什么是 Durable Functions?What are Durable Functions?

Durable FunctionsAzure Functions 的一个扩展,可用于在无服务器计算环境中编写有状态函数。Durable Functions is an extension of Azure Functions that lets you write stateful functions in a serverless compute environment. 在该扩展中,可以通过编写业务流程协调程序函数和有状态实体并使用 Azure Functions 编程模型编写实体函数,来定义有状态工作流。The extension lets you define stateful workflows by writing orchestrator functions and stateful entities by writing entity functions using the Azure Functions programming model. 在幕后,该扩展可以管理状态、检查点和重启,使你可以专注于业务逻辑。Behind the scenes, the extension manages state, checkpoints, and restarts for you, allowing you to focus on your business logic.

支持的语言Supported languages

Durable Functions 目前支持以下语言:Durable Functions currently supports the following languages:

  • C#预编译的类库C# 脚本C#: both precompiled class libraries and C# script.
  • JavaScript:仅 Azure Functions 运行时的版本 2.x 支持此语言。JavaScript: supported only for version 2.x of the Azure Functions runtime. 要求使用 1.7.0 版或更高版本的 Durable Functions 扩展。Requires version 1.7.0 of the Durable Functions extension, or a later version.
  • F# :预编译的类库和 F# 脚本。F#: precompiled class libraries and F# script. 仅 Azure Functions 运行时的版本 1.x 支持 F# 脚本。F# script is only supported for version 1.x of the Azure Functions runtime.
  • PowerShell:对 Durable Functions 的支持目前以公共预览版提供。PowerShell: support for Durable Functions is currently in public preview. 仅 Azure Functions 运行时的版本 3.x 和 PowerShell 7 支持。Supported only for version 3.x of the Azure Functions runtime and PowerShell 7. 要求使用 2.2.2 版或更高版本的 Durable Functions 扩展。Requires version 2.2.2 of the Durable Functions extension, or a later version. 目前仅支持以下模式:函数链扇出/扇入异步 HTTP APIOnly the following patterns are currently supported: Function chaining, Fan-out/fan-in, Async HTTP APIs.

若要访问最新的功能和更新,建议使用最新版本的 Durable Functions 扩展和特定于语言的 Durable Functions 库。To access the latest features and updates, it is recommended you use the latest versions of the Durable Functions extension and the language-specific Durable Functions libraries. 请详细了解 Durable Functions 版本Learn more about Durable Functions versions.

Durable Functions 的目标是支持所有 Azure Functions 语言Durable Functions has a goal of supporting all Azure Functions languages. 请参阅 Durable Functions 问题列表,了解支持其他语言所需的最新工作状态。See the Durable Functions issues list for the latest status of work to support additional languages.

与 Azure Functions 一样,可以使用 Visual Studio 2019Visual Studio CodeAzure 门户通过模板来开发 Durable Functions。Like Azure Functions, there are templates to help you develop Durable Functions using Visual Studio 2019, Visual Studio Code, and the Azure portal.

应用程序模式Application patterns

Durable Functions 的主要用例是简化无服务器应用程序中出现的复杂的有状态协调要求。The primary use case for Durable Functions is simplifying complex, stateful coordination requirements in serverless applications. 以下部分介绍可受益于 Durable Functions 的典型应用程序模式:The following sections describe typical application patterns that can benefit from Durable Functions:

模式 1:函数链Pattern #1: Function chaining

在函数链接模式中,将按特定顺序执行一系列函数。In the function chaining pattern, a sequence of functions executes in a specific order. 在此模式中,一个函数的输出将应用到另一函数的输入。In this pattern, the output of one function is applied to the input of another function.


可按以下示例所示使用 Durable Functions 来实现函数链模式。You can use Durable Functions to implement the function chaining pattern concisely as shown in the following example.

在此示例中,值 F1F2``F3F4 是同一函数应用中其他函数的名称。In this example, the values F1, F2, F3, and F4 are the names of other functions in the same function app. 可以使用常规命令性编码构造实现控制流。You can implement control flow by using normal imperative coding constructs. 代码从上到下执行。Code executes from the top down. 代码可能涉及现有语言控制流语义,如条件语句和循环语句。The code can involve existing language control flow semantics, like conditionals and loops. 可以在 try/catch/finally 块中包含错误处理逻辑。You can include error handling logic in try/catch/finally blocks.

public static async Task<object> Run(
    [OrchestrationTrigger] IDurableOrchestrationContext context)
        var x = await context.CallActivityAsync<object>("F1", null);
        var y = await context.CallActivityAsync<object>("F2", x);
        var z = await context.CallActivityAsync<object>("F3", y);
        return  await context.CallActivityAsync<object>("F4", z);
    catch (Exception)
        // Error handling or compensation goes here.

可以使用 context 参数按名称调用其他函数、传递参数并返回函数输出。You can use the context parameter to invoke other functions by name, pass parameters, and return function output. 每当代码调用 await 时,Durable Functions 框架都会对当前函数实例的进度执行检查点操作。Each time the code calls await, the Durable Functions framework checkpoints the progress of the current function instance. 如果在执行中途回收进程或虚拟机,函数实例将从上一个 await 调用继续执行。If the process or virtual machine recycles midway through the execution, the function instance resumes from the preceding await call. 有关详细信息,请参阅下一部分“模式 #2:扇出/扇入”。For more information, see the next section, Pattern #2: Fan out/fan in.

模式 #2:扇出/扇入Pattern #2: Fan out/fan in

在扇出/扇入模式中,将会并行执行多个函数,然后等待所有函数完成。In the fan out/fan in pattern, you execute multiple functions in parallel and then wait for all functions to finish. 通常会对这些函数返回的结果执行一些聚合操作。Often, some aggregation work is done on the results that are returned from the functions.


对于普通函数,可通过使函数向一个队列发送多条消息来完成扇出。With normal functions, you can fan out by having the function send multiple messages to a queue. 扇回的难度要大得多。Fanning back in is much more challenging. 若要扇入,需要在普通函数中编写代码,以跟踪队列触发的函数的结束时间,然后存储函数输出。To fan in, in a normal function, you write code to track when the queue-triggered functions end, and then store function outputs.

Durable Functions 扩展可使用相对简单的代码处理这种模式:The Durable Functions extension handles this pattern with relatively simple code:

public static async Task Run(
    [OrchestrationTrigger] IDurableOrchestrationContext context)
    var parallelTasks = new List<Task<int>>();

    // Get a list of N work items to process in parallel.
    object[] workBatch = await context.CallActivityAsync<object[]>("F1", null);
    for (int i = 0; i < workBatch.Length; i++)
        Task<int> task = context.CallActivityAsync<int>("F2", workBatch[i]);

    await Task.WhenAll(parallelTasks);

    // Aggregate all N outputs and send the result to F3.
    int sum = parallelTasks.Sum(t => t.Result);
    await context.CallActivityAsync("F3", sum);

扇出工作将分散到 F2 函数的多个实例。The fan-out work is distributed to multiple instances of the F2 function. 可使用动态任务列表跟踪此工作。The work is tracked by using a dynamic list of tasks. 将调用 Task.WhenAll 来等待所有被调用函数完成。Task.WhenAll is called to wait for all the called functions to finish. 然后,从动态任务列表聚合 F2 函数输出,并将这些输出传递给 F3 函数。Then, the F2 function outputs are aggregated from the dynamic task list and passed to the F3 function.

在针对 Task.WhenAll 调用 await 时自动执行的检查点操作确保中途可能出现的任何崩溃或重新启动无需重启已完成的任务。The automatic checkpointing that happens at the await call on Task.WhenAll ensures that a potential midway crash or reboot doesn't require restarting an already completed task.


在极少数情况下,崩溃可能在活动函数完成之后、其完成状态已保存到业务流程历史记录之前的时段内发生。In rare circumstances, it's possible that a crash could happen in the window after an activity function completes but before its completion is saved into the orchestration history. 如果发生这种情况,则在进程恢复之后,活动函数将从头开始重新运行。If this happens, the activity function would re-run from the beginning after the process recovers.

模式 3:异步 HTTP APIPattern #3: Async HTTP APIs

异步 HTTP API 模式解决了使用外部客户端协调长时间运行的操作的状态时出现的问题。The async HTTP API pattern addresses the problem of coordinating the state of long-running operations with external clients. 实现此模式的一种常用方式是让 HTTP 终结点触发长时间运行的操作。A common way to implement this pattern is by having an HTTP endpoint trigger the long-running action. 然后,将客户端重定向到某个状态终结点,客户端可轮询该终结点,以了解操作是何时完成的。Then, redirect the client to a status endpoint that the client polls to learn when the operation is finished.

HTTP API 模式示意图

Durable Functions 原生支持 此模式,可以简化甚至消除为了与长时间运行的函数执行进行交互而需要编写的代码。Durable Functions provides built-in support for this pattern, simplifying or even removing the code you need to write to interact with long-running function executions. 例如,Durable Functions 快速入门示例(C#JavaScript)演示了可用于启动新业务流程协调程序函数实例的简单 REST 命令。For example, the Durable Functions quickstart samples (C# and JavaScript) show a simple REST command that you can use to start new orchestrator function instances. 启动实例后,该扩展会公开 Webhook HTTP API 用于查询业务流程协调程序函数的状态。After an instance starts, the extension exposes webhook HTTP APIs that query the orchestrator function status.

以下示例演示用于启动业务流程协调程序和查询其状态的 REST 命令。The following example shows REST commands that start an orchestrator and query its status. 为简明起见,实例中省略了一些协议细节。For clarity, some protocol details are omitted from the example.

> curl -X POST https://myfunc.chinacloudsites.cn/api/orchestrators/DoWork -H "Content-Length: 0" -i
HTTP/1.1 202 Accepted
Content-Type: application/json
Location: https://myfunc.chinacloudsites.cn/runtime/webhooks/durabletask/instances/b79baf67f717453ca9e86c5da21e03ec

{"id":"b79baf67f717453ca9e86c5da21e03ec", ...}

> curl https://myfunc.chinacloudsites.cn/runtime/webhooks/durabletask/instances/b79baf67f717453ca9e86c5da21e03ec -i
HTTP/1.1 202 Accepted
Content-Type: application/json
Location: https://myfunc.chinacloudsites.cn/runtime/webhooks/durabletask/instances/b79baf67f717453ca9e86c5da21e03ec

{"runtimeStatus":"Running","lastUpdatedTime":"2019-03-16T21:20:47Z", ...}

> curl https://myfunc.chinacloudsites.cn/runtime/webhooks/durabletask/instances/b79baf67f717453ca9e86c5da21e03ec -i
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Length: 175
Content-Type: application/json

{"runtimeStatus":"Completed","lastUpdatedTime":"2019-03-16T21:20:57Z", ...}

由于状态由 Durable Functions 运行时管理,因此你无需实现自己的状态跟踪机制。Because the Durable Functions runtime manages state for you, you don't need to implement your own status-tracking mechanism.

Durable Functions 扩展公开内置的 HTTP API 用于管理长时间运行的业务流程。The Durable Functions extension exposes built-in HTTP APIs that manage long-running orchestrations. 你也可以使用自己的函数触发器(例如 HTTP、队列或 Azure 事件中心)和业务流程客户端绑定来自行实现此模式。You can alternatively implement this pattern yourself by using your own function triggers (such as HTTP, a queue, or Azure Event Hubs) and the orchestration client binding. 例如,可以使用队列消息触发终止。For example, you might use a queue message to trigger termination. 或者,可以使用受 Azure Active Directory 身份验证策略保护的 HTTP 触发器,而不使用利用生成的密钥进行身份验证的内置 HTTP API。Or, you might use an HTTP trigger that's protected by an Azure Active Directory authentication policy instead of the built-in HTTP APIs that use a generated key for authentication.

有关详细信息,请参阅 HTTP 功能一文,其中介绍了如何使用 Durable Functions 扩展通过 HTTP 公开异步的长时间运行的进程。For more information, see the HTTP features article, which explains how you can expose asynchronous, long-running processes over HTTP using the Durable Functions extension.

模式 #4:监视Pattern #4: Monitor

监视模式是指工作流中的灵活重复进程。The monitor pattern refers to a flexible, recurring process in a workflow. 例如,轮询到满足特定的条件为止。An example is polling until specific conditions are met. 可以使用常规计时器触发器解决简单方案(例如定期清理作业),但该方案的间隔是静态的,并且管理实例生存期会变得复杂。You can use a regular timer trigger to address a basic scenario, such as a periodic cleanup job, but its interval is static and managing instance lifetimes becomes complex. 可以使用 Durable Functions 创建灵活的重复间隔、管理任务生存期,以及从单个业务流程创建多个监视进程。You can use Durable Functions to create flexible recurrence intervals, manage task lifetimes, and create multiple monitor processes from a single orchestration.

监视模式的一个例子是反转前面所述的异步 HTTP API 方案。An example of the monitor pattern is to reverse the earlier async HTTP API scenario. 监视模式不会公开终结点供外部客户端监视长时间运行的操作,而是让长时间运行的监视器使用外部终结点,然后等待某个状态发生更改。Instead of exposing an endpoint for an external client to monitor a long-running operation, the long-running monitor consumes an external endpoint, and then waits for a state change.


只需编写少量的代码行,即可使用 Durable Functions 创建多个监视器来观察任意终结点。In a few lines of code, you can use Durable Functions to create multiple monitors that observe arbitrary endpoints. 监视器在满足某个条件时可以结束执行,或者,另一函数可以使用持久业务流程客户端来终止监视器。The monitors can end execution when a condition is met, or another function can use the durable orchestration client to terminate the monitors. 可以根据特定的条件(例如指数退避)更改监视器的 wait 间隔。You can change a monitor's wait interval based on a specific condition (for example, exponential backoff.)

以下代码实现一个基本的监视器:The following code implements a basic monitor:

public static async Task Run(
    [OrchestrationTrigger] IDurableOrchestrationContext context)
    int jobId = context.GetInput<int>();
    int pollingInterval = GetPollingInterval();
    DateTime expiryTime = GetExpiryTime();

    while (context.CurrentUtcDateTime < expiryTime)
        var jobStatus = await context.CallActivityAsync<string>("GetJobStatus", jobId);
        if (jobStatus == "Completed")
            // Perform an action when a condition is met.
            await context.CallActivityAsync("SendAlert", machineId);

        // Orchestration sleeps until this time.
        var nextCheck = context.CurrentUtcDateTime.AddSeconds(pollingInterval);
        await context.CreateTimer(nextCheck, CancellationToken.None);

    // Perform more work here, or let the orchestration end.

收到请求时,会为该作业 ID 创建新的业务流程实例。When a request is received, a new orchestration instance is created for that job ID. 该实例会一直轮询状态,直到满足条件退出循环。The instance polls a status until a condition is met and the loop is exited. 持久计时器控制轮询间隔。A durable timer controls the polling interval. 然后可以执行其他操作,或者可以结束业务流程。Then, more work can be performed, or the orchestration can end. nextCheck 超过 expiryTime 时,监视器将结束。When nextCheck exceeds expiryTime, the monitor ends.

模式 5:人机交互Pattern #5: Human interaction

许多自动化过程涉及到某种人机交互。Many automated processes involve some kind of human interaction. 自动化过程中涉及的人机交互非常棘手,因为人的可用性和响应能力不如云服务那样高。Involving humans in an automated process is tricky because people aren't as highly available and as responsive as cloud services. 自动化过程允许使用超时和补偿逻辑来实现这种交互。An automated process might allow for this interaction by using timeouts and compensation logic.

审批过程就是涉及到人机交互的业务过程的一个例子。An approval process is an example of a business process that involves human interaction. 例如,某份超出特定金额的开支报表需要经理的审批。Approval from a manager might be required for an expense report that exceeds a certain amount. 如果经理未在 72 小时内审批该开支报表(经理可能正在度假),则会启动上报过程,让其他某人(可能是经理的经理)审批。If the manager doesn't approve the expense report within 72 hours (maybe the manager went on vacation), an escalation process kicks in to get the approval from someone else (perhaps the manager's manager).


在此示例中,可以使用业务流程协调程序函数实现该模式。You can implement the pattern in this example by using an orchestrator function. 业务流程协调程序使用持久计时器请求审批。The orchestrator uses a durable timer to request approval. 如果发生超时,业务流程协调程序会将事务上报。The orchestrator escalates if timeout occurs. 业务流程协调程序等待发生某个外部事件,例如,人机交互生成的通知。The orchestrator waits for an external event, such as a notification that's generated by a human interaction.

这些示例创建一个审批过程来演示人机交互模式:These examples create an approval process to demonstrate the human interaction pattern:

public static async Task Run(
    [OrchestrationTrigger] IDurableOrchestrationContext context)
    await context.CallActivityAsync("RequestApproval", null);
    using (var timeoutCts = new CancellationTokenSource())
        DateTime dueTime = context.CurrentUtcDateTime.AddHours(72);
        Task durableTimeout = context.CreateTimer(dueTime, timeoutCts.Token);

        Task<bool> approvalEvent = context.WaitForExternalEvent<bool>("ApprovalEvent");
        if (approvalEvent == await Task.WhenAny(approvalEvent, durableTimeout))
            await context.CallActivityAsync("ProcessApproval", approvalEvent.Result);
            await context.CallActivityAsync("Escalate", null);

若要创建持久计时器,请调用 context.CreateTimerTo create the durable timer, call context.CreateTimer. 通知由 context.WaitForExternalEvent 接收。The notification is received by context.WaitForExternalEvent. 然后,调用 Task.WhenAny 来确定是上报(首先发生超时)还是处理审批(超时前收到审批)。Then, Task.WhenAny is called to decide whether to escalate (timeout happens first) or process the approval (the approval is received before timeout).

外部客户端可以使用内置 HTTP API 将事件通知传递给正在等待的业务流程协调程序函数:An external client can deliver the event notification to a waiting orchestrator function by using the built-in HTTP APIs:

curl -d "true" http://localhost:7071/runtime/webhooks/durabletask/instances/{instanceId}/raiseEvent/ApprovalEvent -H "Content-Type: application/json"

也可以在同一函数应用中,使用另一个函数的持久业务流程客户端引发事件:An event can also be raised using the durable orchestration client from another function in the same function app:

public static async Task Run(
    [HttpTrigger] string instanceId,
    [DurableClient] IDurableOrchestrationClient client)
    bool isApproved = true;
    await client.RaiseEventAsync(instanceId, "ApprovalEvent", isApproved);

模式 #6:聚合器(有状态实体)Pattern #6: Aggregator (stateful entities)

第六种模式涉及到将一段时间的事件数据聚合到单个可寻址的实体。The sixth pattern is about aggregating event data over a period of time into a single, addressable entity. 在此模式中,要聚合的数据可来自多个源、可分批传送,也可以分散在较长的时间段。In this pattern, the data being aggregated may come from multiple sources, may be delivered in batches, or may be scattered over long-periods of time. 聚合器可能需要在事件数据抵达时对其执行操作,而外部客户端可能需要查询聚合数据。The aggregator might need to take action on event data as it arrives, and external clients may need to query the aggregated data.


使用普通无状态函数尝试实现此模式的棘手之处在于,并发控制会成为一项巨大的挑战。The tricky thing about trying to implement this pattern with normal, stateless functions is that concurrency control becomes a huge challenge. 你不仅需要考虑到多个线程会同时修改相同的数据,而还要考虑如何确保聚合器每次仅在一个 VM 上运行。Not only do you need to worry about multiple threads modifying the same data at the same time, you also need to worry about ensuring that the aggregator only runs on a single VM at a time.

可以使用持久实体轻松地将此模式实现为单一函数。You can use Durable entities to easily implement this pattern as a single function.

public static void Counter([EntityTrigger] IDurableEntityContext ctx)
    int currentValue = ctx.GetState<int>();
    switch (ctx.OperationName.ToLowerInvariant())
        case "add":
            int amount = ctx.GetInput<int>();
            ctx.SetState(currentValue + amount);
        case "reset":
        case "get":

持久实体也可以在 .NET 中建模为类。Durable entities can also be modeled as classes in .NET. 如果操作列表是固定的或者会变大,则此模型可能很有用。This model can be useful if the list of operations is fixed and becomes large. 以下示例是使用 .NET 类和方法的 Counter 实体的等效实现。The following example is an equivalent implementation of the Counter entity using .NET classes and methods.

public class Counter
    public int CurrentValue { get; set; }

    public void Add(int amount) => this.CurrentValue += amount;

    public void Reset() => this.CurrentValue = 0;

    public int Get() => this.CurrentValue;

    public static Task Run([EntityTrigger] IDurableEntityContext ctx)
        => ctx.DispatchAsync<Counter>();

客户端可以使用实体客户端绑定将实体函数的操作排入队列(也称为“信号发送”)。Clients can enqueue operations for (also known as "signaling") an entity function using the entity client binding.

public static async Task Run(
    [EventHubTrigger("device-sensor-events")] EventData eventData,
    [DurableClient] IDurableOrchestrationClient entityClient)
    var metricType = (string)eventData.Properties["metric"];
    var delta = BitConverter.ToInt32(eventData.Body, eventData.Body.Offset);

    // The "Counter/{metricType}" entity is created on-demand.
    var entityId = new EntityId("Counter", metricType);
    await entityClient.SignalEntityAsync(entityId, "add", delta);


.NET 中也可以使用动态生成的代理以类型安全的方式发信号通知实体。Dynamically generated proxies are also available in .NET for signaling entities in a type-safe way. 此外,除了发送信号外,客户端还可以对业务流程客户端绑定使用类型安全方法来查询实体函数的状态。And in addition to signaling, clients can also query for the state of an entity function using type-safe methods on the orchestration client binding.

实体函数在 Durable Functions 2.0 及更高版本中可用于 C# 和 JavaScript。Entity functions are available in Durable Functions 2.0 and above for C# and JavaScript.

技术The technology

在幕后,Durable Functions 扩展构建在 Durable Task Framework(GitHub 上的用于在代码中生成工作流的开源库)的基础之上。Behind the scenes, the Durable Functions extension is built on top of the Durable Task Framework, an open-source library on GitHub that's used to build workflows in code. 如同 Azure Functions 是 Azure WebJobs 的无服务器演进一样,Durable Functions 是 Durable Task Framework 的无服务器演进。Like Azure Functions is the serverless evolution of Azure WebJobs, Durable Functions is the serverless evolution of the Durable Task Framework. Microsoft 和其他组织广泛使用 Durable Task Framework 来自动处理任务关键型过程。Microsoft and other organizations use the Durable Task Framework extensively to automate mission-critical processes. 它天生就很适合无服务器 Azure Functions 环境。It's a natural fit for the serverless Azure Functions environment.

代码约束Code constraints

为了提供可靠且长时间运行的执行保证,业务流程协调程序函数提供一组必须遵循的代码编写规则。In order to provide reliable and long-running execution guarantees, orchestrator functions have a set of coding rules that must be followed. 有关详细信息,请参阅业务流程协调程序函数代码约束一文。For more information, see the Orchestrator function code constraints article.


Durable Functions 的计费与 Azure Functions 一样。Durable Functions are billed the same as Azure Functions. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure Functions 定价For more information, see Azure Functions pricing. 在 Azure Functions 消耗计划中执行业务流程协调程序函数时,需要注意一些计费行为。When executing orchestrator functions in the Azure Functions Consumption plan, there are some billing behaviors to be aware of. 有关这些行为的详细信息,请参阅 Durable Functions 计费一文。For more information on these behaviors, see the Durable Functions billing article.

立即投入Jump right in

可以在不到 10 分钟的时间内开始使用 Durable Functions,只需完成下述某个特定于语言的快速入门教程即可:You can get started with Durable Functions in under 10 minutes by completing one of these language-specific quickstart tutorials:

在这些快速入门中,请在本地创建并测试“hello world”持久函数。In these quickstarts, you locally create and test a "hello world" durable function. 然后将函数代码发布到 Azure。You then publish the function code to Azure. 创建的函数将协调对其他函数的调用并将其链接在一起。The function you create orchestrates and chains together calls to other functions.

后续步骤Next steps