快速入门:使用适用于 IoT 中心设备预配服务的 Java 设备 SDK 创建和预配模拟的 X.509 设备Quickstart: Create and provision a simulated X.509 device using Java device SDK for IoT Hub Device Provisioning Service

在本快速入门中,我们在 Windows 计算机上创建一台模拟 X.509 设备。In this quickstart, you create a simulated X.509 device on a Windows computer. 我们使用设备预配服务 (DPS) 的单个注册,通过设备示例 Java 代码将此模拟设备连接到 IoT 中心。You use device sample Java code to connect this simulated device with your IoT hub using an individual enrollment with the Device Provisioning Service (DPS).

先决条件Prerequisites

准备环境Prepare the environment

  1. 确保已在计算机上安装 Java SE 开发工具包 8Make sure you have Java SE Development Kit 8 installed on your machine.

  2. 下载并安装 MavenDownload and install Maven.

  3. 确保在计算机上安装 Git 并将其添加到可供命令窗口访问的环境变量。Make sure Git is installed on your machine and is added to the environment variables accessible to the command window. 请参阅软件自由保护组织提供的 Git 客户端工具,了解要安装的最新版 git 工具,其中包括 Git Bash,这是一个命令行应用,可以用来与本地 Git 存储库交互。See Software Freedom Conservancy's Git client tools for the latest version of git tools to install, which includes the Git Bash, the command-line app that you can use to interact with your local Git repository.

  4. 打开命令提示符。Open a command prompt. 为设备模拟代码示例克隆 GitHub 存储库:Clone the GitHub repo for device simulation code sample:

    git clone https://github.com/Azure/azure-iot-sdk-java.git --recursive
    
  5. 导航到 azure-iot-sdk-java` 根目录,并生成项目以下载全部所需的包。Navigate to the root azure-iot-sdk-java` directory and build the project to download all needed packages.

    cd azure-iot-sdk-java
    mvn install -DskipTests=true
    
  6. 导航到证书生成器项目,然后生成该项目。Navigate to the certificate generator project and build the project.

    cd azure-iot-sdk-java/provisioning/provisioning-tools/provisioning-x509-cert-generator
    mvn clean install
    

创建自签名的 X.509 设备证书和单个注册项Create a self-signed X.509 device certificate and individual enrollment entry

在本部分,你将使用自签名的 X.509 证书。请务必记住以下事项:In this section you, will use a self-signed X.509 certificate, it is important to keep in mind the following:

  • 自签名证书仅用于测试,不应在生产环境中使用。Self-signed certificates are for testing only, and should not be used in production.
  • 自签名证书的默认过期日期为一年。The default expiration date for a self-signed certificate is one year.

你将使用来自 Azure IoT SDK for Java 的示例代码创建要与模拟设备的个体注册条目一起使用的证书。You will use sample code from the Azure IoT SDK for Java to create the certificate to be used with the individual enrollment entry for the simulated device.

Azure IoT 设备预配服务支持两类注册:The Azure IoT Device Provisioning Service supports two types of enrollments:

本文演示单个注册。This article demonstrates individual enrollments.

  1. 使用前面步骤中的命令提示符,导航到 target 文件夹,然后执行在上一步中创建的 .jar 文件。Using the command prompt from previous steps, navigate to the target folder, then execute the .jar file created in the previous step.

    cd target
    java -jar ./provisioning-x509-cert-generator-{version}-with-deps.jar
    
  2. 对于“是否需要输入公用名称”,请输入 NEnter N for Do you want to input common name. Client Cert 的输出(从 -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----------END CERTIFICATE----- )复制到剪贴板。Copy to the clipboard the output of Client Cert, starting from -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE----- through -----END CERTIFICATE-----.

    单个证书的生成器

  3. 在 Windows 计算机上创建名为 X509individual.pem 的文件,在所选编辑器中将其打开,然后将剪贴板内容复制到该文件中。Create a file named X509individual.pem on your Windows machine, open it in an editor of your choice, and copy the clipboard contents to this file. 保存该文件并关闭编辑器。Save the file and close your editor.

  4. 在命令提示符中,对于“是否需要输入验证码” ,请输入 N,并让程序输出保持打开状态,以便稍后在本快速入门中进行引用。In the command prompt, enter N for Do you want to input Verification Code and keep the program output open for reference later in the quickstart. 稍后,你将复制 Client CertClient Cert Private Key 值,以在下一部分中使用。Later you copy the Client Cert and Client Cert Private Key values, for use in the next section.

  5. 登录到 Azure 门户,选择左侧菜单上的“所有资源”按钮,打开设备预配服务实例 。Sign in to the Azure portal, select the All resources button on the left-hand menu and open your Device Provisioning Service instance.

  6. 在“设备预配服务”菜单中,选择“管理注册” 。From the Device Provisioning Service menu, select Manage enrollments. 选择“个人注册”选项卡,然后选择顶部的“添加个人注册”按钮 。Select Individual Enrollments tab and select the Add individual enrollment button at the top.

  7. 在“添加注册”面板中,输入以下信息 :In the Add Enrollment panel, enter the following information:

    • 选择“X.509” 作为标识证明机制 。Select X.509 as the identity attestation Mechanism.

    • 在“主要证书 .pem 或 .cer 文件”下,选择“选择文件”以选择在前述步骤中创建的证书文件 X509individual.pemUnder the Primary certificate .pem or .cer file, choose Select a file to select the certificate file X509individual.pem created in the previous steps.

    • (可选)可以提供以下信息:Optionally, you may provide the following information:

      • 选择与预配服务链接的 IoT 中心。Select an IoT hub linked with your provisioning service.
      • 输入唯一设备 ID。Enter a unique device ID. 为设备命名时,请确保避免使用敏感数据。Make sure to avoid sensitive data while naming your device.
      • 使用设备所需的初始配置更新“初始设备孪生状态” 。Update the Initial device twin state with the desired initial configuration for the device.
      • 完成后,按“保存”按钮 。Once complete, press the Save button.

      在门户中为 X.509 证明添加单个注册Add individual enrollment for X.509 attestation in the portal

      成功注册以后,X.509 设备会在“单个注册”选项卡的“注册 ID”列下显示为 microsoftriotcoreUpon successful enrollment, your X.509 device appears as microsoftriotcore under the Registration ID column in the Individual Enrollments tab.

模拟设备Simulate the device

  1. 从“设备预配服务”菜单中选择“概览”,记下“ID 范围”和“预配服务全局终结点”。 From the Device Provisioning Service menu, select Overview and note your ID Scope and Provisioning Service Global Endpoint.

    服务信息

  2. 打开命令提示符。Open a command prompt. 导航到 Java SDK 存储库的示例项目文件夹。Navigate to the sample project folder of the Java SDK repository.

    cd azure-iot-sdk-java/provisioning/provisioning-samples/provisioning-X509-sample
    
  3. 在代码中输入预配服务和 X.509 标识信息。Enter the provisioning service and X.509 identity information in your code. 这在自动预配期间在注册设备之前用于证明模拟设备:This is used during autoprovisioning, for attestation of the simulated device, prior to device registration:

    • 编辑文件 /src/main/java/samples/com/microsoft/azure/sdk/iot/ProvisioningX509Sample.java,使之包括前面提到的“ID 范围”和“预配服务全局终结点”。 Edit the file /src/main/java/samples/com/microsoft/azure/sdk/iot/ProvisioningX509Sample.java, to include your ID Scope and Provisioning Service Global Endpoint as noted previously. 另请包括上一部分中提到的“客户端证书”和“客户端证书私钥”。 Also include Client Cert and Client Cert Private Key as noted in the previous section.

      private static final String idScope = "[Your ID scope here]";
      private static final String globalEndpoint = "[Your Provisioning Service Global Endpoint here]";
      private static final ProvisioningDeviceClientTransportProtocol PROVISIONING_DEVICE_CLIENT_TRANSPORT_PROTOCOL = ProvisioningDeviceClientTransportProtocol.HTTPS;
      private static final String leafPublicPem = "<Your Public PEM Certificate here>";
      private static final String leafPrivateKey = "<Your Private PEM Key here>";
      
    • 复制/粘贴证书和私钥时,请使用以下格式:Use the following format when copying/pasting your certificate and private key:

      private static final String leafPublicPem = "-----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----\n" +
         "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX\n" +
         "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX\n" +
         "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX\n" +
         "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX\n" +
         "+XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX\n" +
         "-----END CERTIFICATE-----\n";
      private static final String leafPrivateKey = "-----BEGIN PRIVATE KEY-----\n" +
             "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX\n" +
             "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX\n" +
             "XXXXXXXXXX\n" +
             "-----END PRIVATE KEY-----\n";
      
  4. 生成示例。Build the sample. 导航到 target 文件夹,并执行已创建的 .jar 文件。Navigate to the target folder and execute the created .jar file.

    mvn clean install
    cd target
    java -jar ./provisioning-x509-sample-{version}-with-deps.jar
    
  5. 在 Azure 门户中,导航到已链接到预配服务的 IoT 中心,然后打开“Device Explorer”边栏选项卡。 In the Azure portal, navigate to the IoT hub linked to your provisioning service and open the Device Explorer blade. 将模拟的 X.509 设备成功预配到中心后,设备 ID 会显示在“Device Explorer”边栏选项卡上,“状态”为“已启用”。 Upon successful provisioning of the simulated X.509 device to the hub, its device ID appears on the Device Explorer blade, with STATUS as enabled. 如果在运行示例设备应用程序之前已打开边栏选项卡,则可能需要按顶部的“刷新”按钮 。You might need to press the Refresh button at the top if you already opened the blade prior to running the sample device application.

    设备注册到 IoT 中心

备注

如果从设备的注册项中的默认值更改了“初始设备孪生状态” ,则它会从中心拉取所需的孪生状态,并执行相应的操作。If you changed the initial device twin state from the default value in the enrollment entry for your device, it can pull the desired twin state from the hub and act accordingly. 有关详细信息,请参阅了解并在 IoT 中心内使用设备孪生For more information, see Understand and use device twins in IoT Hub.

清理资源Clean up resources

如果打算继续使用和探索设备客户端示例,请勿清理在本快速入门中创建的资源。If you plan to continue working on and exploring the device client sample, do not clean up the resources created in this quickstart. 如果不打算继续学习,请按以下步骤删除本快速入门中创建的所有资源。If you do not plan to continue, use the following steps to delete all resources created by this quickstart.

  1. 关闭计算机上的设备客户端示例输出窗口。Close the device client sample output window on your machine.
  2. 在 Azure 门户的左侧菜单中选择“所有资源”,然后选择设备预配服务 。From the left-hand menu in the Azure portal, select All resources and then select your Device Provisioning service. 打开服务的“管理注册”边栏选项卡,然后选择“单个注册”选项卡 。选中在本快速入门中注册的设备的“注册 ID”旁边的复选框,然后按窗格顶部的“删除”按钮 。Open the Manage Enrollments blade for your service, and then select the Individual Enrollments tab. Select the check box next to the REGISTRATION ID of the device you enrolled in this quickstart, and press the Delete button at the top of the pane.
  3. 在 Azure 门户的左侧菜单中选择“所有资源”,然后选择 IoT 中心 。From the left-hand menu in the Azure portal, select All resources and then select your IoT hub. 打开中心的“IoT 设备”边栏选项卡,选中在本快速入门中注册的设备的“设备 ID”旁边的复选框,然后按窗格顶部的“删除”按钮 。Open the IoT devices blade for your hub, select the check box next to the DEVICE ID of the device you registered in this quickstart, and then press the Delete button at the top of the pane.

后续步骤Next steps

在本快速入门中,你在 Windows 计算机上创建了一个模拟 X.509 设备。In this quickstart, you created a simulated X.509 device on your Windows machine. 你在 Azure IoT 中心设备预配服务中配置了其注册,然后将设备自动预配到了 IoT 中心。You configured its enrollment in your Azure IoT Hub Device Provisioning Service, then autoprovisioned the device to your IoT hub. 若要了解如何以编程方式注册 X.509 设备,请继续阅读快速入门中关于 X.509 设备的编程注册内容。To learn how to enroll your X.509 device programmatically, continue to the quickstart for programmatic enrollment of X.509 devices.