在 Azure 中创建由计时器触发的函数Create a function in Azure that is triggered by a timer

了解如何使用 Azure Functions 创建根据所定义的计划运行的无服务器函数。Learn how to use Azure Functions to create a serverless function that runs based on a schedule that you define.

先决条件Prerequisites

完成本教程:To complete this tutorial:

  • 如果没有 Azure 订阅,可在开始前创建一个试用帐户If you don't have an Azure subscription, create a Trial before you begin.

创建 Azure Function AppCreate an Azure Function app

  1. 在 Azure 门户菜单或“主页”页中,选择“创建资源”**** ****。From the Azure portal menu or the Home page, select Create a resource.

  2. “新建” 页面,选择 “计算” > “函数应用”In the New page, select Compute > Function App.

  3. 在“基本信息”页上,使用下表中指定的函数应用设置。****On the Basics page, use the function app settings as specified in the following table.

    设置Setting 建议的值Suggested value 说明Description
    订阅Subscription 你的订阅Your subscription 要在其下创建此新函数应用的订阅。The subscription under which this new function app is created.
    资源组Resource Group myResourceGroupmyResourceGroup 要在其中创建 Function App 的新资源组的名称。Name for the new resource group in which to create your function app.
    函数应用名称Function App name 全局唯一名称Globally unique name 用于标识新 Function App 的名称。Name that identifies your new function app. 有效字符为 a-z(不区分大小写)、0-9-Valid characters are a-z (case insensitive), 0-9, and -.
    ****Publish 代码Code 用于发布代码文件或 Docker 容器的选项。Option to publish code files or a Docker container.
    运行时堆栈Runtime stack 首选语言Preferred language 选择支持你喜欢的函数编程语言的运行时。Choose a runtime that supports your favorite function programming language. 对于 C# 和 F# 函数,选择 .NET CoreChoose .NET Core for C# and F# functions.
    版本Version 版本号Version number 选择已安装的运行时的版本。Choose the version of your installed runtime.
    区域Region 首选区域Preferred region 选择离你近或离函数访问的其他服务近的区域Choose a region near you or near other services your functions access.

    基础知识

  4. 选择“下一步: 托管”。Select Next : Hosting. 在“托管”**** 页上,输入以下设置。On the Hosting page, enter the following settings.

    设置Setting 建议的值Suggested value 说明Description
    ****存储帐户Storage account 全局唯一名称Globally unique name 创建函数应用使用的存储帐户。Create a storage account used by your function app. 存储帐户名称必须为 3 到 24 个字符,并且只能包含数字和小写字母。Storage account names must be between 3 and 24 characters in length and can contain numbers and lowercase letters only. 也可使用现有帐户,但该帐户必须符合存储帐户要求You can also use an existing account, which must meet the storage account requirements.
    操作系统Operating system 首选操作系统Preferred operating system 系统会根据你的运行时堆栈选择为你预先选择一个操作系统,但你可以根据需要更改该设置。An operating system is pre-selected for you based on your runtime stack selection, but you can change the setting if necessary.
    计划Plan 消耗(无服务器)Consumption (Serverless) 定义如何将资源分配给 Function App 的托管计划。Hosting plan that defines how resources are allocated to your function app. 在默认的消耗计划中,根据函数需求动态添加资源。In the default Consumption plan, resources are added dynamically as required by your functions. 在此无服务器托管中,只需为函数运行时间付费。In this serverless hosting, you pay only for the time your functions run. 按应用服务计划运行时,必须管理函数应用的缩放When you run in an App Service plan, you must manage the scaling of your function app.

    Hosting

  5. 选择“下一步: 监视”。Select Next : Monitoring. 在“监视”**** 页上,输入以下设置。On the Monitoring page, enter the following settings.

    设置Setting 建议的值Suggested value 说明Description
    Application InsightsApplication Insights 默认Default 当前不受支持Not supported currently

    监视

  6. 选择“查看 + 创建”****,以便查看应用配置选择。Select Review + create to review the app configuration selections.

  7. 在“查看 + 创建”页上查看设置,然后选择“创建”来预配并部署函数应用**** ****。On the Review + create page, review your settings, and then select Create to provision and deploy the function app.

  8. 选择门户右上角的“通知”图标,留意是否显示了“部署成功”消息。**** ****Select the Notifications icon in the upper-right corner of the portal and watch for the Deployment succeeded message.

  9. 选择“转到资源”****,查看新的函数应用。Select Go to resource to view your new function app. 还可选择“固定到仪表板”****。You can also select Pin to dashboard. 固定可以更轻松地从仪表板返回此函数应用资源。Pinning makes it easier to return to this function app resource from your dashboard.

