Azure 存储迁移概述Azure Storage migration overview

本文重点介绍如何向 Azure 进行存储迁移,并提供有关以下存储迁移方案的指导:This article focuses on storage migrations to Azure and provides guidance on the following storage migration scenarios:

  • 迁移非结构化数据,例如文件和对象Migration of unstructured data, such as files and objects
  • 迁移基于块的设备,例如磁盘和存储区域网络 (SAN)Migration of block-based devices, such as disks and storage area networks (SANs)

迁移非结构化数据Migration of unstructured data

非结构化数据迁移包括以下方案:Migration of unstructured data includes following scenarios:

  • 将文件从网络附加存储 (NAS) 迁移到 Azure 文件产品/服务之一:File migration from network attached storage (NAS) to one of the Azure file offerings:
  • 将对象从对象存储解决方案迁移到 Azure 对象存储平台:Object migration from object storage solutions to the Azure object storage platform:

迁移阶段Migration phases

整个迁移过程由多个不同的阶段组成:发现、评估和迁移。A full migration consists of several different phases: discovery, assessment, and migration.

显示迁移过程的发现、评估和迁移阶段的示意图

发现阶段Discovery phase

在发现阶段确定需要迁移的所有源,例如 SMB 共享、NFS 导出或对象命名空间。In the discovery phase, you determine all sources that need to be migrated like SMB shares, NFS exports, or object namespaces. 可以手动执行此阶段,也可以使用自动化工具。You can do this phase manually, or use automated tools.

评估阶段Assessment phase

评估阶段对于了解可用迁移选项至关重要。The assessment phase is critical in understanding available options for the migration. 为了降低迁移期间的风险并避免常见缺陷,请遵循以下三个步骤:To reduce the risk during migration, and to avoid common pitfalls follow these three steps:

评估阶段的步骤Assessment phase steps 选项Options
选择目标存储服务Choose a target storage service - Azure Blob 存储和 Data Lake Storage- Azure Blob Storage and Data Lake Storage
- Azure 文件存储- Azure Files
选择迁移方法Select a migration method - 联机- Online
- 脱机- Offline
- 上述两种方法的组合- Combination of both
为作业选择最佳迁移工具Choose the best migration tool for the job - 商用工具 (Azure)- Commercial tools (Azure)
- 开源- Open source
选择目标存储服务Choose a target storage service

选择哪个目标存储服务取决于访问数据的应用程序或用户。Choosing a target storage service depends on the application or users who access the data. 正确的选择取决于技术和财务方面。The correct choice depends on both technical and financial aspects. 首先,执行技术评估以评估可行的目标并确定哪些服务满足要求。First, do a technical assessment to assess possible targets and determine which services satisfy the requirements. 接下来,执行财务评估以确定最佳选择。Next, do a financial assessment to determine the best choice.

若要帮助选择用于迁移的目标存储服务,请评估每个服务的以下方面:To help select the target storage service for the migration, evaluate the following aspects of each service:

  • 协议支持Protocol support
  • 性能特征Performance characteristics
  • 目标存储服务的限制Limits of the target storage service

完成技术评估并选择正确的目标后,执行成本评估以确定最经济高效的选项。After you finish the technical assessment, and select the proper target, do a cost assessment to determine the most cost-effective option.

若要详细了解当前限制,并确定是否需要基于这些限制修改你的选项,请参阅:To find out more about current limits, and to determine whether you need to modify your choices based on them, see:

选择迁移方法Select the migration method

可使用两种基本迁移方法进行存储迁移。There are two basic migration methods for storage migrations.

  • 联机映像服务Online. 联机方法使用网络进行数据迁移。The online method uses the network for data migration. 可以使用公共 Internet 或 Azure ExpressRouteEither the public internet or Azure ExpressRoute can be used. 如果服务没有公共终结点,则必须将 VPN 与公共 Internet 配合使用。If the service doesn't have a public endpoint, you must use a VPN with public internet.
  • 脱机Offline. 脱机方法使用 Azure Data Box 设备之一。The offline method uses one of the Azure Data Box devices.

是要使用联机方法还是脱机方法取决于可用的网络带宽。The decision to use an online method versus an offline method depends on the available network bandwidth. 如果有足够的网络带宽可供在所需时间线内执行迁移,则联机方法是首选方法。The online method is preferred in cases where there's sufficient network bandwidth to perform a migration within the needed timeline.

可以将这两种方法结合使用:脱机方法用于初始的批量迁移,联机方法用于对更改进行增量迁移。It's possible to use a combination of both methods, offline method for the initial bulk migration and an online method for incremental migration of changes. 同时使用这两种方法需具备较高的协调水平,因此不建议这样做。Using both methods simultaneously requires a high level of coordination and isn't recommended for this reason. 如果选择使用这两种方法,请将联机迁移的数据集与脱机迁移的数据集隔离开来。If you choose to use both methods isolate the data sets that are migrated online from the data sets that are migrated offline.

有关不同迁移方法的详细信息和指导,请参阅选择用于数据传输的 Azure 解决方案迁移到 Azure 文件共享For more information about the different migration methods and guidelines, see Choose an Azure solution for data transfer and Migrate to Azure file shares.

为作业选择最佳迁移工具Choose the best migration tool for the job

有多种迁移工具可用于执行迁移。There are various migration tools that you can use to perform the migration. 其中一些工具是开源的,例如 AzCopy、robocopy、xcopy 和 rsync;还有一些工具是商用的。Some are open source like AzCopy, robocopy, xcopy, and rsync while others are commercial.

迁移阶段Migration phase

迁移阶段是执行数据移动和迁移的最后一个迁移步骤。The migration phase is the final migration step that does data movement and migration. 通常,需要从头到尾运行迁移阶段多次才能实现更轻松的切换。Typically, you'll run through the migration phase several times to accomplish an easier switchover. 迁移阶段包括以下步骤:The migration phase consists of the following steps:

  1. 初始迁移。Initial migration. 初始迁移步骤将源中的所有数据迁移到目标。The initial migration step migrates all the data from the source to the target. 此步骤将会迁移需要迁移的大量数据。This step migrates the bulk of the data that needs to be migrated.
  2. 重新同步。Resync. 重新同步操作将迁移在完成初始迁移步骤后已更改的所有数据。A resync operation migrates any data that was changed after the initial migration step. 如果存在大量的更改,可以重复此步骤多次。You can repeat this step several times if there are numerous changes. 多次运行重新同步操作的目的是减少最后一个步骤所需的时间。The goal of running multiple resync operations is to reduce the time it takes for the final step. 对于非活动数据以及未更改的数据(例如备份或存档数据),可以跳过此步骤。For inactive data and for data that has no changes (like backup or archive data), you can skip this step.
  3. 最终切换Final switchover. 最终切换步骤将源中活跃使用的数据切换到目标,并停用源。The final switchover step switches the active usage of the data from the source to the target and retires the source.

非结构化数据迁移的持续时间取决于多个方面。The duration of the migration for unstructured data depends on several aspects. 除了所选的方法以外,最关键的因素是数据总大小和文件大小分布。Outside of the chosen method, the most critical factors are the total size of the data and file size distribution. 数据集总大小越大,迁移时间就越长。The bigger the total data set, the longer the migration time. 平均文件大小越小,迁移时间就越长。The smaller the average file size, the longer the migration time. 如果你有大量的小文件,请考虑将它们存档在较大的文件(例如 .tar 或 .zip 文件)中(如果适用),以减少总迁移时间。If you have a large number of small files consider archiving them in larger files (like to a .tar or .zip file), if applicable, to reduce the total migration time.

迁移基于块的设备Migration of block-based devices

基于块的设备迁移通常是在迁移虚拟机或物理主机的过程中完成的。Migration of block-based devices is typically done as part of virtual machine or physical host migration. 一个常见的错误认知是将块存储决策推迟到迁移之后。It's a common misconception to delay block storage decisions until after the migration. 在适当考虑工作负载要求的情况下提前做出这些决策可以更顺利地迁移到云中。Making these decisions ahead of time with appropriate considerations for workload requirements leads to a smoother migration to the cloud.

若要了解可迁移的工作负载和可采用的方法,请参阅 Azure 磁盘存储文档,以及磁盘存储产品页上的资源。To explore workloads to migrate and approach to take, see the Azure Disk Storage documentation, and resources on the Disk Storage product page. 可以了解哪些磁盘符合你的要求,以及磁盘突发等最新功能。You can learn about which disks fit your requirements, and the latest capabilities such as disk bursting.

另请参阅See also