Azure 专用主机Azure Dedicated Hosts

Azure 专用主机是一种提供物理服务器(能够托管一个或多个虚拟机)的服务,专用于一个 Azure 订阅。Azure Dedicated Host is a service that provides physical servers - able to host one or more virtual machines - dedicated to one Azure subscription. 专用主机是数据中心中使用的相同物理服务器,作为资源提供。Dedicated hosts are the same physical servers used in our data centers, provided as a resource. 你可以在区域和容错域中预配专用主机。You can provision dedicated hosts within a region, and fault domain. 然后,可以按照最能满足你的需要的配置将 VM 直接放入预配的主机中。Then, you can place VMs directly into your provisioned hosts, in whatever configuration best meets your needs.

优点Benefits

预留整个主机具有以下优势:Reserving the entire host provides the following benefits:

  • 物理服务器级别的硬件隔离。Hardware isolation at the physical server level. 不会在你的主机上放置任何其他 VM。No other VMs will be placed on your hosts. 专用主机部署在相同的数据中心,与其他非隔离主机共享相同的网络和底层存储基础结构。Dedicated hosts are deployed in the same data centers and share the same network and underlying storage infrastructure as other, non-isolated hosts.
  • 控制 Azure 平台发起的维护事件。Control over maintenance events initiated by the Azure platform. 尽管大多数维护事件对虚拟机的影响极小甚至没有任何影响,但对于某些敏感工作负荷而言,每暂停一秒都可能会造成影响。While the majority of maintenance events have little to no impact on your virtual machines, there are some sensitive workloads where each second of pause can have an impact. 在使用专用主机的情况下,可以选择维护时段,以降低对服务的影响。With dedicated hosts, you can opt-in to a maintenance window to reduce the impact to your service.
  • 借助 Azure 混合权益,你可以在 Azure 中使用自己的 Windows 和 SQL 许可证。With the Azure hybrid benefit, you can bring your own licenses for Windows and SQL to Azure. 使用混合权益可以提供更多的优势。Using the hybrid benefits provides you with additional benefits. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 混合权益For more information, see Azure Hybrid Benefit.

组、主机和 VMGroups, hosts, and VMs

专用主机的新资源的视图。

主机组 是表示专用主机集合的资源。A host group is a resource that represents a collection of dedicated hosts. 你在某个区域中创建主机组,并向其中添加主机。You create a host group in a region, and add hosts to it.

主机 是映射到 Azure 数据中心内的物理服务器的资源。A host is a resource, mapped to a physical server in an Azure data center. 创建主机时,将分配物理服务器。The physical server is allocated when the host is created. 主机是在主机组中创建的。A host is created within a host group. 主机提供一个 SKU,用于描述可创建哪些 VM 大小。A host has a SKU describing which VM sizes can be created. 每个主机可以托管多个不同大小的 VM,前提是这些 VM 来自相同的大小系列。Each host can host multiple VMs, of different sizes, as long as they are from the same size series.

高可用性注意事项High Availability considerations

要实现高可用性,应部署多个 VM,并将其分散在多个主机(最少 2 个)上。For high availability, you should deploy multiple VMs, spread across multiple hosts (minimum of 2). 在使用 Azure 专用主机的情况下,有多个选项可用来预配基础结构,以形成故障隔离边界。With Azure Dedicated Hosts, you have several options to provision your infrastructure to shape your fault isolation boundaries.

使用容错域实现故障隔离Use Fault Domains for fault isolation

可以在特定的容错域中创建主机。A host can be created in a specific fault domain. 与规模集或可用性集中的 VM 一样,不同容错域中的主机将放置在数据中心内的不同物理机架上。Just like VM in a scale set or availability set, hosts in different fault domains will be placed on different physical racks in the data center. 创建主机组时,需要指定容错域计数。When you create a host group, you are required to specify the fault domain count. 在主机组中创建主机时,需为每个主机分配容错域。When creating hosts within the host group, you assign fault domain for each host. VM 不需要任何容错域分配。The VMs do not require any fault domain assignment.

容错域不同于归置。Fault domains are not the same as colocation. 对两个主机使用同一个容错域并不意味着它们彼此邻近。Having the same fault domain for two hosts does not mean they are in proximity with each other.

容错域的范围限定为主机组。Fault domains are scoped to the host group. 不应该对两个主机组之间的反关联做出任何假设。You should not make any assumption on anti-affinity between two host groups.

部署到具有不同容错域的主机的 VM 将在多个存储戳上具有其底层托管磁盘服务,以提高故障隔离保护。VMs deployed to hosts with different fault domains, will have their underlying managed disks services on multiple storage stamps, to increase the fault isolation protection.

手动放置与自动放置Manual vs. automatic placement

在 Azure 中创建 VM 时,可以选择要使用哪个专用主机。When creating a VM in Azure, you can select which dedicated host to use. 还可以使用相应的选项将 VM 自动放置在主机组中的现有主机上。You can also use the option to automatically place your VMs on existing hosts, within a host group.

在创建新主机组时,请确保选择用于自动 VM 放置的设置。When creating a new host group, make sure the setting for automatic VM placement is selected. 在创建 VM 时,请选择该主机组,并让 Azure 为 VM 选择最佳主机。When creating your VM, select the host group and let Azure pick the best host for your VM.

已启用自动放置的主机组并不要求所有的 VM 均自动放置。Host groups that are enabled for automatic placement do not require all the VMs to be automatically placed. 即使为该主机组选择了自动放置,你仍然能够显式选择主机。You will still be able to explicitly pick a host, even when automatic placement is selected for the host group.

限制Limitations

在使用自动 VM 放置时,有以下已知的问题和限制:Known issues and limitations when using automatic VM placement:

  • 无法在专用主机上应用 Azure 混合权益。You will not be able to apply Azure Hybrid Benefits on your dedicated hosts.
  • 无法重新部署 VM。You will not be able to redeploy your VM.
  • 无法将 M 系列 VM 用于专用主机You will not be able to use M-series VMs with dedicated hosts

虚拟机规模集支持Virtual machine scale set support

利用虚拟机规模集,可以将一组虚拟机视为单一资源,并可以将其作为一个组来应用可用性、管理、缩放和业务流程策略。Virtual machine scale sets let you treat a group of virtual machines as a single resource, and apply availability, management, scaling and orchestration policies as a group. 现有的专用主机也可以用于虚拟机规模集。Your existing dedicated hosts can also be used for virtual machine scale sets.

在创建虚拟机规模集时,可以指定现有主机组,以便在专用主机上创建所有的 VM 实例。When creating a virtual machine scale set you can specify an existing host group to have all of the VM instances created on dedicated hosts.

在专用主机组中创建虚拟机规模集时,需要满足以下要求:The following requirements apply when creating a virtual machine scale set in a dedicated host group:

  • 需要启用自动 VM 放置。Automatic VM placement needs to be enabled.

  • 主机组的可用性设置应当与规模集相匹配。The availability setting of your host group should match your scale set.

    • 对于区域规模集,应该使用区域主机组。A regional host group should be used for regional scale sets.
    • 主机组级别的容错域计数应当与规模集的容错域计数相匹配。The fault domain count for the host group level should match the fault domain count for your scale set. 通过 Azure 门户,可以为规模集指定“最大分布”,这会将容错域计数设置为 1。The Azure portal lets you specify max spreading for your scale set, which sets the fault domain count of 1.
  • 应该先创建具有足够容量且具有相同规模集区域设置与容错域设置的专用主机。Dedicated hosts should be created first, with sufficient capacity, and the same settings for scale set zones and fault domains.

  • 专用主机支持的 VM 大小应当与用于规模集的 VM 大小相匹配。The supported VM sizes for your dedicated hosts should match the one used for your scale set.

专用主机并非支持所有的规模集业务流程和优化设置。Not all scale-set orchestration and optimizations settings are supported by dedicated hosts. 请将以下设置应用于规模集:Apply the following settings to your scale set:

  • 不建议过度预配,该功能默认处于禁用状态。Overprovisioning is not recommended, and it is disabled by default. 可以启用过度预配,但如果主机组没有用于所有 VM 的足够容量(包括过度预配的实例),则规模集分配将失败。You can enable overprovisioning, but the scale set allocation will fail if the host group does not have capacity for all of the VMs, including the overprovisioned instances.
  • 使用 ScaleSetVM 业务流程模式Use the ScaleSetVM orchestration mode
  • 请勿将邻近放置组用于归置Do not use proximity placement groups for co-location

维护控制Maintenance control

可以偶尔更新支持虚拟机的基础结构,以提高可靠性、性能和安全性,并启动新功能。The infrastructure supporting your virtual machines may occasionally be updated to improve reliability, performance, security, and to launch new features. 只要有可能,Azure 平台就会尝试最大程度地降低平台维护的影响,但如果客户具有对维护敏感的 工作负荷,那么他们就不能容忍出于维护目的而冻结 VM 或断开 VM 连接,哪怕只有几秒。The Azure platform tries to minimize the impact of platform maintenance whenever possible, but customers with maintenance sensitive workloads can't tolerate even few seconds that the VM needs to be frozen or disconnected for maintenance.

维护控制 为客户提供了一个选项,以用于跳过在其专用主机上计划的定期平台更新,然后在 35 天滚动时段内他们所选的时间应用更新。Maintenance Control provides customers with an option to skip regular platform updates scheduled on their dedicated hosts, then apply it at the time of their choice within a 35-day rolling window. 在维护时段,可以按任何顺序直接在主机级别应用维护。Within the maintenance window, you can apply maintenance directly at the host level, in any order. 维护时段结束后,Azure 继续操作,将挂起的维护按可能不符合用户定义的容错域的顺序应用于主机。Once the maintenance window is over, Azure will move forward and apply the pending maintenance to the hosts in an order which may not follow the user defined fault domains.

有关详细信息,请参阅通过维护控制管理平台更新For more information, see Managing platform updates with Maintenance Control.

容量注意事项Capacity considerations

预配了专用主机之后,Azure 会将其分配给物理服务器。Once a dedicated host is provisioned, Azure assigns it to physical server. 这会在你需要预配 VM 时保证容量的可用性。This guarantees the availability of the capacity when you need to provision your VM. Azure 使用区域中的全部容量为你的主机选取物理服务器。Azure uses the entire capacity in the region to pick a physical server for your host. 这也意味着,客户可以预期其专用主机占用空间能够扩展,而不必担心用尽群集中的空间。It also means that customers can expect to be able to grow their dedicated host footprint without the concern of running out of space in the cluster.

配额Quotas

部署专用主机时会使用两种类型的配额。There are two types of quota that are consumed when you deploy a dedicated host.

  1. 专用主机 vCPU 配额。Dedicated host vCPU quota. 默认配额限制为每个区域 3000 vCPU。The default quota limit is 3000 vCPUs, per region.
  2. VM 大小系列配额。VM size family quota. 例如,在中国东部区域,标准预付费套餐 订阅仅为 Dsv3 大小系列提供 10 个 vCPU 的配额。For example, a Standard Pay-in-Advance Offer subscription may only have a quota of 10 vCPUs available for the Dsv3 size series, in the China East region. 若要部署 Dsv3 专用主机,则需要请求将配额提高到至少 64 个 vCPU,然后才能部署专用主机。To deploy a Dsv3 dedicated host, you would need to request a quota increase to at least 64 vCPUs before you can deploy the dedicated host.

若要请求提高配额,请在 Azure 门户中创建支持请求。To request a quota increase, create a support request in the Azure portal.

预配专用主机时将同时使用专用主机 vCPU 和 VM 系列 vCPU 配额,但不会使用区域 vCPU。Provisioning a dedicated host will consume both dedicated host vCPU and the VM family vCPU quota, but it will not consume the regional vCPU.

门户中的用量和配额页的屏幕截图

有关详细信息,请参阅虚拟机 vCPU 配额For more information, see Virtual machine vCPU quotas.

试用版和 MSDN 订阅不为 Azure 专用主机提供配额。trial and MSDN subscriptions do not have quota for Azure Dedicated Hosts.

定价Pricing

无论部署多少个 VM,都会按专用主机对用户收费。Users are charged per dedicated host, regardless how many VMs are deployed. 在每月帐单中,你将看到新的可计费资源类型的主机。In your monthly statement you will see a new billable resource type of hosts. 专用主机上的 VM 仍会显示在帐单中,但其价格为 0。The VMs on a dedicated host will still be shown in your statement, but will carry a price of 0.

主机价格是根据 VM 系列、类型(硬件大小)和区域设置的。The host price is set based on VM family, type (hardware size), and region. 主机价格与主机上支持的最大 VM 大小相关。A host price is relative to the largest VM size supported on the host.

软件许可、存储和网络用量与主机和 VM 分开计费。Software licensing, storage and network usage are billed separately from the host and VMs. 这些可计费项没有更改。There is no change to those billable items.

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 专用主机定价For more information, see Azure Dedicated Host pricing.

大小和硬件代系Sizes and hardware generations

SKU 是为主机定义的,表示 VM 大小系列和类型。A SKU is defined for a host and it represents the VM size series and type. 可以在单个主机中混合使用多个不同大小的 VM,只要这些 VM 属于相同的大小系列即可。You can mix multiple VMs of different sizes within a single host as long as they are of the same size series.

类型 为硬件代系。The type is the hardware generation. 相同 VM 系列的不同硬件类型来自不同的 CPU 供应商,具有不同的 CPU 代系和核心数。Different hardware types for the same VM series will be from different CPU vendors and have different CPU generations and number of cores.

大小和硬件类型因区域而异。The sizes and hardware types vary by region. 请参阅主机定价页来了解详细信息。Refer to the host pricing page to learn more.

备注

预配某个专用主机后,就无法更改其大小或类型。Once a Dedicated host is provisoned, you can't change the size or type. 如果需要不同的大小或类型,需要创建新主机。If you need a different size of type, you will need to create a new host.

主机生命周期Host life cycle

Azure 将会监视和管理主机的运行状况状态。Azure monitors and manages the health status of your hosts. 查询主机时,将返回以下状态:The following states will be returned when you query your host:

运行状况状态Health State 说明Description
主机可用Host Available 主机不存在已知问题。There are no known issues with your host.
主机正在接受调查Host Under Investigation 主机出现了一些问题,我们正在调查。We're having some issues with the host which we're looking into. 这是一种过渡状态,需要 Azure 尝试识别所发现的问题的范围和根本原因。This is a transitional state required for Azure to try and identify the scope and root cause for the issue identified. 主机上运行的虚拟机可能受到了影响。Virtual machines running on the host may be impacted.
主机正在等待解除分配Host Pending Deallocate Azure 无法将主机还原到正常状态,并要求你将虚拟机重新部署到此主机外部。Azure can't restore the host back to a healthy state and ask you to redeploy your virtual machines out of this host. 如果已启用 autoReplaceOnFailure,则虚拟机会将服务修复 到正常的硬件上。If autoReplaceOnFailure is enabled, your virtual machines are service healed to healthy hardware. 否则,虚拟机可能在即将发生故障的主机上运行。Otherwise, your virtual machine may be running on a host that is about to fail.
主机已解除分配Host deallocated 所有虚拟机都已从主机中删除。All virtual machines have been removed from the host. 由于硬件已退出轮换,因此不再向你收取此主机的费用。You are no longer being charged for this host since the hardware was taken out of rotation.

后续步骤Next steps

  • 可使用 Azure PowerShell门户Azure CLI 部署专用主机。You can deploy a dedicated host using Azure PowerShell, the portal, and Azure CLI.

  • 此处有一个示例模板,该模板使用区域和容错域来最大限度地提高在某个地区的复原能力。There is sample template, found here, that uses both zones and fault domains for maximum resiliency in a region.