使用 Azure 门户创建服务总线命名空间和队列Use Azure portal to create a Service Bus namespace and a queue

本快速入门介绍如何使用 Azure 门户创建服务总线命名空间和队列。This quickstart shows you how to create a Service Bus namespace and a queue using the Azure portal. 本快速入门还介绍了如何获取客户端应用程序向队列发送消息或从队列接收消息所使用的授权凭据。It also shows you how to get authorization credentials that a client application can use to send/receive messages to/from the queue.

什么是 Service Bus 队列?What are Service Bus queues?

服务总线队列支持中转消息传送 通信模型。Service Bus queues support a brokered messaging communication model. 在使用队列时,分布式应用程序的组件不会直接相互通信,而是通过充当中介(代理)的队列交换消息。When using queues, components of a distributed application do not communicate directly with each other; instead they exchange messages via a queue, which acts as an intermediary (broker). 消息创建方(发送方)将消息传送到队列,然后继续对其进行处理。A message producer (sender) hands off a message to the queue and then continues its processing. 消息使用方(接收方)以异步方式从队列中提取消息并处理它。Asynchronously, a message consumer (receiver) pulls the message from the queue and processes it. 创建方不必等待使用方的答复即可继续处理并发送更多消息。The producer does not have to wait for a reply from the consumer in order to continue to process and send further messages. 队列为一个或多个竞争使用方提供先入先出 (FIFO) 消息传递方式。Queues offer First In, First Out (FIFO) message delivery to one or more competing consumers. 也就是说,接收方通常会按照消息添加到队列中的顺序来接收并处理消息,并且每条消息仅由一个消息使用方接收并处理。That is, messages are typically received and processed by the receivers in the order in which they were added to the queue, and each message is received and processed by only one message consumer.

QueueConcepts

Service Bus 队列是一种可用于各种应用场景的通用技术:Service Bus queues are a general-purpose technology that can be used for a wide variety of scenarios:

  • 多层 Azure 应用程序中 Web 角色和辅助角色之间的通信。Communication between web and worker roles in a multi-tier Azure application.
  • 混合解决方案中本地应用程序和 Azure 托管应用程序之间的通信。Communication between on-premises apps and Azure-hosted apps in a hybrid solution.
  • 在不同组织或组织的各部门中本地运行的分布式应用程序组件之间的通信。Communication between components of a distributed application running on-premises in different organizations or departments of an organization.

利用队列,可以更轻松地缩放应用程序,并增强体系结构的弹性。Using queues enables you to scale your applications more easily, and enable more resiliency to your architecture.

先决条件Prerequisites

若要完成本快速入门,请确保你有一个 Azure 订阅。To complete this quickstart, make sure you have an Azure subscription. 如果没有 Azure 订阅,可在开始前创建一个试用帐户If you don't have an Azure subscription, you can create a trial account before you begin.

在 Azure 门户中创建命名空间Create a namespace in the Azure portal

若要开始在 Azure 中使用服务总线消息实体,必须先使用在 Azure 中唯一的名称创建一个命名空间。To begin using Service Bus messaging entities in Azure, you must first create a namespace with a name that is unique across Azure. 命名空间提供了用于对应用程序中的 Service Bus 资源进行寻址的范围容器。A namespace provides a scoping container for addressing Service Bus resources within your application.

创建命名空间:To create a namespace:

  1. 登录到 Azure 门户Sign in to the Azure portal

  2. 在门户的左侧导航窗格中,依次选择“+ 创建资源”、“集成”、“服务总线” 。In the left navigation pane of the portal, select + Create a resource, select Integration, and then select Service Bus.

    “创建资源”->“集成”->“服务总线”

  3. 在“创建命名空间”对话框中执行以下步骤 :In the Create namespace dialog, do the following steps:

    1. 输入命名空间的名称Enter a name for the namespace. 系统会立即检查该名称是否可用。The system immediately checks to see if the name is available. 若需用于对命名空间进行命名的规则的列表,请参阅创建命名空间 REST APIFor a list of rules for naming namespaces, see Create Namespace REST API.

    2. 选择命名空间的定价层(“基本”、“标准”或“高级”)。Select the pricing tier (Basic, Standard, or Premium) for the namespace. 若要使用主题和订阅,请选择“标准”或“高级”。If you want to use topics and subscriptions, choose either Standard or Premium. 基本定价层中不支持主题/订阅。Topics/subscriptions are not supported in the Basic pricing tier.

    3. 如果选择了“高级”定价层,请执行以下步骤: If you selected the Premium pricing tier, follow these steps:

      1. 指定消息传送单元的数目。Specify the number of messaging units. 高级层在 CPU 和内存级别提供资源隔离,使每个工作负荷在隔离的环境中运行。The premium tier provides resource isolation at the CPU and memory level so that each workload runs in isolation. 此资源容器称为消息传送单元。This resource container is called a messaging unit. 高级命名空间至少具有一个消息传送单元。A premium namespace has at least one messaging unit. 可为每个服务总线高级命名空间选择 1、2 或 4 个消息传送单元。You can select 1, 2, or 4 messaging units for each Service Bus Premium namespace. 有关详细信息,请参阅服务总线高级消息传送For more information, see Service Bus Premium Messaging.

      2. 指定是否要将命名空间设为区域冗余Specify whether you want to make the namespace zone redundant. 区域冗余通过在一个区域中的所有可用性区域之间分散副本来提供增强的可用性。The zone redundancy provides enhanced availability by spreading replicas across availability zones within one region at no additional cost.

    4. 对于“订阅”,请选择要在其中创建命名空间的 Azure 订阅。 For Subscription, choose an Azure subscription in which to create the namespace.

    5. 对于“资源组”,请选择该命名空间驻留到的现有资源组,或创建一个新资源组。 For Resource group, choose an existing resource group in which the namespace will live, or create a new one.

    6. 对于“位置”,请选择托管该命名空间的区域。 For Location, choose the region in which your namespace should be hosted.

    7. 选择“创建” 。Select Create. 系统现已创建命名空间并已将其启用。The system now creates your namespace and enables it. 可能需要等待几分钟,因为系统将为帐户配置资源。You might have to wait several minutes as the system provisions resources for your account.

      创建命名空间

  4. 确认是否已成功部署服务总线命名空间。Confirm that the service bus namespace is deployed successfully. 若要查看通知,请在工具栏上选择钟形图标(警报)To see the notifications, select the bell icon (Alerts) on the toolbar. 如下图所示,在通知中选择资源组的名称Select the name of the resource group in the notification as shown in the image. 将会看到包含服务总线命名空间的资源组。You see the resource group that contains the service bus namespace.

    部署警报

  5. 在资源组的“资源组”页上,选择你的服务总线命名空间On the Resource group page for your resource group, select your service bus namespace.

    “资源组”页 - 选择服务总线命名空间

  6. 将会看到服务总线命名空间的主页。You see the home page for your service bus namespace.

    服务总线命名空间的主页

获取连接字符串Get the connection string

创建新的命名空间时,会自动生成一项初始的共享访问签名 (SAS) 规则,将一对主密钥和辅助密钥关联到一起,向每个密钥授予对命名空间的所有资产的完全控制权限。Creating a new namespace automatically generates an initial Shared Access Signature (SAS) rule with an associated pair of primary and secondary keys that each grant full control over all aspects of the namespace. 请参阅服务总线身份验证和授权,了解如何创建规则来对普通发送者和接收者的权限进行更多限制。See Service Bus authentication and authorization for information about how to create rules with more constrained rights for regular senders and receivers. 若要复制命名空间的主要密钥和辅助密钥,请执行以下步骤:To copy the primary and secondary keys for your namespace, follow these steps:

  1. 单击“所有资源”,然后单击新创建的命名空间名称。 Click All resources, then click the newly created namespace name.

  2. 在命名空间窗口中,单击“共享访问策略” 。In the namespace window, click Shared access policies.

  3. 在“共享访问策略” 屏幕中,单击“RootManageSharedAccessKey” 。In the Shared access policies screen, click RootManageSharedAccessKey.

    connection-info

  4. 在“策略: RootManageSharedAccessKey”窗口中,单击“主连接字符串”旁边的复制按钮,将连接字符串复制到剪贴板供稍后使用 。In the Policy: RootManageSharedAccessKey window, click the copy button next to Primary Connection String, to copy the connection string to your clipboard for later use. 将此值粘贴到记事本或其他某个临时位置。Paste this value into Notepad or some other temporary location.

    connection-string

  5. 重复上述步骤,将主键的值复制和粘贴到临时位置,以供将来使用。Repeat the previous step, copying and pasting the value of Primary key to a temporary location for later use.

在 Azure 门户中创建队列Create a queue in the Azure portal

  1. 在“服务总线命名空间” 页面上,选择左侧导航菜单中的“队列” 。On the Service Bus Namespace page, select Queues in the left navigational menu.

  2. 在“队列” 页面上,选择工具栏上的“+ 队列” 。On the Queues page, select + Queue on the toolbar.

  3. 输入队列名称 ,其他值则保留默认值。Enter a name for the queue, and leave the other values with their defaults.

  4. 现在选择“创建” 。Now, select Create.

    队列 -> + 队列 -> 输入名称 -> 创建

后续步骤Next steps

在本文中,你创建了服务总线命名空间并在其中创建了队列。In this article, you created a Service Bus namespace and a queue in the namespace. 若要了解如何向队列发送消息或从队列接收消息,请参阅“发送和接收消息”部分中的以下某个快速入门。To learn how to send/receive messages to/from the queue, see one of the following quickstarts in the Send and receive messages section.