    部署通知

新函数应用已可以使用了。Your new function app is ready to use. 接下来,将在新的 Function App 中创建一个函数。Next, you'll create a function in the new function app.

函数应用已成功创建。

创建计时器触发的函数Create a timer triggered function

  1. 在函数应用中,选择“函数”,然后选择“+ 添加” In your function app, select Functions, and then select + Add

    在 Azure 门户中添加函数。

  2. 选择“计时器触发器”模板。Select the Timer trigger template.

    选择 Azure 门户中的计时器触发器。

  3. 使用图像下表中指定的设置配置新触发器,然后选择“创建函数”。Configure the new trigger with the settings as specified in the table below the image, and then select Create Function.

    选择 Azure 门户中的计时器触发器。

    设置Setting 建议的值Suggested value 说明Description
    名称Name 默认Default 定义计时器触发的函数的名称。Defines the name of your timer triggered function.
    计划Schedule 0 */1 * * * *0 */1 * * * * 六字段 CRON 表达式,计划函数每分钟运行一次。A six field CRON expression that schedules your function to run every minute.

测试函数Test the function

  1. 在函数中,选择“代码 + 测试”并展开日志。In your function, select Code + Test and expand the logs.

    测试 Azure 门户中的计时器触发器。

  2. 通过查看写入到日志的信息来验证执行情况。Verify execution by viewing the information written to the logs.

    查看 Azure 门户中的计时器触发器。

现在可以更改函数的计划,使之每小时运行一次,而不是每分钟运行一次。Now, you change the function's schedule so that it runs once every hour instead of every minute.

更新计时器计划Update the timer schedule

  1. 在函数中,选择“集成”。In your function, select Integration. 可在此处定义函数的输入和输出绑定,还可以设置计划。Here, you define input and output bindings for your function and also set the schedule.

  2. 选择“计时器 (myTimer)”。Select Timer (myTimer).

    更新 Azure 门户中的计时器计划。

  3. 将“计划”值更新为 0 0 */1 * * *,然后选择“保存” 。Update the Schedule value to 0 0 */1 * * *, and then select Save.

    Azure 门户中的函数更新计时器计划。

现在已获得一个每小时运行一次的函数。You now have a function that runs once every hour, on the hour.

清理资源Clean up resources

本教程系列中的其他快速入门教程是在本文的基础上制作的。Other quickstarts in this collection build upon this quickstart. 如果打算使用后续的快速入门、教程或者在本快速入门中创建的任何服务,请勿清理这些资源。If you plan to work with subsequent quickstarts, tutorials, or with any of the services you have created in this quickstart, do not clean up the resources.

Azure 中的资源是指函数应用、函数、存储帐户等。Resources in Azure refer to function apps, functions, storage accounts, and so forth. 这些资源可以组合到资源组 中,删除该组即可删除组中的所有内容。They're grouped into resource groups, and you can delete everything in a group by deleting the group.

已创建完成这些快速入门所需的资源。You created resources to complete these quickstarts. 这些资源可能需要付费,具体取决于帐户状态服务定价You may be billed for these resources, depending on your account status and service pricing. 如果不再需要这些资源,请参阅下面介绍的资源删除方法:If you don't need the resources anymore, here's how to delete them:

  1. 在 Azure 门户中转到“资源组”页。 In the Azure portal, go to the Resource group page.

    若要从函数应用页转到该页,请选择“概览”选项卡,然后选择“资源组”下的链接。 To get to that page from the function app page, select the Overview tab and then select the link under Resource group.

    从函数应用页选择要删除的资源组。

    若要从仪表板转到该页,请选择“资源组”,然后选择用于本快速入门的资源组。 To get to that page from the dashboard, select Resource groups, and then select the resource group that you used for this quickstart.

  2. 在“资源组”页中查看所包括的资源的列表,然后验证这些资源是否是要删除的。 In the Resource group page, review the list of included resources, and verify that they're the ones you want to delete.

  3. 选择“删除资源组” ,然后按说明操作。Select Delete resource group, and follow the instructions.

    可能需要数分钟才能删除完毕。Deletion may take a couple of minutes. 完成后会显示一个通知,持续数秒。When it's done, a notification appears for a few seconds. 也可以选择页面顶部的钟形图标来查看通知。You can also select the bell icon at the top of the page to view the notification.

后续步骤Next steps

已创建一个按计划运行的函数。You've created a function that runs based on a schedule. 有关计时器触发器的详细信息,请参阅使用 Azure Functions 计划代码执行For more information about timer triggers, see Schedule code execution with Azure Functions.

现在,你已创建了第一个函数,让我们向该函数添加输出绑定,以便将消息写入存储队列。Now that you've created your first function, let's add an output binding to the function that writes a message to a Storage queue.