业务连续性和灾难恢复 (BCDR):Azure 配对区域Business continuity and disaster recovery (BCDR): Azure Paired Regions

什么是配对区域?What are paired regions?

Azure 区域由一组数据中心组成,这些数据中心部署在定义了延迟的外围内,并通过专用的低延迟网络进行连接。An Azure region consists of a set of data centers deployed within a latency-defined perimeter and connected through a dedicated low-latency network. 这可确保 Azure 区域中的 Azure 服务提供尽可能最佳的性能和安全性。This ensures that Azure services within an Azure region offer the best possible performance and security.

Azure 地理位置定义了至少包含一个 Azure 区域的世界区域。An Azure geography defines an area of the world containing at least one Azure region. 地理位置定义了一种离散市场,通常包含两个或更多区域,这些区域会保留数据驻留和符合性边界。Geographies define a discrete market, typically containing two or more regions, that preserve data residency and compliance boundaries.

区域对由同一地理位置中的两个区域组成。A regional pair consists of two regions within the same geography. Azure 会跨区域对序列化平台更新(计划内维护),以确保一次仅更新每对中的一个区域。Azure serializes platform updates (planned maintenance) across regional pairs, ensuring that only one region in each pair updates at a time. 如果中断影响多个区域,则每对中的至少一个区域将优先进行恢复。If an outage affects multiple regions, at least one region in each pair will be prioritized for recovery.


某些 Azure 服务会进一步利用配对区域,以确保业务连续性并防止数据丢失。Some Azure services take further advantage of paired regions to ensure business continuity and to protect against data loss. Azure 提供了几种存储解决方案,这些解决方案利用配对区域来确保数据可用性。Azure provides several storage solutions that take advantage of paired regions to ensure data availability. 例如,Azure 异地冗余存储 (GRS) 会自动将数据复制到次要区域,确保即使在主要区域不可恢复的情况下,数据也是持久的。For example, Azure Geo-redundant Storage (GRS) replicates data to a secondary region automatically, ensuring that data is durable even in the event that the primary region isn't recoverable.

请注意,并不是所有 Azure 服务都会自动复制数据,也不是所有 Azure 服务都会自动从故障区域回退到其配对区域。Note that not all Azure services automatically replicate data, nor do all Azure services automatically fall-back from a failed region to its pair. 在这种情况下,客户必须配置恢复和复制。In such cases, recovery and replication must be configured by the customer.

能否选择自己的区域对?Can I select my regional pairs?

否。No. 某些 Azure 服务依赖于区域对,例如 Azure 冗余存储Some Azure services rely upon regional pairs, such as Azure's redundant storage. 这些服务不允许你创建新的区域配对。These services don't allow you to create new regional pairings. 同样,由于 Azure 控制区域对的计划内维护和恢复优先级,因此你不能定义自己的区域对以利用这些服务。Similarly, because Azure controls planned maintenance and recovery prioritization for regional pairs, you can't define your own regional pairs to take advantage of these services. 但是,你可以通过在任意数量的区域中生成服务并利用 Azure 服务对这些区域进行配对来创建自己的灾难恢复解决方案。However, you can create your own disaster recovery solution by building services in any number of regions and leveraging Azure services to pair them.

例如,可以使用 Azure 服务(如 AzCopy)对数据备份进行计划,将数据备份到其他区域中的存储帐户。For example, you can use Azure services such as AzCopy to schedule data backups to a Storage account in a different region. 使用 Azure DNS 和 Azure 流量管理器,客户可以为其应用程序设计一个在主要区域丢失后会继续存在的弹性体系结构。Using Azure DNS and Azure Traffic Manager, customers can design a resilient architecture for their applications that will survive the loss of the primary region.

我是否被限制在我的区域对中使用服务?Am I limited to using services within my regional pairs?

否。No. 虽然给定的 Azure 服务可能依赖于区域对,但你可以在满足业务需求的任何区域中托管其他服务。While a given Azure service may rely upon a regional pair, you can host your other services in any region that satisfies your business needs. Azure GRS 存储解决方案可以在使用位于“中国东部 2”区域的计算资源的同时,将“中国东部”区域的数据与“中国北部”区域的对等数据配对。An Azure GRS storage solution may pair data in China East with a peer in China North while using Compute resources located in China East 2.

是否必须使用 Azure 区域对?Must I use Azure regional pairs?

否。No. 客户可以利用 Azure 服务来构建可复原的服务,无需依赖 Azure 的区域对。Customers can leverage Azure services to architect a resilient service without relying on Azure's regional pairs. 但是,我们建议你跨区域对配置业务连续性和灾难恢复 (BCDR),以便从隔离中获益并提高可用性。However, we recommend that you configure business continuity disaster recovery (BCDR) across regional pairs to benefit from isolation and improve availability. 对于支持多个活动区域的应用程序,我们建议尽可能使用区域对中的这两个区域。For applications that support multiple active regions, we recommend using both regions in a region pair where possible. 这可确保应用程序的最佳可用性,并在发生灾难时最大限度地缩短恢复时间。This ensures optimal availability for applications and minimized recovery time in the event of a disaster.

Azure 区域对Azure Regional Pairs

地理位置Geography 区域对 ARegional Pair A 区域对 BRegional Pair B
中国China 中国北部China North 中国东部China East
中国China 中国北部 2China North 2 中国东部 2China East 2

配对区域的示例An example of paired regions

下图显示了一个使用区域对进行灾难恢复的虚构应用程序。The image below illustrates a hypothetical application that uses the regional pair for disaster recovery. 绿色数字突出显示了三个 Azure 服务(Azure 计算、存储和数据库)的跨区域活动,以及这些服务如何配置为跨区域复制。The green numbers highlight the cross-region activities of three Azure services (Azure compute, storage, and database) and how they're configured to replicate across regions. 橙色数字突出显示了跨配对区域部署的独特优势。The unique benefits of deploying across paired regions are highlighted by the orange numbers.


图 2 – 虚构的 Azure 区域对Figure 2 – Hypothetical Azure regional pair

跨区域活动Cross-region activities

如图 2 所示。As referred to in figure 2.

  1. Azure 计算 (IaaS) - 必须提前预配附加的计算资源,以确保在发生灾难期间另一个区域可以提供资源。Azure Compute (IaaS) – You must provision additional compute resources in advance to ensure resources are available in another region during a disaster. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 复原技术指南For more information, see Azure resiliency technical guidance.

  2. Azure 存储 - 若要使用托管磁盘,请了解如何使用 Azure Site Recovery 将 VM 从一个区域复制到另一个区域Azure Storage - If you're using managed disks, learn about replicating VMs from one region to another with Azure Site Recovery. 如果使用的是存储帐户,则在创建 Azure 存储帐户时默认配置异地冗余存储 (GRS)。If you're using storage accounts, then geo-redundant storage (GRS) is configured by default when an Azure Storage account is created. 使用 GRS 时,数据在主要区域自动复制三次,并在配对区域复制三次。With GRS, your data is automatically replicated three times within the primary region, and three times in the paired region. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 存储冗余选项For more information, see Azure Storage Redundancy Options.

  3. Azure SQL 数据库 - 使用 Azure SQL 数据库异地复制,可以将事务的异步复制配置到全球任何区域;但是,我们建议在配对区域中为大多数灾难恢复方案部署这些资源。Azure SQL Database – With Azure SQL Database Geo-Replication, you can configure asynchronous replication of transactions to any region in the world; however, we recommend you deploy these resources in a paired region for most disaster recovery scenarios. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure SQL 数据库中的异地复制For more information, see Geo-Replication in Azure SQL Database.

  4. Azure 资源管理器 - 资源管理器原本就能提供对跨区域的组件进行逻辑隔离的功能。Azure Resource Manager - Resource Manager inherently provides logical isolation of components across regions. 这意味着某个区域发生逻辑故障不太可能会影响另一个区域。This means logical failures in one region are less likely to impact another.

配对区域的优势Benefits of paired regions

  1. 物理隔离 - Azure 希望区域对中数据中心之间的距离尽量至少保持 300 英里,但要在所有地理位置满足这个要求并不实际,也不可能。Physical isolation – When possible, Azure prefers at least 300 miles of separation between datacenters in a regional pair, although this isn't practical or possible in all geographies. 物理数据中心隔离能够降低自然灾害、社会动乱、电力中断或物理网络中断同时影响两个区域的可能性。Physical datacenter separation reduces the likelihood of natural disasters, civil unrest, power outages, or physical network outages affecting both regions at once. 隔离受限于地理位置的约束(地理位置大小、电源/网络基础结构可用性、法规,等等)。Isolation is subject to the constraints within the geography (geography size, power/network infrastructure availability, regulations, etc.).

  2. 平台提供的复制 - 某些服务(例如异地冗余存储)提供自动复制到配对区域的功能。Platform-provided replication - Some services such as Geo-Redundant Storage provide automatic replication to the paired region.

  3. 区域恢复顺序 - 如果发生广泛的中断,会优先恢复每个对中的一个区域。Region recovery order – In the event of a broad outage, recovery of one region is prioritized out of every pair. 可以保证跨配对区域部署的应用程序在其中一个区域中优先恢复。Applications that are deployed across paired regions are guaranteed to have one of the regions recovered with priority. 如果应用程序部署在未配对的区域中,则可能会发生恢复延迟;最坏的情况是,选中的两个区域可能最后才会得到恢复。If an application is deployed across regions that are not paired, recovery might be delayed – in the worst case the chosen regions may be the last two to be recovered.

  4. 依序更新 - 计划的 Azure 系统更新将按顺序发布到配对区域(不是同时发布),以便在出现罕见的更新失败时,将停机时间、Bug 影响和逻辑故障的可能性降到最低。Sequential updates – Planned Azure system updates are rolled out to paired regions sequentially (not at the same time) to minimize downtime, the effect of bugs, and logical failures in the rare event of a bad update.

  5. 数据驻留 - 一个区域驻留在与其配对区域相同的地理位置(巴西南部除外),以符合税务和执法管辖范围方面的数据驻留要求。Data residency – A region resides within the same geography as its pair (with the exception of Brazil South) to meet data residency requirements for tax and law enforcement jurisdiction purposes.