排查 Azure 虚拟机上的备份失败问题Troubleshooting backup failures on Azure virtual machines

可使用下面列出的信息排查使用 Azure 备份时遇到的错误:You can troubleshoot errors encountered while using Azure Backup with the information listed below:

BackupBackup

本部分介绍了 Azure 虚拟机备份操作失败的情况。This section covers backup operation failure of Azure Virtual machine.

基本故障排除Basic troubleshooting

  • 确保 VM 代理(WA 代理)为最新版本Ensure that the VM Agent (WA Agent) is the latest version.
  • 确保 Windows 或 Linux VM OS 版本受支持,详见 IaaS VM 备份支持矩阵Ensure that the Windows or Linux VM OS version is supported, refer to the IaaS VM Backup Support Matrix.
  • 验证另一备份服务是否在运行。Verify that another backup service isn't running.
  • 验证 VM 是否已建立 Internet 连接。Verify that the VM has internet connectivity.
    • 确保另一备份服务未运行。Make sure another backup service isn't running.
  • Services.msc 中确保 Windows Azure 来宾代理服务处于“正在运行”状态。From Services.msc, ensure the Windows Azure Guest Agent service is Running. 如果 Windows Azure 来宾代理服务缺失,请按照在恢复服务保管库中备份 Azure VM 中的说明来安装它。If the Windows Azure Guest Agent service is missing, install it from Back up Azure VMs in a Recovery Services vault.
  • 事件日志可能会显示其他备份产品(例如 Windows Server 备份)的备份故障,而不会显示因 Azure 备份导致的故障。The Event log may show backup failures that are from other backup products, for example, Windows Server backup, and aren't due to Azure Backup. 通过以下步骤确定问题是否来自 Azure 备份:Use the following steps to determine whether the issue is with Azure Backup:
    • 如果事件源或消息的“备份”条目出现错误,请检查 Azure IaaS VM Backup 备份是否已成功,以及是否已使用所需快照类型创建一个还原点。If there's an error with the entry Backup in the event source or message, check whether Azure IaaS VM Backup backups were successful, and whether a Restore Point was created with the desired snapshot type.
    • 如果 Azure 备份正常运行,则问题可能出在其他备份解决方案。If Azure Backup is working, then the issue is likely with another backup solution.
    • 下面是一个示例,介绍了事件查看器错误 517,其中的 Azure 备份正常运行,但“Windows Server 备份”发生故障:Here is an example of an Event Viewer error 517 where Azure Backup was working fine but "Windows Server Backup" was failing:
      Windows Server 备份故障Windows Server Backup failing
    • 如果 Azure 备份故障,则请在本文的“常见 VM 备份错误”部分查找相应的错误代码。If Azure Backup is failing, then look for the corresponding Error Code in the section Common VM backup errors in this article.

常见问题Common issues

下面是 Azure 虚拟机上出现的常见备份故障问题。The following are common issues with backup failures on Azure virtual machines.

VMRestorePointInternalError - VM 中配置的防病毒软件正在限制备份扩展的执行VMRestorePointInternalError - Antivirus configured in the VM is restricting the execution of backup extension

错误代码:VMRestorePointInternalErrorError code: VMRestorePointInternalError

如果在备份时,“事件查看器应用程序日志”显示消息“发生故障的应用程序名称 : IaaSBcdrExtension.exe”,经过确认,问题是 VM 中配置的防病毒软件正在限制备份扩展的执行。If at the time of backup, the Event Viewer Application logs displays the message Faulting application name: IaaSBcdrExtension.exe then it's confirmed that the antivirus configured in the VM is restricting the execution of backup extension. 若要解决此问题,请在防病毒软件配置中排除以下目录,然后重试备份操作。To resolve this issue, exclude the directories below in the antivirus configuration and retry the backup operation.

  • C:\Packages\Plugins\Microsoft.Azure.RecoveryServices.VMSnapshot
  • C:\WindowsAzure\Logs\Plugins\Microsoft.Azure.RecoveryServices.VMSnapshot

CopyingVHDsFromBackUpVaultTakingLongTime - 从保管库复制已备份数据已超时CopyingVHDsFromBackUpVaultTakingLongTime - Copying backed up data from vault timed out

错误代码:CopyingVHDsFromBackUpVaultTakingLongTime Error code: CopyingVHDsFromBackUpVaultTakingLongTime 
错误消息:从保管库复制备份的数据超时Error message: Copying backed up data from vault timed out

发生这种情况可能是因为暂时性的存储错误或存储帐户 IOPS 不足,导致备份服务无法在超时范围内将数据传输到保管库。This could happen due to transient storage errors or insufficient storage account IOPS for backup service to transfer data to the vault within the timeout period. 使用以下最佳做法配置 VM 备份,然后重试备份操作。Configure VM backup using these best practices and retry the backup operation.

UserErrorVmNotInDesirableState - VM 未处于允许备份的状态UserErrorVmNotInDesirableState - VM is not in a state that allows backups

错误代码:UserErrorVmNotInDesirableStateError code: UserErrorVmNotInDesirableState
错误消息:VM 未处于允许备份的状态。Error message: VM is not in a state that allows backups.

因为 VM 处于“失败”状态,所以备份操作失败。The backup operation failed because the VM is in Failed state. 若要成功进行备份,VM 状态应该是“正在运行”、“已停止”或“已停止(已解除分配)”。For a successful backup, the VM state should be Running, Stopped, or Stopped (deallocated).

  • 如果 VM 处于“运行”和“关闭”之间的瞬时状态,请等待状态更改 。If the VM is in a transient state between Running and Shut down, wait for the state to change. 然后触发备份作业。Then trigger the backup job.
  • 如果 VM 是 Linux VM 并使用安全性增强的 Linux 内核模块,则需要从安全策略排除 Azure Linux 代理路径 (/var/lib/waagent),确保已安装备份扩展。If the VM is a Linux VM and uses the Security-Enhanced Linux kernel module, exclude the Azure Linux Agent path /var/lib/waagent from the security policy and make sure the Backup extension is installed.

UserErrorFsFreezeFailed - 无法冻结一个或多个 VM 装入点以获取文件系统一致性快照UserErrorFsFreezeFailed - Failed to freeze one or more mount-points of the VM to take a file-system consistent snapshot

错误代码:UserErrorFsFreezeFailedError code: UserErrorFsFreezeFailed
错误消息:未能冻结一个或多个 VM 装入点来获取文件系统一致快照。Error message: Failed to freeze one or more mount-points of the VM to take a file-system consistent snapshot.

  • 使用 umount 命令卸载未清除文件系统状态的设备。Unmount the devices for which the file system state wasn't cleaned, using the umount command.
  • 使用 fsck 命令在这些设备上运行文件系统一致性检查。Run a file system consistency check on these devices by using the fsck command.
  • 再次装载设备,并重试备份操作。Mount the devices again and retry backup operation.

ExtensionSnapshotFailedCOM / ExtensionInstallationFailedCOM / ExtensionInstallationFailedMDTC - COM+ 错误导致扩展安装/操作失败ExtensionSnapshotFailedCOM / ExtensionInstallationFailedCOM / ExtensionInstallationFailedMDTC - Extension installation/operation failed due to a COM+ error

错误代码:ExtensionSnapshotFailedCOMError code: ExtensionSnapshotFailedCOM
错误消息:由于 COM + 错误导致快照操作失败Error message: Snapshot operation failed due to COM+ error

错误代码:ExtensionInstallationFailedCOMError code: ExtensionInstallationFailedCOM
错误消息:COM+ 错误导致扩展安装/操作失败Error message: Extension installation/operation failed due to a COM+ error

错误代码:ExtensionInstallationFailedMDTCError code: ExtensionInstallationFailedMDTC
错误消息:扩展安装失败,出现错误“COM+ 无法与 Microsoft 分布式事务处理协调器通信”。Error message: Extension installation failed with the error "COM+ was unable to talk to the Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator

备份操作失败,因为 Windows 服务 COM+ 系统应用程序出现问题。The Backup operation failed due to an issue with Windows service COM+ System application. 若要解决此问题,请执行以下步骤:To resolve this issue, follow these steps:

  • 尝试启动/重启 Windows 服务“COM+ 系统应用程序”(通过权限提升的命令提示符“- net start COMSysApp”)。Try starting/restarting Windows service COM+ System Application (from an elevated command prompt - net start COMSysApp).
  • 确保“分布式事务处理协调器”服务作为“网络服务”帐户运行。 Ensure Distributed Transaction Coordinator service is running as Network Service account. 否则,请将其更改为以“网络服务”帐户的身份运行,并重启“COM+ 系统应用程序”。If not, change it to run as Network Service account and restart COM+ System Application.
  • 如果无法重启服务,请执行以下步骤,重新安装“分布式事务处理协调器”服务:If unable to restart the service, then reinstall Distributed Transaction Coordinator service by following the steps below:
    • 停止 MSDTC 服务Stop the MSDTC service
    • 打开命令提示符 (cmd)Open a command prompt (cmd)
    • 运行命令 msdtc -uninstallRun the command msdtc -uninstall
    • 运行命令 msdtc -installRun the command msdtc -install
    • 启动 MSDTC 服务Start the MSDTC service
  • 启动 Windows 服务“COM+ 系统应用程序”。Start the Windows service COM+ System Application. “COM+ 系统应用程序”启动后,从 Azure 门户触发备份作业。After the COM+ System Application starts, trigger a backup job from the Azure portal.

ExtensionFailedVssWriterInBadState - 快照操作失败,因为 VSS 编写器处于错误状态ExtensionFailedVssWriterInBadState - Snapshot operation failed because VSS writers were in a bad state

错误代码:ExtensionFailedVssWriterInBadStateError code: ExtensionFailedVssWriterInBadState
错误消息:快照操作失败,因为 VSS 编写器处于错误状态。Error message: Snapshot operation failed because VSS writers were in a bad state.

发生此错误的原因是 VSS 编写器处于错误状态。This error occurs because the VSS writers were in a bad state. Azure 备份扩展与 VSS 编写器交互以拍摄磁盘快照。Azure Backup extensions interact with VSS Writers to take snapshots of the disks. 若要解决此问题,请执行以下步骤:To resolve this issue, follow these steps:

步骤 1:请重启处于错误状态的 VSS 编写器。Step 1: Restart VSS writers that are in a bad state.

  • 在提升的命令提示符处,运行 vssadmin list writersFrom an elevated command prompt, run vssadmin list writers.
  • 输出包含所有 VSS 编写器及其状态。The output contains all VSS writers and their state. 对于状态不是“[1] 稳定”的每个 VSS 编写器,请重启相应 VSS 编写器的服务。For every VSS writer with a state that's not [1] Stable, restart the respective VSS writer's service.
  • 若要重启服务,请从提升的命令提示符处运行以下命令:To restart the service, run the following commands from an elevated command prompt:

net stop serviceName
net start serviceName

备注

重启某些服务可能会影响生产环境。Restarting some services can have an impact on your production environment. 请确保遵循批准过程,并在计划的停机时间重启服务。Ensure the approval process is followed and the service is restarted at the scheduled downtime.

步骤 2:如果重启 VSS 编写器不能解决该问题,请从提升的命令提示符(以管理员身份)运行以下命令,以防止为 blob 快照创建线程。Step 2: If restarting the VSS writers did not resolve the issue, then run the following command from an elevated command-prompt (as an administrator) to prevent the threads from being created for blob-snapshots.

REG ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\BcdrAgentPersistentKeys" /v SnapshotWithoutThreads /t REG_SZ /d True /f

步骤 3:如果步骤 1 和 2 不能解决该问题,则故障可能是由于 IOPS 有限而导致 VSS 编写器超时。Step 3: If steps 1 and 2 did not resolve the issue, then the failure could be due to VSS writers timing out due to limited IOPS.

若要进行验证,请导航到“系统和事件查看器应用程序日志”,然后检查以下错误消息:To verify, navigate to System and Event Viewer Application logs and check for the following error message:
将写入操作保存到影子复制的卷时,影子副本提供程序超时。这可能是应用程序或系统服务在卷上进行过多活动所致。请稍后在卷上的活动减少时重试。The shadow copy provider timed out while holding writes to the volume being shadow copied. This is probably due to excessive activity on the volume by an application or a system service. Try again later when activity on the volume is reduced.

解决方案:Solution:

  • 检查是否可以跨 VM 磁盘分配负载。Check for possibilities to distribute the load across the VM disks. 这将减少单个磁盘上的负载。This will reduce the load on single disks. 可以通过在存储级别启用诊断指标来检查 IOP 限制。You can check the IOPs throttling by enabling diagnostic metrics at storage level.
  • 更改备份策略,以在非高峰时段(VM 上的负载最低时)执行备份。Change the backup policy to perform backups during off peak hours, when the load on the VM is at its lowest.
  • 升级 Azure 磁盘以支持更高的 IOP。Upgrade the Azure disks to support higher IOPs. 在此处了解详细信息Learn more here

ExtensionFailedVssServiceInBadState - 由于 VSS(卷影复制)服务的状态错误,快照操作失败ExtensionFailedVssServiceInBadState - Snapshot operation failed due to VSS (Volume Shadow Copy) service in bad state

错误代码:ExtensionFailedVssServiceInBadStateError code: ExtensionFailedVssServiceInBadState
错误消息:由于 VSS(卷影复制)服务的状态错误,快照操作失败。Error message: Snapshot operation failed due to VSS (Volume Shadow Copy) service in bad state.

发生此错误的原因是 VSS 服务处于错误状态。This error occurs because the VSS service was in a bad state. Azure 备份扩展与 VSS 服务交互以拍摄磁盘快照。Azure Backup extensions interact with VSS service to take snapshots of the disks. 若要解决此问题,请执行以下步骤:To resolve this issue, follow these steps:

重启 VSS(卷影复制)服务。Restart VSS (Volume Shadow Copy) service.

  • 请导航到 Services.msc,然后重启“卷影复制服务”。Navigate to Services.msc and restart 'Volume Shadow Copy service'.
    (或者)(or)
  • 在提升的命令提示符下运行以下命令:Run the following commands from an elevated command prompt:

net stop VSS
net start VSS

如果问题仍然存在,请在计划的停机时间重启 VM。If the issue still persists, restart the VM at the scheduled downtime.

UserErrorSkuNotAvailable - VM 创建失败,因为所选 VM 大小不可用UserErrorSkuNotAvailable - VM creation failed as VM size selected is not available

错误代码:UserErrorSkuNotAvailable 错误消息:VM 创建失败,因为所选 VM 大小不可用。Error code: UserErrorSkuNotAvailable Error message: VM creation failed as VM size selected is not available.

发生此错误是因为在还原操作过程中选择的 VM 大小不受支持。This error occurs because the VM size selected during the restore operation is an unsupported size.

若要解决此问题,请在还原操作过程中使用还原磁盘选项。To resolve this issue, use the restore disks option during the restore operation. 使用这些磁盘通过 Powershell cmdlets可用的受支持 VM 大小列表中创建 VM。Use those disks to create a VM from the list of available supported VM sizes using Powershell cmdlets.

UserErrorMarketPlaceVMNotSupported - 由于没有市场购买请求,创建 VM 失败UserErrorMarketPlaceVMNotSupported - VM creation failed due to Market Place purchase request being not present

错误代码:UserErrorMarketPlaceVMNotSupported 错误消息:由于没有市场购买请求,创建 VM 失败。Error code: UserErrorMarketPlaceVMNotSupported Error message: VM creation failed due to Market Place purchase request being not present.

Azure 备份支持备份和还原 Azure 市场中可用的 VM。Azure Backup supports backup and restore of VMs which are available in Azure Marketplace. 尝试还原 Azure 市场中不再可用的 VM(具有特定的计划/发布者设置)时,会发生此错误,请在此处了解详细信息This error occurs when you are trying to restore a VM (with a specific Plan/Publisher setting) which is no longer available in Azure Marketplace, Learn more here.

  • 若要解决此问题,请在还原操作过程中使用还原磁盘选项,然后使用 PowerShellAzure CLI cmdlet 创建 VM,其中包含与该 VM 对应的最新市场信息。To resolve this issue, use the restore disks option during the restore operation and then use PowerShell or Azure CLI cmdlets to create the VM with the latest marketplace information corresponding to the VM.
  • 如果发布者没有任何市场信息,你可以使用数据磁盘来检索数据,并将其附加到现有 VM。If the publisher does not have any Marketplace information, you can use the data disks to retrieve your data and you can attach them to an existing VM.

ExtensionConfigParsingFailure - 无法分析备份扩展的配置ExtensionConfigParsingFailure - Failure in parsing the config for the backup extension

错误代码:ExtensionConfigParsingFailureError code: ExtensionConfigParsingFailure
错误消息:无法分析备份扩展的配置。Error message: Failure in parsing the config for the backup extension.

发生此错误的原因是 MachineKeys 目录 %systemdrive%\programdata\microsoft\crypto\rsa\machinekeys 上的权限已更改。This error happens because of changed permissions on the MachineKeys directory: %systemdrive%\programdata\microsoft\crypto\rsa\machinekeys. 运行以下命令,并验证 MachineKeys 目录上的权限是否为默认权限:icacls %systemdrive%\programdata\microsoft\crypto\rsa\machinekeysRun the following command and verify that permissions on the MachineKeys directory are default ones: icacls %systemdrive%\programdata\microsoft\crypto\rsa\machinekeys.

默认权限如下:Default permissions are as follows:

  • Everyone:(R,W)Everyone: (R,W)
  • BUILTIN\Administrators:(F)BUILTIN\Administrators: (F)

如果在“MachineKeys”目录中看到的权限与默认值不同,请执行以下步骤以更正权限、删除证书以及触发备份:If you see permissions in the MachineKeys directory that are different than the defaults, follow these steps to correct permissions, delete the certificate, and trigger the backup:

  1. 修复“MachineKeys”目录上的权限。Fix permissions on the MachineKeys directory. 通过在目录中使用 Explorer 安全属性和高级安全设置,将权限重新设为默认值。By using Explorer security properties and advanced security settings in the directory, reset permissions back to the default values. 从目录中删除所有用户对象(默认值除外),确保 Everyone 权限具有以下特殊访问权限:Remove all user objects except the defaults from the directory and make sure the Everyone permission has special access as follows:

    • 列出文件夹/读取数据List folder/read data
    • 读取属性Read attributes
    • 读取扩展的属性Read extended attributes
    • 创建文件/写入数据Create files/write data
    • 创建文件夹/附加数据Create folders/append data
    • 写入属性Write attributes
    • 写入扩展的属性Write extended attributes
    • 读取权限Read permissions
  2. 删除其中的“颁发对象”为经典部署模型或“Azure CRP 证书生成器”的所有证书 :Delete all certificates where Issued To is the classic deployment model or Azure CRP Certificate Generator:

  3. 触发 VM 备份作业。Trigger a VM backup job.

ExtensionStuckInDeletionState - 扩展状态不支持备份操作ExtensionStuckInDeletionState - Extension state is not supportive to backup operation

错误代码:ExtensionStuckInDeletionState Error code: ExtensionStuckInDeletionState 
错误消息:扩展状态不支持备份操作Error message: Extension state is not supportive to backup operation

备份操作由于备份扩展出现不一致状态而失败。The Backup operation failed due to inconsistent state of Backup Extension. 若要解决此问题,请执行以下步骤:To resolve this issue, follow these steps:

  • 确保来宾代理已安装并可做出响应Ensure Guest Agent is installed and responsive
  • 从 Azure 门户中,转到“虚拟机” > “所有设置” > “扩展” From the Azure portal, go to Virtual Machine > All Settings > Extensions
  • 选择备份扩展 VmSnapshot 或 VmSnapshotLinux,然后选择“卸载”。Select the backup extension VmSnapshot or VmSnapshotLinux and select Uninstall.
  • 在删除备份扩展后重试备份操作After deleting backup extension, retry the backup operation
  • 后续备份操作将以所需的状态安装新扩展The subsequent backup operation will install the new extension in the desired state

ExtensionFailedSnapshotLimitReachedError - 由于某些附加的磁盘已超出快照限制,因此快照操作失败ExtensionFailedSnapshotLimitReachedError - Snapshot operation failed as snapshot limit is exceeded for some of the disks attached

错误代码:ExtensionFailedSnapshotLimitReachedError  Error code: ExtensionFailedSnapshotLimitReachedError  
错误消息:由于某些附加的磁盘已超出快照限制,因此快照操作失败Error message: Snapshot operation failed as snapshot limit is exceeded for some of the disks attached

由于某些附加的磁盘已超出快照限制,因此快照操作失败。The snapshot operation failed as the snapshot limit has exceeded for some of the disks attached. 完成以下故障排除步骤,然后重试操作。Complete the following troubleshooting steps and then retry the operation.

  • 删除不需要的磁盘 blob 快照。Delete the disk blob-snapshots that aren't required. 请注意不要删除磁盘 blob。Be careful to not delete disk blobs. 只应删除快照 blob。Only snapshot blobs should be deleted.

  • 如果在 VM 磁盘存储帐户上启用了软删除,请配置软删除保留,以使现有快照小于任何时间点允许的最大值。If Soft-delete is enabled on VM disk Storage-Accounts, configure soft-delete retention so existing snapshots are less than the maximum allowed at any point of time.

  • 如果在备份的 VM 中启用了 Azure Site Recovery,请执行以下步骤:If Azure Site Recovery is enabled in the backed-up VM, then perform the steps below:

    • 确保在 /etc/azure/vmbackup.conf 中将“isanysnapshotfailed”的值设置为 falseEnsure the value of isanysnapshotfailed is set as false in /etc/azure/vmbackup.conf
    • 在不同时间计划 Azure Site Recovery,使其不会与备份操作产生冲突。Schedule Azure Site Recovery at a different time, so it doesn't conflict the backup operation.

ExtensionFailedTimeoutVMNetworkUnresponsive - 快照操作因 VM 资源不足而失败ExtensionFailedTimeoutVMNetworkUnresponsive - Snapshot operation failed due to inadequate VM resources

错误代码:ExtensionFailedTimeoutVMNetworkUnresponsiveError code: ExtensionFailedTimeoutVMNetworkUnresponsive
错误消息:快照操作因 VM 资源不足而失败。Error message: Snapshot operation failed due to inadequate VM resources.

VM 上的备份操作由于执行快照操作时进行的网络调用发生延迟而失败。Backup operation on the VM failed due to delay in network calls while performing the snapshot operation. 若要解决此问题,请执行步骤 1。To resolve this issue, perform Step 1. 如果问题仍然存在,请尝试执行步骤 2 和 3。If the issue persists, try steps 2 and 3.

步骤 1:通过主机创建快照Step 1: Create snapshot through Host

从提升的(管理员)命令提示符下,运行以下命令:From an elevated (admin) command-prompt, run the following command:

REG ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\BcdrAgentPersistentKeys" /v SnapshotMethod /t REG_SZ /d firstHostThenGuest /f
REG ADD "HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\BcdrAgentPersistentKeys" /v CalculateSnapshotTimeFromHost /t REG_SZ /d True /f

这将确保通过主机而不是来宾来拍摄快照。This will ensure the snapshots are taken through host instead of Guest. 请重试备份操作。Retry the backup operation.

步骤 2:尝试将备份计划更改到 VM 的负载较小(CPU/IOP 等较小)的某个时间Step 2: Try changing the backup schedule to a time when the VM is under less load (like less CPU or IOps)

步骤 3:尝试增大 VM 的大小并重试操作Step 3: Try increasing the size of the VM and retry the operation

320001,ResourceNotFound - 无法执行操作,因为 VM 不存在/400094, BCMV2VMNotFound - 虚拟机不存在/找不到 Azure 虚拟机320001, ResourceNotFound - Could not perform the operation as VM no longer exists / 400094, BCMV2VMNotFound - The virtual machine doesn't exist / An Azure virtual machine wasn't found

错误代码:320001,ResourceNotFoundError code: 320001, ResourceNotFound
错误消息:无法执行该操作,因为 VM 已不存在。Error message: Could not perform the operation as VM no longer exists.

错误代码:400094,BCMV2VMNotFoundError code: 400094, BCMV2VMNotFound
错误消息:虚拟机不存在Error message: The virtual machine doesn't exist
找不到 Azure 虚拟机。An Azure virtual machine wasn't found.

删除主 VM 时会发生此错误,但备份策略仍会查找要备份的 VM。This error happens when the primary VM is deleted, but the backup policy still looks for a VM to back up. 要修复此错误,请执行以下步骤:To fix this error, take the following steps:

  • 重新创建具有相同名称和相同资源组名称的虚拟机,“云服务名称”Re-create the virtual machine with the same name and same resource group name, cloud service name,
    or
  • 通过删除或不删除备份数据来停止保护虚拟机。Stop protecting the virtual machine with or without deleting the backup data. 有关更多信息,请参阅停止保护虚拟机For more information, see Stop protecting virtual machines.

UserErrorBCMPremiumStorageQuotaError - 由于存储帐户中的可用空间不足,无法复制虚拟机的快照UserErrorBCMPremiumStorageQuotaError - Could not copy the snapshot of the virtual machine, due to insufficient free space in the storage account

错误代码:UserErrorBCMPremiumStorageQuotaErrorError code: UserErrorBCMPremiumStorageQuotaError
错误消息:由于存储帐户中的可用空间不足,无法复制虚拟机的快照Error message: Could not copy the snapshot of the virtual machine, due to insufficient free space in the storage account

对于 VM 备份堆栈 V1 上的高级 VM,我们将快照复制到存储帐户。For premium VMs on VM backup stack V1, we copy the snapshot to the storage account. 此步骤可确保在快照上运行的备份管理流量不会限制使用高级磁盘的应用程序的可用 IOPS 数。This step makes sure that backup management traffic, which works on the snapshot, doesn't limit the number of IOPS available to the application using premium disks.

我们建议只分配总存储帐户空间的 50%(即 17.5 TB)。We recommend that you allocate only 50 percent, 17.5 TB, of the total storage account space. 这样,Azure 备份服务可以将快照复制到存储帐户,并将数据从存储帐户中的复制位置传输到保管库。Then the Azure Backup service can copy the snapshot to the storage account and transfer data from this copied location in the storage account to the vault.

380008,AzureVmOffline - 无法安装 Microsoft 恢复服务扩展,因为虚拟机未运行380008, AzureVmOffline - Failed to install Microsoft Recovery Services extension as virtual machine is not running

错误代码:380008,AzureVmOfflineError code: 380008, AzureVmOffline
错误消息:无法安装 Microsoft 恢复服务扩展,因为虚拟机未运行Error message: Failed to install Microsoft Recovery Services extension as virtual machine is not running

VM 代理是 Azure 恢复服务扩展的先决条件。The VM Agent is a prerequisite for the Azure Recovery Services extension. 安装 Azure 虚拟机代理并重启注册操作。Install the Azure Virtual Machine Agent and restart the registration operation.

  1. 检查 VM 代理是否安装正确。Check if the VM Agent is installed correctly.
  2. 确保已正确设置 VM 配置中的标志。Make sure that the flag on the VM config is set correctly.
阅读有关安装 VM 代理以及如何验证 VM 代理安装的详细信息。Read more about installing the VM Agent and how to validate the VM Agent installation.

ExtensionSnapshotBitlockerError - 快照操作失败,出现卷影复制服务 (VSS) 操作错误ExtensionSnapshotBitlockerError - The snapshot operation failed with the Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) operation error

错误代码:ExtensionSnapshotBitlockerErrorError code: ExtensionSnapshotBitlockerError
错误消息:快照操作失败,出现卷影复制服务 (VSS) 操作错误“此驱动器已通过 BitLocker 驱动器加密锁定。必须通过控制面板解锁此驱动器”。Error message: The snapshot operation failed with the Volume Shadow Copy Service (VSS) operation error This drive is locked by BitLocker Drive Encryption. You must unlock this drive from the Control Panel.

关闭 VM 上的所有驱动器的 BitLocker,并检查 VSS 问题是否得到解决。Turn off BitLocker for all drives on the VM and check if the VSS issue is resolved.

VmNotInDesirableState - VM 未处于允许备份的状态VmNotInDesirableState - The VM isn't in a state that allows backups

错误代码:VmNotInDesirableStateError code: VmNotInDesirableState
错误消息:VM 未处于允许备份的状态。Error message: The VM isn't in a state that allows backups.

  • 如果 VM 处于“运行”和“关闭”之间的瞬时状态,请等待状态更改 。If the VM is in a transient state between Running and Shut down, wait for the state to change. 然后触发备份作业。Then trigger the backup job.

  • 如果 VM 是 Linux VM 并使用安全性增强的 Linux 内核模块,则需要从安全策略排除 Azure Linux 代理路径 (/var/lib/waagent),确保已安装备份扩展。If the VM is a Linux VM and uses the Security-Enhanced Linux kernel module, exclude the Azure Linux Agent path /var/lib/waagent from the security policy and make sure the Backup extension is installed.

  • 虚拟机上不存在 VM 代理:The VM Agent isn't present on the virtual machine:
    安装任何必备组件和 VM 代理。Install any prerequisite and the VM Agent. 然后,重启该操作。Then restart the operation. 阅读有关 VM 代理安装以及如何验证 VM 代理安装的详细信息。|Read more about VM Agent installation and how to validate VM Agent installation.

ExtensionSnapshotFailedNoSecureNetwork - 由于无法创建安全的网络通信通道,快照操作失败ExtensionSnapshotFailedNoSecureNetwork - The snapshot operation failed because of failure to create a secure network communication channel

错误代码:ExtensionSnapshotFailedNoSecureNetworkError code: ExtensionSnapshotFailedNoSecureNetwork
错误消息:由于无法创建安全的网络通信通道,因此快照操作失败。Error message: The snapshot operation failed because of failure to create a secure network communication channel.

  • 通过在权限提升模式下运行“regedit.exe”来打开注册表编辑器。Open the Registry Editor by running regedit.exe in an elevated mode.
  • 标识系统中存在的所有 .NET Framework 版本。Identify all versions of the .NET Framework present in your system. 它们位于注册表项“HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \ SOFTWARE \ Microsoft”的层次结构下。They're present under the hierarchy of registry key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Microsoft.
  • 请为注册表项中存在的每个 .Net Framework 添加以下键:For each .NET Framework present in the registry key, add the following key:
    “SchUseStrongCrypto"=dword:00000001”。SchUseStrongCrypto"=dword:00000001.

ExtensionVCRedistInstallationFailure - 由于 Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2012 安装失败,快照操作失败ExtensionVCRedistInstallationFailure - The snapshot operation failed because of failure to install Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2012

错误代码:ExtensionVCRedistInstallationFailureError code: ExtensionVCRedistInstallationFailure
错误消息:由于 Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2012 安装失败,因此快照操作失败。Error message: The snapshot operation failed because of failure to install Visual C++ Redistributable for Visual Studio 2012.

  • 导航到 C:\Packages\Plugins\Microsoft.Azure.RecoveryServices.VMSnapshot\agentVersion 并安装 vcredist2013_x64。Navigate to C:\Packages\Plugins\Microsoft.Azure.RecoveryServices.VMSnapshot\agentVersion and install vcredist2013_x64.
    请确保允许此服务安装的注册表项值设置为正确的值。Make sure that the registry key value that allows the service installation is set to the correct value. 也就是说,将 HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Msiserver 中的 Start 值设置为 3,而不是 4That is, set the Start value in HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Msiserver to 3 and not 4.

    如果仍然遇到安装问题,请通过权限提升的命令提示符运行“MSIEXEC /UNREGISTER”,接着运行“MSIEXEC /REGISTER”来重启安装服务 。If you still have issues with installation, restart the installation service by running MSIEXEC /UNREGISTER followed by MSIEXEC /REGISTER from an elevated command prompt.
  • 检查事件日志以验证是否注意到与访问相关的问题。Check the event log to verify if you're noticing access related issues. 例如:Product:Microsoft Visual C++ 2013 x64 Minimum Runtime - 12.0.21005 -- Error 1401.Could not create key:Software\Classes.System error 5.请验证你是否拥有足够的权限访问该注册表项,或者与支持人员联系。For example: Product: Microsoft Visual C++ 2013 x64 Minimum Runtime - 12.0.21005 -- Error 1401.Could not create key: Software\Classes. System error 5. Verify that you have sufficient access to that key, or contact your support personnel.

    确保管理员或用户帐户有足够的权限更新注册表项“HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Classes”。Ensure the administrator or user account has sufficient permissions to update the registry key HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\Classes. 提供足够的权限并重启 Azure 来宾代理。Provide sufficient permissions and restart the Azure Guest Agent.

  • 如果你安装了防病毒产品,请确保它们具有正确的排除规则以允许安装。If you have antivirus products in place, ensure they have the right exclusion rules to allow the installation.

UserErrorRequestDisallowedByPolicy - 在 VM 上配置了防止快照操作的无效策略UserErrorRequestDisallowedByPolicy - An invalid policy is configured on the VM which is preventing Snapshot operation

错误代码:UserErrorRequestDisallowedByPolicyError code: UserErrorRequestDisallowedByPolicy
错误消息:在 VM 上配置了防止快照操作的无效策略。Error message: An invalid policy is configured on the VM which is preventing Snapshot operation.

如果你的 Azure 策略控制环境中的标记,请考虑将该策略从 Deny 效果更改为 Modify 效果,或者按照 Azure 备份所需的命名架构要求手动创建资源组。If you have an Azure Policy that governs tags within your environment, either consider changing the policy from a Deny effect to a Modify effect, or create the resource group manually according to the naming schema required by Azure Backup.

作业Jobs

错误详细信息Error details 解决方法Workaround
此作业类型不支持取消:Cancellation isn't supported for this job type:
请等待作业完成。Wait until the job finishes.
None
该作业未处于可取消状态:The job isn't in a cancelable state:
请等待作业完成。Wait until the job finishes.
oror
所选作业未处于可取消状态:The selected job isn't in a cancelable state:
请等待作业完成。Wait for the job to finish.
这项作业很可能快完成了。It's likely that the job is almost finished. 等待作业完成。Wait until the job is finished.
备份不能取消该作业,因为它没有正在进行:Backup can't cancel the job because it isn't in progress:
仅支持取消正在进行的作业。Cancellation is supported only for jobs in progress. 尝试取消正在进行的作业。Try to cancel an in-progress job.
由于临时状态而发生此错误。This error happens because of a transitory state. 请稍等片刻,并重试取消操作。Wait a minute and retry the cancel operation.
备份未能取消作业:Backup failed to cancel the job:
请等待作业完成。Wait until the job finishes.
None

还原Restore

文件还原后磁盘显示为脱机状态Disks appear offline after File Restore

如果还原后发现磁盘处于脱机状态,请执行以下操作:If after restore, you notice the disks are offline then:

  • 验证执行脚本的计算机是否满足 OS 要求。Verify if the machine where the script is executed meets the OS requirements. 了解详细信息Learn more.
  • 确保不会还原到同一个源,了解详细信息Ensure you are not restoring to the same source, Learn more.
错误详细信息Error details 解决方法Workaround
还原失败,发生云内部错误。Restore failed with a cloud internal error.
  1. 尝试还原的云服务使用 DNS 设置进行配置。The cloud service to which you're trying to restore is configured with DNS settings. 可以检查:You can check:
    “$deployment = Get-AzureDeployment -ServiceName "ServiceName" -Slot "Production" Get-AzureDns -DnsSettings $deployment.DnsSettings”。$deployment = Get-AzureDeployment -ServiceName "ServiceName" -Slot "Production" Get-AzureDns -DnsSettings $deployment.DnsSettings.
    如果配置了“地址”,则配置了 DNS 设置。If Address is configured, then DNS settings are configured.
  2. 尝试还原的云服务配置了“ReservedIP”,且云服务中的现有 VM 处于停止状态。The cloud service to which to you're trying to restore is configured with ReservedIP, and existing VMs in the cloud service are in the stopped state. 可以使用以下 PowerShell cmdlet 检查云服务是否已保留 IP:$deployment = Get-AzureDeployment -ServiceName "servicename" -Slot "Production" $dep.ReservedIPName。You can check that a cloud service has reserved an IP by using the following PowerShell cmdlets: $deployment = Get-AzureDeployment -ServiceName "servicename" -Slot "Production" $dep.ReservedIPName.
  3. 正在尝试将具有以下特殊网络配置的虚拟机还原到同一个云服务中:You're trying to restore a virtual machine with the following special network configurations into the same cloud service:
    • 采用负载均衡器配置的虚拟机(内部和外部)。Virtual machines under load balancer configuration, internal and external.
    • 具有多个保留 IP 的虚拟机。Virtual machines with multiple reserved IPs.
    • 具有多个 NIC 的虚拟机。Virtual machines with multiple NICs.
  4. 请在 UI 中选择新的云服务,或参阅还原注意事项,了解具有特殊网络配置的 VM。Select a new cloud service in the UI or see restore considerations for VMs with special network configurations.
已存在所选的 DNS 名称:The selected DNS name is already taken:
请指定其他 DNS 名称,然后重试。Specify a different DNS name and try again.
此 DNS 名称是指云服务名称,通常以“.chinacloudapp.cn”结尾。This DNS name refers to the cloud service name, usually ending with .chinacloudapp.cn. 此名称必须是唯一名称。This name needs to be unique. 如果出现此错误,则需在还原期间选择其他 VM 名称。If you get this error, you need to choose a different VM name during restore.

此错误仅向 Azure 门户用户显示。This error is shown only to users of the Azure portal. 通过 PowerShell 进行的还原操作成功,因为它仅还原磁盘而不创建 VM。The restore operation through PowerShell succeeds because it restores only the disks and doesn't create the VM. 如果在磁盘还原操作之后显式创建 VM,则会遇到该错误。The error will be faced when the VM is explicitly created by you after the disk restore operation.
指定的虚拟网络配置不正确:The specified virtual network configuration isn't correct:
指定其他虚拟网络配置,然后重试。Specify a different virtual network configuration and try again.
None
指定的云服务使用与要还原的虚拟机的配置不匹配的保留 IP:The specified cloud service is using a reserved IP that doesn't match the configuration of the virtual machine being restored:
指定不使用保留的 IP 的其他云服务。Specify a different cloud service that isn't using a reserved IP. 或者选择要还原的其他恢复点。Or choose another recovery point to restore from.
None
云服务已达到其输入终结点数量的限制:The cloud service has reached its limit on the number of input endpoints:
通过指定其他云服务或使用现有终结点重试该操作。Retry the operation by specifying a different cloud service or by using an existing endpoint.
None
恢复服务保管库和目标存储帐户位于两个不同的区域:The Recovery Services vault and target storage account are in two different regions:
确保还原操作中指定的存储帐户与恢复服务保管库位于同一 Azure 区域中。Make sure the storage account specified in the restore operation is in the same Azure region as your Recovery Services vault.
None
为还原操作指定的存储帐户不受支持:The storage account specified for the restore operation isn't supported:
仅支持具有本地冗余或异地冗余复制设置的基本或标准存储帐户。Only Basic or Standard storage accounts with locally redundant or geo-redundant replication settings are supported. 选择受支持的存储帐户。Select a supported storage account.
None
为还原操作指定的存储帐户的类型不是联机状态:The type of storage account specified for the restore operation isn't online:
确保还原操作中指定的存储帐户处于联机状态。Make sure that the storage account specified in the restore operation is online.
如果 Azure 存储中出现暂时性错误或中断,可能会发生此错误。This error might happen because of a transient error in Azure Storage or because of an outage. 请选择另一个存储帐户。Choose another storage account.
资源组配额已达限制:The resource group quota has been reached:
请从 Azure 门户中删除某些资源组,或者与 Azure 支持部门联系,以提高限额。Delete some resource groups from the Azure portal or contact Azure Support to increase the limits.
None
所选子网不存在:The selected subnet doesn't exist:
选择存在的子网。Select a subnet that exists.
None
备份服务无权访问订阅中的资源。The Backup service doesn't have authorization to access resources in your subscription. 要修复此错误,请首先使用还原备份磁盘中的步骤来还原磁盘。To resolve this error, first restore disks by using the steps in Restore backed-up disks. 然后使用从已还原的磁盘创建 VM 中的 PowerShell 步骤。Then use the PowerShell steps in Create a VM from restored disks.

备份或还原需要一定时间Backup or restore takes time

如果备份时间超过 12 小时,或者还原时间超过 6 小时,请查看最佳做法性能注意事项If your backup takes more than 12 hours, or restore takes more than 6 hours, review best practices, and performance considerations

VM 代理VM Agent

设置 VM 代理Set up the VM Agent

通常,VM 代理已存在于从 Azure 库创建的 VM 中。Typically, the VM Agent is already present in VMs that are created from the Azure gallery. 但是,从本地数据中心迁移的虚拟机上将不会安装 VM 代理。But virtual machines that are migrated from on-premises datacenters won't have the VM Agent installed. 对于这些 VM,必须显式安装 VM 代理。For those VMs, the VM Agent needs to be installed explicitly.

Windows VM - 设置代理Windows VMs - Set up the agent

  • 下载并安装 代理 MSIDownload and install the agent MSI. 需要有管理员权限才能完成安装。You need Administrator privileges to finish the installation.
  • 对于使用经典部署模型创建的虚拟机,请更新 VM 属性以指示已安装代理。For virtual machines created by using the classic deployment model, update the VM property to indicate that the agent is installed. Azure 资源管理器虚拟机不需要此步骤。This step isn't required for Azure Resource Manager virtual machines.

Linux VM - 设置代理Linux VMs - Set up the agent

  • 从分发存储库安装最新版本的代理。Install the latest version of the agent from the distribution repository. 有关包名称的详细信息,请参阅 Linux 代理存储库For details on the package name, see the Linux Agent repository.
  • 对于使用经典部署模型创建的 VM,请更新 VM 属性并验证是否已安装代理。For VMs created by using the classic deployment model, update the VM property and verify that the agent is installed. 无需对资源管理器虚拟机执行此步骤。This step isn't required for Resource Manager virtual machines.

更新 VM 代理Update the VM Agent

Windows VM - 更新代理Windows VMs - Update the agent

  • 若要更新 VM 代理,请重新安装 VM 代理二进制文件To update the VM Agent, reinstall the VM Agent binaries. 在更新代理之前,请确保在更新 VM 代理期间不会执行备份操作。Before you update the agent, make sure no backup operations occur during the VM Agent update.

Linux VM - 更新代理Linux VMs - Update the agent

  • 要更新 Linux VM 代理,请按照更新 Linux VM 代理一文中的说明进行操作。To update the Linux VM Agent, follow the instructions in the article Updating the Linux VM Agent.

    备注

    始终使用分发存储库来更新代理。Always use the distribution repository to update the agent.

    请勿从 GitHub 下载代理代码。Don't download the agent code from GitHub. 如果最新代理不适用于发行版,请与分发支持部门联系,获取有关获取最新代理的说明。If the latest agent isn't available for your distribution, contact the distribution support for instructions to acquire the latest agent. 还可以在 GitHub 存储库中查看最新的 Azure Linux 代理信息。You can also check the latest Azure Linux agent information in the GitHub repository.

验证 VM 代理安装Validate VM Agent installation

验证 Windows VM 上的 VM 代理版本:Verify the VM Agent version on Windows VMs:

  1. 登录到 Azure 虚拟机并导航到 C:\WindowsAzure\Packages 文件夹。Sign in to the Azure virtual machine and navigate to the folder C:\WindowsAzure\Packages. 应会发现“WaAppAgent.exe”文件。You should find the WaAppAgent.exe file.
  2. 右键单击该文件并转到“属性”。Right-click the file and go to Properties. 然后选择“详细信息”选项卡。“产品版本”字段应为 2.6.1198.718 或更高版本。Then select the Details tab. The Product Version field should be 2.6.1198.718 or higher.

排查 VM 快照问题Troubleshoot VM snapshot issues

VM 备份依赖于向底层存储发出快照命令。VM backup relies on issuing snapshot commands to underlying storage. 如果无法访问存储或者快照任务运行延迟,则备份作业可能会失败。Not having access to storage or delays in a snapshot task run can cause the backup job to fail. 以下状态可能会导致快照任务失败:The following conditions can cause snapshot task failure:

  • 配置了 SQL Server 备份的 VM 可能会导致快照任务延迟。VMs with SQL Server backup configured can cause snapshot task delay. 默认情况下,VM 备份在 Windows VM 上创建 VSS 完整备份。By default, VM backup creates a VSS full backup on Windows VMs. 运行 SQL Server 且配置有 SQL Server 备份的 VM 可能会遇到快照延迟。VMs that run SQL Server, with SQL Server backup configured, can experience snapshot delays. 如果快照延迟导致备份失败,请设置以下注册表项:If snapshot delays cause backup failures, set following registry key:

    [HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE\MICROSOFT\BCDRAGENT]
    "USEVSSCOPYBACKUP"="TRUE"
    
  • 由于在 RDP 中关闭了 VM,VM 状态报告不正确。VM status is reported incorrectly because the VM is shut down in RDP. 如果使用远程桌面关闭虚拟机,请验证门户中的 VM 状态是否正确。If you used the remote desktop to shut down the virtual machine, verify that the VM status in the portal is correct. 如果状态不正确,请使用门户 VM 仪表板中的“关闭”选项关闭 VM。If the status isn't correct, use the Shutdown option in the portal VM dashboard to shut down the VM.

  • 如果四个以上的 VM 共享同一云服务,请为 VM 选择多个不同的备份策略。If more than four VMs share the same cloud service, spread the VMs across multiple backup policies. 错开备份时间,使同时开始的 VM 备份不超过四个。Stagger the backup times, so no more than four VM backups start at the same time. 尝试将策略中的开始时间至少隔开一小时。Try to separate the start times in the policies by at least an hour.

  • VM 在高 CPU 或内存情况下运行。The VM runs at high CPU or memory. 如果虚拟机在高内存或 CPU 使用率(超过 90%)情况下运行,则快照任务将排队并延迟。If the virtual machine runs at high memory or CPU usage, more than 90 percent, your snapshot task is queued and delayed. 最终会超时。如果发生此问题,请尝试按需备份。Eventually it times out. If this issue happens, try an on-demand backup.

网络Networking

必须在来宾内启用 DHCP,才能正常进行 IaaS VM 备份。DHCP must be enabled inside the guest for IaaS VM backup to work. 如果需要静态专用 IP,请通过 Azure 门户或 PowerShell 配置该 IP。If you need a static private IP, configure it through the Azure portal or PowerShell. 请确保已启用 VM 内的 DHCP 选项。Make sure the DHCP option inside the VM is enabled. 获取有关如何通过 PowerShell 设置静态 IP 的详细信息:Get more information on how to set up a static IP through PowerShell: