Azure Database for MySQL 单一服务器Azure Database for MySQL Single Server

本文概述和介绍了单一服务器部署模型的核心概念。In this article, we will provide an overview and introduction to core concepts of single server deployment model.

概述Overview

单一服务器是一项完全托管的数据库服务,对数据库自定义的要求最低。Single Server is a fully managed database service with minimal requirements for customizations of the database. 单一服务器平台旨在以最少的用户配置和控制来处理大多数数据库管理功能,例如修补、备份、高可用性、安全性。The single server platform is designed to handle most of the database management functions such as patching, backups, high availability, security with minimal user configuration and control. 此体系结构经过优化,可在单个区域提供 99.99% 的可用性。The architecture is optimized to provide 99.99% availability on single region. 它支持 MySQL 社区版 5.6、5.7 和 8.0。It supports community version of MySQL 5.6, 5.7 and 8.0. 目前,该服务已在各种 Azure 区域中正式发布。The service is generally available today in wide variety of Azure regions.

单一服务器最适合用于云原生应用程序,这些应用程序旨在处理自动修补,而无需对修补计划和自定义 MySQL 配置设置进行精细控制。Single servers are best suited for cloud native applications designed to handle automated patching without the need for granular control on the patching schedule and custom MySQL configuration settings.

高可用性High availability

单一服务器部署模型针对内置高可用性和弹性进行了优化,并且降低了成本。The single server deployment model is optimized for built-in high availability, and elasticity at reduced cost. 该体系结构将计算和存储分开。The architecture separates compute and storage. 数据库引擎在专有的计算容器上运行,而数据文件位于 Azure 存储上。The database engine runs on a proprietary compute container, while data files reside on Azure storage. 该存储维护数据库文件的三个本地冗余同步副本,以确保数据持续性。The storage maintains three locally redundant synchronous copies of the database files ensuring data durability.

在计划内或计划外的故障转移事件期间,如果服务器发生故障,该服务将使用以下自动化过程来维持服务器的高可用性:During planned or unplanned failover events, if the server goes down, the service maintains high availability of the servers using following automated procedure:

  1. 预配新的计算容器A new compute container is provisioned
  2. 具有数据文件的存储映射到新的容器The storage with data files is mapped to the new container
  3. MySQL 数据库引擎在新的计算容器上处于联机状态MySQL database engine is brought online on the new compute container
  4. 网关服务可确保故障转移透明化,从而确保无需更改应用程序端。Gateway service ensures transparent failover ensuring no application side changes requires.

典型的故障转移时间范围为 60 - 120 秒。The typical failover time ranges from 60-120 seconds. 单一服务器服务的云原生设计使其支持 99.99% 的可用性,从而消除了被动热备用服务器的成本。The cloud native design of the single server service allows it to support 99.99% of availability eliminating the cost of passive hot standby.

Azure 行业领先的 99.99% 可用性服务级别协议 (SLA) 有助于保持应用程序全天候运行。Azure's industry leading 99.99% availability service level agreement (SLA), helps keep your applications running 24/7.

Azure Database for MySQL 单一服务器体系结构概念图

自动修补Automated Patching

该服务执行基础硬件、OS 和数据库引擎的自动修补。The service performs automated patching of the underlying hardware, OS, and database engine. 修补包括安全更新和软件更新。The patching includes security and software updates. 对于 MySQL 引擎,次要版本的升级自动进行,并作为修补周期的一部分包含在内。For MySQL engine, minor version upgrades are automatic and included as part of the patching cycle. 无需任何用户操作或配置设置即可进行修补。There is no user action or configuration settings required for patching. 修补频率根据有效负载的重要性由服务管理。The patching frequency is service managed based on the criticality of the payload. 一般来说,作为持续集成和发布的一部分,该服务遵循每月发布计划。In general, the service follows monthly release schedule as part of the continuous integration and release. 用户可以订阅计划内维护通知,在维护开始前 72 小时接收有关该维护事件的通知。Users can subscribe to the planned maintenance notification to receive notification of the upcoming maintenance 72 hours before the event.

自动备份Automatic Backups

单一服务器服务可自动创建服务器备份并将其存储在用户配置的本地冗余或异地冗余存储中。The single server service automatically creates server backups and stores them in user configured locally redundant or geo-redundant storage. 备份可用于将服务器还原到备份保持期内的任何时间点。Backups can be used to restore your server to any point-in-time within the backup retention period. 默认的备份保留期为七天。The default backup retention period is seven days. 保持期可选择配置为最多 35 天。The retention can be optionally configured up to 35 days. 所有备份都使用 AES 256 位加密进行加密。All backups are encrypted using AES 256-bit encryption. 有关详细信息,请参阅备份Refer to Backups for details.

几秒钟内调整性能和规模Adjust performance and scale within seconds

单一服务器服务在三个 SKU 层中提供:“基本”、“常规用途”和“内存优化”。The single server service is available in three SKU tiers: Basic, General Purpose, and Memory Optimized. 基本层最适合用于低成本开发和低并发工作负载。The Basic tier is best suited for low-cost development and low concurrency workloads. 常规用途和内存优化更适用于需要高并发性、缩放性和可预测性能的生产工作负载。The General Purpose and Memory Optimized are better suited for production workloads requiring high concurrency, scale, and predictable performance. 可以在一个月内花费很少的费用基于小型数据库构建第一个应用,然后根据解决方案的需求调整缩放。You can build your first app on a small database for a few dollars a month, and then adjust the scale to meet the needs of your solution. 存储缩放是联机的,支持存储自动增长。The storage scaling is online and supports storage autogrowth. 动态可伸缩性使得数据库能够以透明方式对不断变化的资源需求做出响应。Dynamic scalability enables your database to transparently respond to rapidly changing resource requirements. 只需为所使用的资源付费。You only pay for the resources you consume. 有关详细信息,请参阅定价层See Pricing tiers for details.

企业级安全性、合规性和治理Enterprise grade Security, Compliance, and Governance

单一服务器服务使用 FIPS 140-2 验证的加密模块对静态数据进行存储加密。The single server service uses the FIPS 140-2 validated cryptographic module for storage encryption of data at-rest. 在运行查询时创建的数据(包括备份)和临时文件都会进行加密。Data, including backups, and temporary files created while running queries are encrypted. 该服务使用包含在 Azure 存储加密中的 AES 256 位密码,并且密钥可由系统进行管理(默认)。The service uses the AES 256-bit cipher included in Azure storage encryption, and the keys can be system managed (default). 该服务使用默认实施的传输层安全性 (SSL/TLS) 对动态数据进行加密。The service encrypts data in-motion with transport layer security (SSL/TLS) enforced by default. 该服务支持 TLS 版本 1.2、1.1 和 1.0,并可强制执行最低 TLS 版本The service supports TLS versions 1.2, 1.1 and 1.0 with an ability to enforce minimum TLS version.

该服务允许使用专用链接对服务器进行专用访问。The service allows private access to the servers using private link.

除了本机身份验证外,单一服务器服务还支持 Azure Active Directory 身份验证。In addition to native authentication, the single server service supports Azure Active Directory authentication. Azure AD 身份验证是一种使用 Azure AD 中定义和管理的标识连接到 MySQL 服务器的机制。Azure AD authentication is a mechanism of connecting to the MySQL servers using identities defined and managed in Azure AD. 通过 Azure AD 身份验证,可以在一个中心位置集中管理数据库用户标识和其他 Azure 服务,从而简化和集中访问控制。With Azure AD authentication, you can manage database user identities and other Azure services in a central location, which simplifies and centralizes access control.

审核日志记录可用于跟踪所有数据库级别活动。Audit logging is available to track all database level activity.

单一服务器服务符合所有行业领先的认证(如 FedRAMP、HIPAA、PCI DSS)。The single server service is complaint with all the industry-leading certifications like FedRAMP, HIPAA, PCI DSS. 有关 Azure 平台安全性的信息,请访问 Azure 信任中心Visit the Azure Trust Center for information about Azure's platform security.

有关 Azure Database for MySQL 安全功能的详细信息,请参阅安全概述For more information about Azure Database for MySQL security features, see the security overview.

监视和警报Monitoring and alerting

单一服务器服务配备了内置的性能监视和警报功能。The single server service is equipped with built-in performance monitoring and alerting features. 所有 Azure 指标的频率都是一分钟,每个指标提供 30 天的历史记录。All Azure metrics have a one-minute frequency, and each metric provides 30 days of history. 可针对指标配置警报。You can configure alerts on the metrics. 该服务允许配置慢查询日志,并附带差异化的查询存储功能。The service allows configuring slow query logs and comes with a differentiated Query store feature. 通过帮助快速查找运行时间最长且资源最密集的查询,查询存储可简化性能故障排除。Query Store simplifies performance troubleshooting by helping you quickly find the longest running and most resource-intensive queries. 使用这些工具,可快速优化工作负载并配置服务器以获得最佳性能。Using these tools, you can quickly optimize your workloads, and configure your server for best performance. 有关详细信息,请参阅监视See Monitoring for details.

迁移Migration

该服务运行 MySQL 的社区版本。The service runs community version of MySQL. 这样可以实现完全的应用程序兼容性,并且只需最小的重构成本就能将在 MySQL 引擎上开发的现有应用程序迁移到单一服务器服务。This allows full application compatibility and requires minimal refactoring cost to migrate existing application developed on MySQL engine to single server service. 可以使用以下任一选项来执行向单一服务器的迁移:The migration to the single server can be performed using one of the following options:

  • 转储和还原 - 对于脱机迁移(在此情况下,用户可承受一定的故障时间),使用社区工具(如 mysqldump/mydumper)的转储和还原可以提供最快的迁移方式。Dump and Restore – For offline migrations, where users can afford some downtime, dump and restore using community tools like mysqldump/mydumper can provide fastest way to migrate. 有关详细信息,请参阅使用转储和还原进行迁移See Migrate using dump and restore for details.
  • Azure 数据库迁移服务 - 为了在最短的故障时间内实现向单一服务器的无缝简化迁移,可以利用 Azure 数据库迁移服务Azure Database Migration Service – For seamless and simplified migrations to single server with minimal downtime, Azure Database Migration Service can be leveraged.
  • 数据传入复制 - 为在最短的停机时间内进行迁移,还可以利用数据传入复制,它依靠基于 binlog 的复制。Data-in replication – For minimal downtime migrations, data-in replication, which relies on binlog based replication can also be leveraged. 对于希望对迁移进行更多控制的实操专业人员来说,数据传入复制是实现停机时间最短的迁移的首选。Data-in replication is preferred for minimal downtime migrations by hands-on experts looking for more control over migration. 有关详细信息,请参阅数据传入复制See data-in replication for details.

联系人Contacts

后续步骤Next steps

现在,你已阅读 Azure Database for MySQL 单一服务器部署模式简介,接下来可以:Now that you've read an introduction to Azure Database for MySQL single server deployment mode, you're ready to: