure Firewall in the same virtual hub is not possible.
  • 每个 VNet 连接都可配置一个下一跃点 IP。A single next hop IP can be configured per VNet connection.
  • 虚拟中心不支持 0.0.0.0/0 静态路由和下一跃点虚拟网络连接(或 VNet 连接中设备的 IP)Virtual Hub does not support static route for 0.0.0.0/0 and next hop Virtual Network Connection (or an IP of an appliance in the VNet connection)
  • 与 0.0.0.0/0 路由有关的所有信息均限制在本地中心的路由表中。All information pertaining to 0.0.0.0/0 route is confined to a local hub's route table. 此路由不会跨中心传播。This route does not propagate across hubs.

后续步骤Next steps

有关虚拟 WAN 的详细信息,请参阅常见问题解答For more information about Virtual WAN, see the FAQ.