教程:使用 Azure 通知中心向特定用户发送通知Tutorial: Send notifications to specific users by using Azure Notification Hubs

概述Overview

本教程说明如何使用 Azure 通知中心将推送通知发送到特定设备上的特定应用程序用户。This tutorial shows you how to use Azure Notification Hubs to send push notifications to a specific app user on a specific device. ASP.NET WebAPI 后端用于对客户端进行身份验证。An ASP.NET WebAPI backend is used to authenticate clients. 后端在对客户端应用程序用户进行身份验证时,会自动将标记添加到通知注册中。When the backend authenticates a client application user, it automatically adds a tag to the notification registration. 后端使用此标记将通知发送到特定用户。The backend uses this tag to send notifications to the specific user.

Note

可以在 GitHub 上找到本教程的已完成代码。The completed code for this tutorial can be found on GitHub.

在本教程中,我们将执行以下步骤:In this tutorial, you take the following steps:

  • 创建 WebAPI 项目Create the WebAPI project
  • 在 WebAPI 后端对客户端进行身份验证Authenticate clients to the WebAPI backend
  • 使用 WebAPI 后端注册通知Register for notifications by using the WebAPI backend
  • 从 WebAPI 后端发送通知Send notifications from the WebAPI backend
  • 发布新的 WebAPI 后端Publish the new WebAPI backend
  • 更新客户端项目的代码Update the code for the client project
  • 测试应用程序Test the application

先决条件Prerequisites

本教程基于在教程:使用 Azure 通知中心向通用 Windows 平台应用发送通知中创建的通知中心和 Visual Studio 项目。This tutorial builds on the notification hub and Visual Studio project that you created in the Tutorial: Send notifications to Universal Windows Platform apps by using Azure Notification Hubs tutorial. 因此,请在开始本教程之前完成该教程。Therefore, complete it before starting on this tutorial.

Note

如果使用 Azure 应用服务中的移动应用作为后端服务,请参阅本教程的移动应用版本If you are using Mobile Apps in Azure App Service as your backend service, see the Mobile Apps version of this tutorial.

创建 WebAPI 项目Create the WebAPI project

后续部分讨论如何创建新的 ASP.NET WebAPI 后端。The following sections discuss the creation of a new ASP.NET WebAPI backend. 此过程有三个主要目的:This process has three main purposes:

  • 对客户端进行身份验证:添加消息处理程序,以便对客户端请求进行身份验证,并将用户与请求相关联。Authenticate clients: You add a message handler to authenticate client requests and associate the user with the request.
  • 使用 WebAPI 后端注册通知:添加一个控制器来处理新的注册,使客户端设备能够接收通知。Register for notifications by using the WebAPI backend: You add a controller to handle new registrations for a client device to receive notifications. 经过身份验证的用户名将作为标记自动添加到注册。The authenticated username is automatically added to the registration as a tag.
  • 将通知发送到客户端:添加一个控制器,以便用户触发安全推送,将内容推送到与标记关联的设备和客户端。Send notifications to clients: You add a controller to provide a way for users to trigger a secure push to devices and clients associated with the tag.

通过执行以下操作创建新的 ASP.NET WebAPI 后端:Create the new ASP.NET WebAPI backend by doing the following actions:

Important

如果使用 Visual Studio 2015 或更低版本,则在开始学习本教程之前,请确保已安装用于 Visual Studio 的最新版 NuGet 包管理器。If you are using Visual Studio 2015 or earlier, before starting this tutorial, ensure that you have installed the latest version of NuGet Package Manager for Visual Studio.

若要进行检查,请启动 Visual Studio。To check, start Visual Studio. 在“工具”菜单上,选择“扩展和更新”。On the Tools menu, select Extensions and Updates. 在你的 Visual Studio 版本中搜索“NuGet 包管理器”,确保你的版本为最新。Search for NuGet Package Manager in your version of Visual Studio, and make sure you have the latest version. 如果你的版本不是最新版本,请卸载它,然后重新安装 NuGet 包管理器。If your version is not the latest version, uninstall it, and then reinstall the NuGet Package Manager.

Note

请确保已安装 Visual Studio Azure SDK 以便进行网站部署。>Make sure you have installed the Visual Studio Azure SDK for website deployment.>

  1. 启动 Visual Studio 或 Visual Studio Express。Start Visual Studio or Visual Studio Express.

  2. 选择“服务器资源管理器”并登录到 Azure 帐户。Select Server Explorer, and sign in to your Azure account. 若要在帐户中创建网站资源,必须先登录。To create the web site resources on your account, you must be signed in.

  3. 在 Visual Studio 中,右键单击 Visual Studio 解决方案,指向“添加”,然后单击“新建项目”。In Visual Studio, right-click Visual Studio solution, point to Add, and click New Project.

  4. 展开“Visual C#”,选择“Web”,然后单击“ASP.NET Web 应用程序”。Expand Visual C#, select Web, and click ASP.NET Web Application.

  5. 在“名称”框中,键入 AppBackend,然后选择“确定”。In the Name box, type AppBackend, and then select OK.

    “新建项目”窗口

  6. 在“新建 ASP.NET 项目”窗口中,选择“Web API”复选框,然后选择“确定”。In the New ASP.NET Project window, select the Web API check box, and then select OK.

    “新建 ASP.NET 项目”窗口

  7. 在“配置 Azure Web 应用”窗口中选择一个订阅,然后在“应用服务计划”列表中执行以下任一操作:In the Configure Azure Web App window, select a subscription and then, in the App Service plan list, do either of the following actions:

    • 选择已创建的应用服务计划。Select an app service plan that you've already created.
    • 选择“创建新的应用服务计划”,然后新建一个应用服务计划。Select Create a new app service plan, and then create one.

    在本教程中,不需要使用数据库。You do not need a database for this tutorial. 选择应用服务计划后,选择“确定”以创建项目。After you have selected your app service plan, select OK to create the project.

“配置 Azure Web 应用”窗口

在 WebAPI 后端对客户端进行身份验证Authenticate clients to the WebAPI backend

在本部分中,将为新的后端创建名为“AuthenticationTestHandler”的新消息处理程序类。In this section, you create a new message-handler class named AuthenticationTestHandler for the new backend. 此类派生自 DelegatingHandler 并已添加为消息处理程序,使它可以处理传入后端的所有请求。This class is derived from DelegatingHandler and added as a message handler so that it can process all requests that come into the backend.

  1. 在“解决方案资源管理器”中,右键单击“AppBackend”项目,依次选择“添加”、“类”。In Solution Explorer, right-click the AppBackend project, select Add, and then select Class.

  2. 将新类命名为 AuthenticationTestHandler.cs,并选择“添加”生成该类。Name the new class AuthenticationTestHandler.cs, and then select Add to generate the class. 为简单起见,此类将通过使用基本身份验证对用户进行身份验证。This class authenticates users by using Basic Authentication for simplicity. 请注意,应用可以使用任何身份验证方案。Your app can use any authentication scheme.

  3. 在 AuthenticationTestHandler.cs 中,添加以下 using 语句:In AuthenticationTestHandler.cs, add the following using statements:

    using System.Net.Http;
    using System.Threading;
    using System.Security.Principal;
    using System.Net;
    using System.Text;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;
    
  4. 在 AuthenticationTestHandler.cs 中,将 AuthenticationTestHandler 类定义替换为以下代码:In AuthenticationTestHandler.cs, replace the AuthenticationTestHandler class definition with the following code:

    当以下三个条件都成立时,此处理程序授权请求:The handler authorizes the request when the following three conditions are true:

    • 请求包含 Authorization 标头。The request includes an Authorization header.

    • 请求使用基本身份验证。The request uses basic authentication.

    • 用户名字符串和密码字符串是相同的字符串。The user name string and the password string are the same string.

      否则,会拒绝该请求。Otherwise, the request is rejected. 此身份验证不是真正的身份验证和授权方法。This authentication is not a true authentication and authorization approach. 它只是本教程中一个简单的示例。It is only a simple example for this tutorial.

      如果请求消息已经过 AuthenticationTestHandler 的身份验证和授权,则基本身份验证用户将附加到 HttpContext 上的当前请求。If the request message is authenticated and authorized by AuthenticationTestHandler, the basic authentication user is attached to the current request on HttpContext. 稍后,另一个控制器 (RegisterController) 会使用 HttpContext 中的用户信息,将标记添加到通知注册请求。User information in HttpContext will be used by another controller (RegisterController) later to add a tag to the notification registration request.

      public class AuthenticationTestHandler : DelegatingHandler
      {
         protected override Task<HttpResponseMessage> SendAsync(
         HttpRequestMessage request, CancellationToken cancellationToken)
         {
             var authorizationHeader = request.Headers.GetValues("Authorization").First();
      
             if (authorizationHeader != null && authorizationHeader
                 .StartsWith("Basic ", StringComparison.InvariantCultureIgnoreCase))
             {
                 string authorizationUserAndPwdBase64 =
                     authorizationHeader.Substring("Basic ".Length);
                 string authorizationUserAndPwd = Encoding.Default
                     .GetString(Convert.FromBase64String(authorizationUserAndPwdBase64));
                 string user = authorizationUserAndPwd.Split(':')[0];
                 string password = authorizationUserAndPwd.Split(':')[1];
      
                 if (verifyUserAndPwd(user, password))
                 {
                     // Attach the new principal object to the current HttpContext object
                     HttpContext.Current.User =
                         new GenericPrincipal(new GenericIdentity(user), new string[0]);
                     System.Threading.Thread.CurrentPrincipal =
                         System.Web.HttpContext.Current.User;
                 }
                 else return Unauthorized();
             }
             else return Unauthorized();
      
             return base.SendAsync(request, cancellationToken);
         }
      
         private bool verifyUserAndPwd(string user, string password)
         {
             // This is not a real authentication scheme.
             return user == password;
         }
      
         private Task<HttpResponseMessage> Unauthorized()
         {
             var response = new HttpResponseMessage(HttpStatusCode.Forbidden);
             var tsc = new TaskCompletionSource<HttpResponseMessage>();
             tsc.SetResult(response);
             return tsc.Task;
         }
      }
      

      Note

      安全说明:AuthenticationTestHandler 类不提供真正的身份验证。Security note: The AuthenticationTestHandler class does not provide true authentication. 它仅用于模拟基本身份验证并且是不安全的。It is used only to mimic basic authentication and is not secure. 必须在生产应用程序和服务中实现安全的身份验证机制。You must implement a secure authentication mechanism in your production applications and services.

  5. 若要注册消息处理程序,请在 App_Start/WebApiConfig.cs 类中 Register 方法的末尾添加以下代码:To register the message handler, add the following code at the end of the Register method in the App_Start/WebApiConfig.cs class:

    config.MessageHandlers.Add(new AuthenticationTestHandler());
    
  6. 保存所做更改。Save your changes.

使用 WebAPI 后端注册通知Register for notifications by using the WebAPI backend

在本部分中,要将新的控制器添加到 WebAPI 后端来处理请求,以使用通知中心的客户端库为用户和设备注册通知。In this section, you add a new controller to the WebAPI backend to handle requests to register a user and a device for notifications by using the client library for notification hubs. 控制器将为已由 AuthenticationTestHandler 验证并附加到 HttpContext 的用户添加用户标记。The controller adds a user tag for the user that was authenticated and attached to HttpContext by AuthenticationTestHandler. 该标记采用以下字符串格式:"username:<actual username>"The tag has the string format, "username:<actual username>".

  1. 在“解决方案资源管理器”中,右键单击“AppBackend”项目,并选择“管理 NuGet 包”。In Solution Explorer, right-click the AppBackend project and then select Manage NuGet Packages.

  2. 在左窗格中,选择“联机”,然后在“搜索”框中,键入 Microsoft.Azure.NotificationHubsIn the left pane, select Online and then, in the Search box, type Microsoft.Azure.NotificationHubs.

  3. 在结果列表中选择“Azure 通知中心”,然后选择“安装”。In the results list, select Azure Notification Hubs, and then select Install. 完成安装后,关闭“NuGet 程序包管理器”窗口。Complete the installation, and then close the NuGet Package Manager window.

    此操作会使用 Microsoft.Azure.Notification Hubs NuGet 包添加对 Azure 通知中心 SDK 的引用。This action adds a reference to the Azure Notification Hubs SDK by using the Microsoft.Azure.Notification Hubs NuGet package.

  4. 创建新的类文件,以表示与用于发送通知的通知中心的连接。Create a new class file that represents the connection with the notification hub that's used to send notifications. 在“解决方案资源管理器”中,右键单击“模型”文件夹,选择“添加”,并选择“类”。In Solution Explorer, right-click the Models folder, select Add, and then select Class. 将新类命名为 Notifications.cs,并选择“添加”生成该类。Name the new class Notifications.cs, and then select Add to generate the class.

    “添加新项”窗口

  5. 在 Notifications.cs 中,在文件顶部添加以下 using 语句:In Notifications.cs, add the following using statement at the top of the file:

    using Microsoft.Azure.NotificationHubs;
    
  6. Notifications 类定义替换为以下代码,并将两个占位符替换为通知中心的连接字符串(具有完全访问权限)和中心名称(可在 Azure 门户中找到):Replace the Notifications class definition with the following code, and replace the two placeholders with the connection string (with full access) for your notification hub and the hub name (available at Azure portal):

    public class Notifications
    {
        public static Notifications Instance = new Notifications();
    
        public NotificationHubClient Hub { get; set; }
    
        private Notifications() {
            Hub = NotificationHubClient.CreateClientFromConnectionString("<your hub's DefaultFullSharedAccessSignature>", 
                                                                            "<hub name>");
        }
    }
    
  7. 接下来将创建一个名为 RegisterController 的新控制器。Next, create a new controller named RegisterController. 在“解决方案资源管理器”中,右键单击“控制器”文件夹,选择“添加”,并选择“控制器”。In Solution Explorer, right-click the Controllers folder, select Add, and then select Controller.

  8. 选择“Web API 2 控制器 - 空”,并选择“添加”。Select Web API 2 Controller - Empty, and then select Add.

    “添加基架”窗口

  9. 在“控制器名称”框中,键入 RegisterController 以命名新类,并选择“添加”。In the Controller name box, type RegisterController to name the new class, and then select Add.

    “添加控制器”窗口

  10. 在 RegisterController.cs 中,添加以下 using 语句:In RegisterController.cs, add the following using statements:

    using Microsoft.Azure.NotificationHubs;
    using Microsoft.Azure.NotificationHubs.Messaging;
    using AppBackend.Models;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;
    using System.Web;
    
  11. RegisterController 类定义中添加以下代码:Add the following code inside the RegisterController class definition. 在此代码中,将为已附加到 HttpContext 的用户添加用户标记。In this code, you add a user tag for the user that's attached to HttpContext. 添加的消息筛选器 AuthenticationTestHandler 将对该用户进行身份验证并将其附加到 HttpContext。The user was authenticated and attached to HttpContext by the message filter that you added, AuthenticationTestHandler. 还可以通过添加可选复选框来验证用户是否有权注册以获取请求标记。You can also add optional checks to verify that the user has rights to register for the requested tags.

    private NotificationHubClient hub;
    
    public RegisterController()
    {
        hub = Notifications.Instance.Hub;
    }
    
    public class DeviceRegistration
    {
        public string Platform { get; set; }
        public string Handle { get; set; }
        public string[] Tags { get; set; }
    }
    
    // POST api/register
    // This creates a registration id
    public async Task<string> Post(string handle = null)
    {
        string newRegistrationId = null;
    
        // make sure there are no existing registrations for this push handle (used for iOS and Android)
        if (handle != null)
        {
            var registrations = await hub.GetRegistrationsByChannelAsync(handle, 100);
    
            foreach (RegistrationDescription registration in registrations)
            {
                if (newRegistrationId == null)
                {
                    newRegistrationId = registration.RegistrationId;
                }
                else
                {
                    await hub.DeleteRegistrationAsync(registration);
                }
            }
        }
    
        if (newRegistrationId == null) 
            newRegistrationId = await hub.CreateRegistrationIdAsync();
    
        return newRegistrationId;
    }
    
    // PUT api/register/5
    // This creates or updates a registration (with provided channelURI) at the specified id
    public async Task<HttpResponseMessage> Put(string id, DeviceRegistration deviceUpdate)
    {
        RegistrationDescription registration = null;
        switch (deviceUpdate.Platform)
        {
            case "mpns":
                registration = new MpnsRegistrationDescription(deviceUpdate.Handle);
                break;
            case "wns":
                registration = new WindowsRegistrationDescription(deviceUpdate.Handle);
                break;
            case "apns":
                registration = new AppleRegistrationDescription(deviceUpdate.Handle);
                break;
            case "gcm":
                registration = new GcmRegistrationDescription(deviceUpdate.Handle);
                break;
            default:
                throw new HttpResponseException(HttpStatusCode.BadRequest);
        }
    
        registration.RegistrationId = id;
        var username = HttpContext.Current.User.Identity.Name;
    
        // add check if user is allowed to add these tags
        registration.Tags = new HashSet<string>(deviceUpdate.Tags);
        registration.Tags.Add("username:" + username);
    
        try
        {
            await hub.CreateOrUpdateRegistrationAsync(registration);
        }
        catch (MessagingException e)
        {
            ReturnGoneIfHubResponseIsGone(e);
        }
    
        return Request.CreateResponse(HttpStatusCode.OK);
    }
    
    // DELETE api/register/5
    public async Task<HttpResponseMessage> Delete(string id)
    {
        await hub.DeleteRegistrationAsync(id);
        return Request.CreateResponse(HttpStatusCode.OK);
    }
    
    private static void ReturnGoneIfHubResponseIsGone(MessagingException e)
    {
        var webex = e.InnerException as WebException;
        if (webex.Status == WebExceptionStatus.ProtocolError)
        {
            var response = (HttpWebResponse)webex.Response;
            if (response.StatusCode == HttpStatusCode.Gone)
                throw new HttpRequestException(HttpStatusCode.Gone.ToString());
        }
    }
    
  12. 保存所做更改。Save your changes.

从 WebAPI 后端发送通知Send notifications from the WebAPI backend

在本部分中,添加一个新的控制器,使客户端设备可以发送通知。In this section, you add a new controller that exposes a way for client devices to send a notification. 通知基于在 ASP.NET WebAPI 后端中使用 Azure 通知中心 .NET 库的用户名标记。The notification is based on the username tag that uses Azure Notification Hubs .NET Library in the ASP.NET WebAPI backend.

  1. 以在前面的部分中创建 RegisterController 的相同方式创建另一个名为 NotificationsController 的新控制器。Create another new controller named NotificationsController the same way you created RegisterController in the previous section.

  2. 在 NotificationsController.cs 中,添加以下 using 语句:In NotificationsController.cs, add the following using statements:

    using AppBackend.Models;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;
    using System.Web;
    
  3. NotificationsController 类中添加以下方法:Add the following method to the NotificationsController class:

    此代码会发送基于平台通知服务 (PNS) pns 参数的通知类型。This code sends a notification type that's based on the Platform Notification Service (PNS) pns parameter. to_tag 的值用于设置消息中的 username 标记。The value of to_tag is used to set the username tag on the message. 此标记必须与活动的通知中心注册的用户名标记相匹配。This tag must match a username tag of an active notification hub registration. 将从 POST 请求正文提取通知消息,并根据目标 PNS 将其格式化。The notification message is pulled from the body of the POST request and formatted for the target PNS.

    通知受多种格式支持,具体取决于受支持设备用来接收通知的 PNS。Depending on the PNS that your supported devices use to receive notifications, the notifications are supported by a variety of formats. 例如,在 Windows 设备上,可能会将 toast 通知与其他 PNS 不直接支持的 WNS 配合使用For example, on Windows devices, you might use a toast notification with WNS that isn't directly supported by another PNS. 在这种情况下,后端需要将通知格式化为打算使用的设备 PNS 所支持的通知。In such an instance, your backend needs to format the notification into a supported notification for the PNS of devices you plan to support. 然后针对 NotificationHubClient 类使用相应的发送 API。Then use the appropriate send API on the NotificationHubClient class.

    public async Task<HttpResponseMessage> Post(string pns, [FromBody]string message, string to_tag)
    {
        var user = HttpContext.Current.User.Identity.Name;
        string[] userTag = new string[2];
        userTag[0] = "username:" + to_tag;
        userTag[1] = "from:" + user;
    
        Microsoft.Azure.NotificationHubs.NotificationOutcome outcome = null;
        HttpStatusCode ret = HttpStatusCode.InternalServerError;
    
        switch (pns.ToLower())
        {
            case "wns":
                // Windows 8.1 / Windows Phone 8.1
                var toast = @"<toast><visual><binding template=""ToastText01""><text id=""1"">" + 
                            "From " + user + ": " + message + "</text></binding></visual></toast>";
                outcome = await Notifications.Instance.Hub.SendWindowsNativeNotificationAsync(toast, userTag);
                break;
            case "apns":
                // iOS
                var alert = "{\"aps\":{\"alert\":\"" + "From " + user + ": " + message + "\"}}";
                outcome = await Notifications.Instance.Hub.SendAppleNativeNotificationAsync(alert, userTag);
                break;
            case "gcm":
                // Android
                var notif = "{ \"data\" : {\"message\":\"" + "From " + user + ": " + message + "\"}}";
                outcome = await Notifications.Instance.Hub.SendGcmNativeNotificationAsync(notif, userTag);
                break;
        }
    
        if (outcome != null)
        {
            if (!((outcome.State == Microsoft.Azure.NotificationHubs.NotificationOutcomeState.Abandoned) ||
                (outcome.State == Microsoft.Azure.NotificationHubs.NotificationOutcomeState.Unknown)))
            {
                ret = HttpStatusCode.OK;
            }
        }
    
        return Request.CreateResponse(ret);
    }
    
  4. 若要运行应用程序并确保到目前为止操作的准确性,请选择 F5 键。To run the application and ensure the accuracy of your work so far, select the F5 key. 应用将打开 Web 浏览器,并且将显示在 ASP.NET 主页上。The app opens a web browser, and it is displayed on the ASP.NET home page.

发布新的 WebAPI 后端Publish the new WebAPI backend

接下来会将此应用部署到 Azure 网站,以便可以从任意设备访问它。Next, you deploy the app to an Azure website to make it accessible from all devices.

  1. 右键单击 AppBackend 项目,并选择“发布”。Right-click the AppBackend project, and then select Publish.

  2. 选择“Azure 应用服务”作为发布目标,然后选择“发布”**。Select Azure App Service as your publish target, and then select **Publish. “创建应用服务”窗口将打开。The Create App Service window opens. 可以在这里创建在 Azure 中运行 ASP.NET Web 应用所需的全部 Azure 资源。Here you can create all the necessary Azure resources to run the ASP.NET web app in Azure.

    “Azure 应用服务”磁贴

  3. 在“创建应用服务”窗口中,选择 Azure 帐户。In the Create App Service window, select your Azure account. 选择“更改类型” > “Web 应用”。Select Change Type > Web App. 保留默认的“Web 应用名称”,然后依次选择“订阅”、“资源组”和“应用服务计划”。Keep the default Web App Name, and then select the Subscription, Resource Group, and App Service Plan.

  4. 选择“创建” 。Select Create.

  5. 记下“摘要”部分的“站点 URL”属性。Make a note of the Site URL property in the Summary section. 此 URL 是本教程中稍后提到的后端终结点This URL is your back-end endpoint later in the tutorial.

  6. 选择“发布”。Select Publish.

完成向导后,它会将 ASP.NET Web 应用发布到 Azure,然后在默认浏览器中打开该应用。After you've completed the wizard, it publishes the ASP.NET web app to Azure and then opens the app in the default browser. 可以在 Azure 应用服务中查看应用程序。Your application is viewable in Azure App Services.

URL 使用前面指定的 Web 应用名称,其格式为 http://<app_name>.chinacloudsites.cn。The URL uses the web app name that you specified earlier, with the format http://<app_name>.chinacloudsites.cn.

更新客户端项目的代码Update the code for the client project

在本部分中,你将更新你在教程:使用 Azure 通知中心向通用 Windows 平台应用发送通知中创建的通知中心和 Visual Studio 项目。In this section, you update the code in the project you completed for the Tutorial: Send notifications to Universal Windows Platform apps by using Azure Notification Hubs tutorial. 该项目应该已经与 Windows 应用商店相关联,The project should already be associated with the Windows store. 并且也应该已经配置为使用通知中心。It also should be configured to use your notification hub. 在本部分,请添加相关代码,以便调用新的 WebAPI 后端并使用该后端来注册和发送通知。In this section, you add code to call the new WebAPI backend and use it for registering and sending notifications.

  1. 在 Visual Studio 中,打开你为教程:使用 Azure 通知中心向通用 Windows 平台应用发送通知创建的解决方案。In Visual Studio, open the solution you created for the Tutorial: Send notifications to Universal Windows Platform apps by using Azure Notification Hubs.

  2. 在“解决方案资源管理器”中,右键单击“WindowsApp”项目,然后单击“管理 NuGet 包”。In Solution Explorer, right-click the WindowsApp project and then click Manage NuGet Packages.

  3. 在左侧单击“联机” 。On the left-hand side, click Online.

  4. 在“搜索”框中键入 Http 客户端。In the Search box, type Http Client.

  5. 在结果列表中单击“System.Net.Http”,然后单击“安装”。In the results list, click System.Net.Http, and click Install. 完成安装。Complete the installation.

  6. 返回到 NuGet“搜索”框,键入 Json.net。Back in the NuGet Search box, type Json.net. 安装 Newtonsoft.json 包,然后关闭“NuGet 包管理器”窗口。Install the Newtonsoft.json package, and then close the NuGet Package Manager window.

  7. 在解决方案资源管理器的 WindowsApp 项目中双击“MainPage.xaml”,在 Visual Studio 编辑器中打开它。In Solution Explorer, in the WindowsApp project, double-click MainPage.xaml to open it in the Visual Studio editor.

  8. MainPage.xaml XML 代码中,将 <Grid> 节替换为以下代码:此代码将添加用户用来进行身份验证的用户名和密码文本框。In the MainPage.xaml XML code, replace the <Grid> section with the following code: This code adds a username and password textbox that the user authenticates with. 它还会添加通知消息的文本框,以及应接收通知的用户名标记:It also adds text boxes for the notification message and the username tag that should receive the notification:

    <Grid>
        <Grid.RowDefinitions>
            <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
            <RowDefinition Height="*"/>
        </Grid.RowDefinitions>
    
        <TextBlock Grid.Row="0" Text="Notify Users" HorizontalAlignment="Center" FontSize="48"/>
    
        <StackPanel Grid.Row="1" VerticalAlignment="Center">
            <Grid>
                <Grid.RowDefinitions>
                    <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
                    <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
                    <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
                    <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
                    <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
                    <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
                    <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
                    <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
                    <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
                    <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
                    <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
                </Grid.RowDefinitions>
                <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                    <ColumnDefinition></ColumnDefinition>
                    <ColumnDefinition></ColumnDefinition>
                    <ColumnDefinition></ColumnDefinition>
                </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                <TextBlock Grid.Row="0" Grid.ColumnSpan="3" Text="Username" FontSize="24" Margin="20,0,20,0"/>
                <TextBox Name="UsernameTextBox" Grid.Row="1" Grid.ColumnSpan="3" Margin="20,0,20,0"/>
                <TextBlock Grid.Row="2" Grid.ColumnSpan="3" Text="Password" FontSize="24" Margin="20,0,20,0" />
                <PasswordBox Name="PasswordTextBox" Grid.Row="3" Grid.ColumnSpan="3" Margin="20,0,20,0"/>
    
                <Button Grid.Row="4" Grid.ColumnSpan="3" HorizontalAlignment="Center" VerticalAlignment="Center"
                            Content="1. Login and register" Click="LoginAndRegisterClick" Margin="0,0,0,20"/>
    
                <ToggleButton Name="toggleWNS" Grid.Row="5" Grid.Column="0" HorizontalAlignment="Right" Content="WNS" IsChecked="True" />
                <ToggleButton Name="toggleAPNS" Grid.Row="5" Grid.Column="2" HorizontalAlignment="Left" Content="APNS" />
    
                <TextBlock Grid.Row="6" Grid.ColumnSpan="3" Text="Username Tag To Send To" FontSize="24" Margin="20,0,20,0"/>
                <TextBox Name="ToUserTagTextBox" Grid.Row="7" Grid.ColumnSpan="3" Margin="20,0,20,0" TextWrapping="Wrap" />
                <TextBlock Grid.Row="8" Grid.ColumnSpan="3" Text="Enter Notification Message" FontSize="24" Margin="20,0,20,0"/>
                <TextBox Name="NotificationMessageTextBox" Grid.Row="9" Grid.ColumnSpan="3" Margin="20,0,20,0" TextWrapping="Wrap" />
                <Button Grid.Row="10" Grid.ColumnSpan="3" HorizontalAlignment="Center" Content="2. Send push" Click="PushClick" Name="SendPushButton" />
            </Grid>
        </StackPanel>
    </Grid>
    
  9. 在“解决方案资源管理器”中,打开“(Windows 8.1)”和“(Windows Phone 8.1)”项目的 MainPage.xaml.cs 文件。In Solution Explorer, open the MainPage.xaml.cs file for the (Windows 8.1) and (Windows Phone 8.1) projects. using 语句:Add the following using statements at the top of both files:

    using System.Net.Http;
    using Windows.Storage;
    using System.Net.Http.Headers;
    using Windows.Networking.PushNotifications;
    using Windows.UI.Popups;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;
    
  10. WindowsApp 项目的 MainPage.xaml.cs 中,将以下成员添加到 MainPage 类。In MainPage.xaml.cs for the WindowsApp project, add the following member to the MainPage class. 确保使用前面获取的实际后端终结点来替换 <Enter Your Backend Endpoint>Be sure to replace <Enter Your Backend Endpoint> with your actual backend endpoint obtained previously. 例如,http://mybackend.chinacloudsites.cnFor example, http://mybackend.chinacloudsites.cn.

    private static string BACKEND_ENDPOINT = "<Enter Your Backend Endpoint>";
    
  11. 将以下代码添加到“(Windows 8.1)”和“(Windows Phone 8.1)”项目的 MainPage.xaml.cs 中的 MainPage 类。Add the code below to the MainPage class in MainPage.xaml.cs for the (Windows 8.1) and (Windows Phone 8.1) projects.

    PushClick 方法是“发送推送”按钮的单击处理程序。The PushClick method is the click handler for the Send Push button. to_tag 参数匹配的所有设备发送通知。It calls the backend to trigger a notification to all devices with a username tag that matches the to_tag parameter. 通知消息作为请求正文中的 JSON 内容发送。The notification message is sent as JSON content in the request body.

    LoginAndRegisterClick 方法是“登录并注册”按钮的单击处理程序。The LoginAndRegisterClick method is the click handler for the Login and register button. 它在本地存储中存储基本身份验证令牌(代表身份验证方案使用的任何令牌),然后使用 RegisterClient 来通过后端注册通知。It stores the basic authentication token (represents any token your authentication scheme uses) in local storage, then uses RegisterClient to register for notifications using the backend.

    private async void PushClick(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
    {
        if (toggleWNS.IsChecked.Value)
        {
            await sendPush("wns", ToUserTagTextBox.Text, this.NotificationMessageTextBox.Text);
        }
        if (toggleAPNS.IsChecked.Value)
        {
            await sendPush("apns", ToUserTagTextBox.Text, this.NotificationMessageTextBox.Text);
    
        }
    }
    
    private async Task sendPush(string pns, string userTag, string message)
    {
        var POST_URL = BACKEND_ENDPOINT + "/api/notifications?pns=" +
            pns + "&to_tag=" + userTag;
    
        using (var httpClient = new HttpClient())
        {
            var settings = ApplicationData.Current.LocalSettings.Values;
            httpClient.DefaultRequestHeaders.Authorization = new AuthenticationHeaderValue("Basic", (string)settings["AuthenticationToken"]);
    
            try
            {
                await httpClient.PostAsync(POST_URL, new StringContent("\"" + message + "\"",
                    System.Text.Encoding.UTF8, "application/json"));
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                MessageDialog alert = new MessageDialog(ex.Message, "Failed to send " + pns + " message");
                alert.ShowAsync();
            }
        }
    }
    
    private async void LoginAndRegisterClick(object sender, RoutedEventArgs e)
    {
        SetAuthenticationTokenInLocalStorage();
    
        var channel = await PushNotificationChannelManager.CreatePushNotificationChannelForApplicationAsync();
    
        // The "username:<user name>" tag gets automatically added by the message handler in the backend.
        // The tag passed here can be whatever other tags you may want to use.
        try
        {
            // The device handle used is different depending on the device and PNS.
            // Windows devices use the channel uri as the PNS handle.
            await new RegisterClient(BACKEND_ENDPOINT).RegisterAsync(channel.Uri, new string[] { "myTag" });
    
            var dialog = new MessageDialog("Registered as: " + UsernameTextBox.Text);
            dialog.Commands.Add(new UICommand("OK"));
            await dialog.ShowAsync();
            SendPushButton.IsEnabled = true;
        }
        catch (Exception ex)
        {
            MessageDialog alert = new MessageDialog(ex.Message, "Failed to register with RegisterClient");
            alert.ShowAsync();
        }
    }
    
    private void SetAuthenticationTokenInLocalStorage()
    {
        string username = UsernameTextBox.Text;
        string password = PasswordTextBox.Password;
    
        var token = Convert.ToBase64String(System.Text.Encoding.UTF8.GetBytes(username + ":" + password));
        ApplicationData.Current.LocalSettings.Values["AuthenticationToken"] = token;
    }
    
  12. 打开 App.xaml.cs,在 OnLaunched() 事件处理程序中,查找对 InitNotificationsAsync() 的调用。Open App.xaml.cs and find the call to InitNotificationsAsync() in the OnLaunched() event handler. 注释掉或删除对 InitNotificationsAsync()的调用。Comment out or delete the call to InitNotificationsAsync(). 按钮处理程序会初始化通知注册。The button handler initializes notification registrations.

    protected override void OnLaunched(LaunchActivatedEventArgs e)
    {
        //InitNotificationsAsync();
    
  13. 右键单击“WindowsApp”项目,单击“添加”,然后单击“类”。Right-click the WindowsApp project, click Add, and then click Class. 将类命名为 RegisterClient.cs,然后单击“确定”以生成该类。Name the class RegisterClient.cs, then click OK to generate the class.

    此类会包装联系应用后端所需的 REST 调用,以便注册推送通知。This class wraps the REST calls required to contact the app backend, in order to register for push notifications. 它还会在本地存储通知中心创建的 registrationIds,如从应用后端注册中所述。It also locally stores the registrationIds created by the Notification Hub as detailed in Registering from your app backend. 它使用单击“登录并注册”按钮时存储在本地存储中的授权令牌。It uses an authorization token stored in local storage when you click the Login and register button.

  14. 在 RegisterClient.cs 文件的顶部添加以下 using 语句:Add the following using statements at the top of the RegisterClient.cs file:

    using Windows.Storage;
    using System.Net;
    using System.Net.Http;
    using System.Net.Http.Headers;
    using Newtonsoft.Json;
    using System.Threading.Tasks;
    using System.Linq;
    
  15. RegisterClient 类定义中添加以下代码:Add the following code inside the RegisterClient class definition.

    private string POST_URL;
    
    private class DeviceRegistration
    {
        public string Platform { get; set; }
        public string Handle { get; set; }
        public string[] Tags { get; set; }
    }
    
    public RegisterClient(string backendEndpoint)
    {
        POST_URL = backendEndpoint + "/api/register";
    }
    
    public async Task RegisterAsync(string handle, IEnumerable<string> tags)
    {
        var regId = await RetrieveRegistrationIdOrRequestNewOneAsync();
    
        var deviceRegistration = new DeviceRegistration
        {
            Platform = "wns",
            Handle = handle,
            Tags = tags.ToArray<string>()
        };
    
        var statusCode = await UpdateRegistrationAsync(regId, deviceRegistration);
    
        if (statusCode == HttpStatusCode.Gone)
        {
            // regId is expired, deleting from local storage & recreating
            var settings = ApplicationData.Current.LocalSettings.Values;
            settings.Remove("__NHRegistrationId");
            regId = await RetrieveRegistrationIdOrRequestNewOneAsync();
            statusCode = await UpdateRegistrationAsync(regId, deviceRegistration);
        }
    
        if (statusCode != HttpStatusCode.Accepted && statusCode != HttpStatusCode.OK)
        {
            // log or throw
            throw new System.Net.WebException(statusCode.ToString());
        }
    }
    
    private async Task<HttpStatusCode> UpdateRegistrationAsync(string regId, DeviceRegistration deviceRegistration)
    {
        using (var httpClient = new HttpClient())
        {
            var settings = ApplicationData.Current.LocalSettings.Values;
            httpClient.DefaultRequestHeaders.Authorization = new AuthenticationHeaderValue("Basic", (string) settings["AuthenticationToken"]);
    
            var putUri = POST_URL + "/" + regId;
    
            string json = JsonConvert.SerializeObject(deviceRegistration);
                            var response = await httpClient.PutAsync(putUri, new StringContent(json, Encoding.UTF8, "application/json"));
            return response.StatusCode;
        }
    }
    
    private async Task<string> RetrieveRegistrationIdOrRequestNewOneAsync()
    {
        var settings = ApplicationData.Current.LocalSettings.Values;
        if (!settings.ContainsKey("__NHRegistrationId"))
        {
            using (var httpClient = new HttpClient())
            {
                httpClient.DefaultRequestHeaders.Authorization = new AuthenticationHeaderValue("Basic", (string)settings["AuthenticationToken"]);
    
                var response = await httpClient.PostAsync(POST_URL, new StringContent(""));
                if (response.IsSuccessStatusCode)
                {
                    string regId = await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync();
                    regId = regId.Substring(1, regId.Length - 2);
                    settings.Add("__NHRegistrationId", regId);
                }
                else
                {
                    throw new System.Net.WebException(response.StatusCode.ToString());
                }
            }
        }
        return (string)settings["__NHRegistrationId"];
    
    }
    
  16. 保存所有更改。Save all your changes.

测试应用程序Test the Application

  1. 在两种版本的 Windows 上启动应用程序。Launch the application on both Windows.

  2. 输入“用户名”和“密码”,如以下屏幕所示。Enter a Username and Password as shown in the screen below. 这应该与在 Windows Phone 上输入的用户名和密码不同。It should differ from the user name and password you enter on Windows Phone.

  3. 单击“登录并注册”,然后验证是否会显示用户已登录的对话框。Click Log in and register and verify a dialog shows that you have logged in. 此代码也会启用“发送推送”按钮。This code also enables the Send Push button.

  4. 然后在“收件人用户名标记”字段中输入注册的用户名。Then in the Recipient Username Tag field, enter the user name registered. 输入通知消息,然后单击“发送推送”。Enter a notification message and click Send Push.

  5. 只有已使用匹配用户名标记进行注册的设备才会收到通知消息。Only the devices that have registered with the matching username tag receive the notification message.

后续步骤Next steps

本教程介绍了如何向其标记与注册相关联的特定用户推送通知。In this tutorial, you learned how to push notifications to specific users that have tags associated with their registrations. 若要了解如何推送基于位置的通知,请转到以下教程:To learn how to push location-based notifications, advance to the following tutorial: