快速入门:将遥测数据从设备发送到 IoT 中心 (iOS)Quickstart: Send telemetry from a device to an IoT hub (iOS)

IoT 中心是一项 Azure 服务,用于将大量遥测数据从 IoT 设备引入云中进行存储或处理。IoT Hub is an Azure service that enables you to ingest high volumes of telemetry from your IoT devices into the cloud for storage or processing. 在本文中,请将遥测数据从模拟设备应用程序发送到 IoT 中心,In this article, you send telemetry from a simulated device application to IoT Hub. 然后即可从后端应用程序查看数据。Then you can view the data from a back-end application.

本文使用预先编写的 Swift 应用程序来发送遥测数据,使用 CLI 实用程序从 IoT 中心读取遥测数据。This article uses a pre-written Swift application to send the telemetry and a CLI utility to read the telemetry from IoT Hub.

如果没有 Azure 试用版订阅,请在开始前创建一个试用版订阅If you don't have an Azure trail subscription, create a trial subscription before you begin.


  • Azure 示例下载代码示例Download the code sample from Azure samples

  • 最新版本的 XCode,运行最新版本的 iOS SDK。The latest version of XCode, running the latest version of the iOS SDK. 本快速入门已使用 XCode 10.2 和 iOS 12.2 测试过。This quickstart was tested with XCode 10.2 and iOS 12.2.

  • 最新版 CocoaPodsThe latest version of CocoaPods.

  • 确保已在防火墙中打开端口 8883。Make sure that port 8883 is open in your firewall. 本快速入门中的设备示例使用 MQTT 协议,该协议通过端口 8883 进行通信。The device sample in this quickstart uses MQTT protocol, which communicates over port 8883. 在某些公司和教育网络环境中,此端口可能被阻止。This port may be blocked in some corporate and educational network environments. 有关解决此问题的更多信息和方法,请参阅连接到 IoT 中心(MQTT)For more information and ways to work around this issue, see Connecting to IoT Hub (MQTT).

  • 如果需要,请安装 Azure CLI 来运行 CLI 参考命令。If you prefer, install the Azure CLI to run CLI reference commands.

    • 如果使用的是本地安装,请使用 az login 命令登录到 Azure CLI。If you're using a local installation, sign in to the Azure CLI by using the az login command. 若要完成身份验证过程,请遵循终端中显示的步骤。To finish the authentication process, follow the steps displayed in your terminal. 有关其他登录选项,请参阅登录 Azure CLIFor additional sign-in options, see Sign in with the Azure CLI.

    • 出现提示时,请在首次使用时安装 Azure CLI 扩展。When you're prompted, install Azure CLI extensions on first use. 有关扩展详细信息,请参阅使用 Azure CLI 的扩展For more information about extensions, see Use extensions with the Azure CLI.

    • 运行 az version 以查找安装的版本和依赖库。Run az version to find the version and dependent libraries that are installed. 若要升级到最新版本,请运行 az upgradeTo upgrade to the latest version, run az upgrade.


本文使用最新版本的 Azure IoT 扩展(称为 azure-iot)。This article uses the newest version of the Azure IoT extension, called azure-iot. 旧版本称为 azure-iot-cli-ext。只应同时安装有一个版本。The legacy version is called azure-iot-cli-ext.You should only have one version installed at a time. 可以使用命令 az extension list 来验证当前安装的扩展。You can use the command az extension list to validate the currently installed extensions.

使用 az extension remove --name azure-cli-iot-ext 可删除扩展的旧版本。Use az extension remove --name azure-cli-iot-ext to remove the legacy version of the extension.

使用 az extension add --name azure-iot 可添加扩展的新版本。Use az extension add --name azure-iot to add the new version of the extension.

若要查看已安装了哪些扩展,请使用 az extension listTo see what extensions you have installed, use az extension list.

创建 IoT 中心Create an IoT hub

此部分介绍如何使用 Azure 门户创建 IoT 中心。This section describes how to create an IoT hub using the Azure portal.

  1. 登录到 Azure 门户Sign in to the Azure portal.

  2. 从 Azure 主页中选择“+ 创建资源”按钮,然后在“搜索市场”字段中输入“IoT 中心”。 From the Azure homepage, select the + Create a resource button, and then enter IoT Hub in the Search the Marketplace field.

  3. 在搜索结果中选择“IoT 中心”,然后选择“创建” 。Select IoT Hub from the search results, and then select Create.

  4. 在“基本信息”选项卡上,按如下所示填写字段: On the Basics tab, complete the fields as follows:

    • 订阅:选择要用于中心的订阅。Subscription: Select the subscription to use for your hub.

    • 资源组:选择一个资源组或新建一个资源组。Resource Group: Select a resource group or create a new one. 若要新建资源组,请选择“新建”并填写要使用的名称。 To create a new one, select Create new and fill in the name you want to use. 若要使用现有的资源组,请选择它。To use an existing resource group, select that resource group. 有关详细信息,请参阅管理 Azure 资源管理器资源组For more information, see Manage Azure Resource Manager resource groups.

    • 区域:选择中心所在的区域。Region: Select the region in which you want your hub to be located. 选择最靠近你的位置。Select the location closest to you.

    • IoT 中心名称:输入中心的名称。IoT Hub Name: Enter a name for your hub. 此名称必须全局唯一。This name must be globally unique. 如果输入的名称可用,会显示一个绿色复选标记。If the name you enter is available, a green check mark appears.


    IoT 中心将公开为 DNS 终结点,因此,命名时请务必避免包含任何敏感信息。The IoT hub will be publicly discoverable as a DNS endpoint, so make sure to avoid any sensitive information while naming it.

    在 Azure 门户中创建中心

  5. 在完成时选择“下一步: 大小和规模”,以继续创建中心。Select Next: Size and scale to continue creating your hub.

    使用 Azure 门户为新的中心设置大小和规模

    可在此处接受默认设置。You can accept the default settings here. 如果需要,可以修改以下任何字段:If desired, you can modify any of the following fields:

    • 定价和缩放层:选择的层。Pricing and scale tier: Your selected tier. 可以根据你需要的功能数以及每天通过解决方案发送的消息数从多个层级中进行选择。You can choose from several tiers, depending on how many features you want and how many messages you send through your solution per day. 免费层适用于测试和评估。The free tier is intended for testing and evaluation. 允许 500 台设备连接到中心,每天最多可传输 8,000 条消息。It allows 500 devices to be connected to the hub and up to 8,000 messages per day. 每个 Azure 订阅可以在免费层中创建一个 IoT 中心。Each Azure subscription can create one IoT hub in the free tier.

      如果正在完成 IoT 中心设备流的快速入门,请选择免费层。If you are working through a Quickstart for IoT Hub device streams, select the free tier.

    • IoT 中心单元:每个单位每日允许的消息数取决于中心的定价层。IoT Hub units: The number of messages allowed per unit per day depends on your hub's pricing tier. 例如,如果希望中心支持 700,000 条消息引入,请选择两个 S1 层单位。For example, if you want the hub to support ingress of 700,000 messages, you choose two S1 tier units. 有关其他层选项的详细信息,请参阅选择合适的 IoT 中心层For details about the other tier options, see Choosing the right IoT Hub tier.

    • 高级设置 > 设备到云的分区:此属性将设备到云消息与这些消息的同步读取器数目相关联。Advanced Settings > Device-to-cloud partitions: This property relates the device-to-cloud messages to the number of simultaneous readers of the messages. 大多数中心只需要 4 个分区。Most hubs need only four partitions.

  6. 在完成时选择“下一步: 标记”继续到下一屏幕。Select Next: Tags to continue to the next screen.

    标记是名称/值对。Tags are name/value pairs. 可以为多个资源和资源组分配相同的标记,以便对资源进行分类并合并计费。You can assign the same tag to multiple resources and resource groups to categorize resources and consolidate billing. 有关详细信息,请参阅使用标记来组织 Azure 资源for more information, see Use tags to organize your Azure resources.

    使用 Azure 门户为新的中心设置大小和规模

  7. 在完成时选择“下一步: 查看+创建”可查看选择。Select Next: Review + create to review your choices. 你会看到类似于此屏幕的内容,但其中包含创建中心时选择的值。You see something similar to this screen, but with the values you selected when creating the hub.


  8. 选择“创建”以创建新的中心 。Select Create to create your new hub. 创建中心需要几分钟时间。Creating the hub takes a few minutes.

注册设备Register a device

必须先将设备注册到 IoT 中心,然后该设备才能进行连接。A device must be registered with your IoT hub before it can connect. 在本快速入门中,请使用 Azure CLI 来注册模拟设备。In this quickstart, you use the Azure CLI to register a simulated device.

  1. 运行以下命令,以添加 IoT 中心 CLI 扩展并创建设备标识。Run the following commands to add the IoT Hub CLI extension and to create the device identity.

    YourIoTHubName:将下面的占位符替换为你为 IoT 中心选择的名称。YourIoTHubName: Replace this placeholder below with the name you chose for your IoT hub.

    myiOSdevice:这是所注册的设备的名称。myiOSdevice: This is the name of the device you're registering. 建议使用 myiOSdevice,如图所示。It's recommended to use myiOSdevice as shown. 如果为设备选择不同名称,则可能还需要在本文中从头至尾使用该名称,并在运行示例应用程序之前在其中更新设备名称。If you choose a different name for your device, you'll also need to use that name throughout this article, and update the device name in the sample applications before you run them.

    az iot hub device-identity create --hub-name {YourIoTHubName} --device-id myiOSdevice
  2. 运行以下命令,获取刚注册设备的设备连接字符串:Run the following command to get the device connection string for the device you just registered:

    YourIoTHubName:将下面的占位符替换为你为 IoT 中心选择的名称。YourIoTHubName: Replace this placeholder below with the name you chose for your IoT hub.

    az iot hub device-identity connection-string show --hub-name {YourIoTHubName} --device-id myiOSdevice --output table

    记下如下所示的设备连接字符串:Make a note of the device connection string, which looks like:


    稍后会在快速入门中用到此值。You'll use this value later in the quickstart.

发送模拟遥测数据Send simulated telemetry

示例应用程序在 iOS 设备上运行,该设备连接到 IoT 中心的特定于设备的终结点,并发送模拟的温度和湿度遥测数据。The sample application runs on an iOS device, which connects to a device-specific endpoint on your IoT hub and sends simulated temperature and humidity telemetry.

安装 CocoaPodsInstall CocoaPods

CocoaPods 管理那些使用第三方库的 iOS 项目的依赖项。CocoaPods manage dependencies for iOS projects that use third-party libraries.

在本地终端窗口中,导航到在先决条件部分下载的 Azure-IoT-Samples-iOS 文件夹。In a local terminal window, navigate to the Azure-IoT-Samples-iOS folder that you downloaded in the prerequisites. 然后,导航到示例项目:Then, navigate to the sample project:

cd quickstart/sample-device

确保 XCode 已关闭,运行以下命令,以便安装在 podfile 文件中声明的 CocoaPods:Make sure that XCode is closed, then run the following command to install the CocoaPods that are declared in the podfile file:

pod install

除了为项目安装所需的 Pod,安装命令还创建了一个 XCode 工作区文件,该文件已配置为对依赖项使用 Pod。Along with installing the pods required for your project, the installation command also created an XCode workspace file that is already configured to use the pods for dependencies.

运行示例应用程序Run the sample application

  1. 在 XCode 中打开示例工作区。Open the sample workspace in XCode.

    open "MQTT Client Sample.xcworkspace"
  2. 展开“MQTT 客户端示例”项目,然后展开同一名称的文件夹。Expand the MQTT Client Sample project and then expand the folder of the same name.

  3. 打开 ViewController.swift,以便在 XCode 中进行编辑。Open ViewController.swift for editing in XCode.

  4. 搜索 connectionString 变量,并使用以前记下的设备连接字符串更新其值。Search for the connectionString variable and update the value with the device connection string that you made a note of earlier.

  5. 保存所做更改。Save your changes.

  6. 使用“生成并运行”按钮或“Command + R”组合键在设备模拟器中运行项目。Run the project in the device emulator with the Build and run button or the key combo command + r.


  7. 当模拟器打开后,在示例应用中选择“启动”。When the emulator opens, select Start in the sample app.

以下屏幕截图显示了在应用程序将模拟遥测数据发送到 IoT 中心后的一些示例输出:The following screenshot shows some example output as the application sends simulated telemetry to your IoT hub:


从中心读取遥测数据Read the telemetry from your hub

在 XCode 模拟器上运行过的示例应用显示从设备发送的消息的相关数据。The sample app that you ran on the XCode emulator shows data about messages sent from the device. 也可通过 IoT 中心查看接收的数据。You can also view the data through your IoT hub as it is received. IoT 中心 CLI 扩展可以连接到 IoT 中心上的服务端 事件 终结点。The IoT Hub CLI extension can connect to the service-side Events endpoint on your IoT Hub. 扩展会接收模拟设备发送的设备到云的消息。The extension receives the device-to-cloud messages sent from your simulated device. IoT 中心后端应用程序通常在云中运行,接收和处理设备到云的消息。An IoT Hub back-end application typically runs in the cloud to receive and process device-to-cloud messages.

运行以下命令,并将 YourIoTHubName 替换为 IoT 中心的名称:Run the following commands, replacing YourIoTHubName with the name of your IoT hub:

az iot hub monitor-events --device-id myiOSdevice --hub-name {YourIoTHubName}

以下屏幕截图显示了扩展接收到模拟设备发送到中心的遥测数据时的输出:The following screenshot shows the output as the extension receives telemetry sent by the simulated device to the hub:

以下屏幕截图显示在本地终端窗口中看到的遥测数据的类型:The following screenshot shows the type of telemetry that you see in your local terminal window:


清理资源Clean up resources

如果想要继续学习下一篇建议的文章,可以保留已创建的资源,以便重复使用。If you will be continuing to the next recommended article, you can keep the resources you've already created and reuse them.

否则,可删除本文中创建的 Azure 资源,避免收费。Otherwise, you can delete the Azure resources created in this article to avoid charges.


删除资源组的操作不可逆。Deleting a resource group is irreversible. 资源组以及包含在其中的所有资源将被永久删除。The resource group and all the resources contained in it are permanently deleted. 请确保不会意外删除错误的资源组或资源。Make sure that you do not accidentally delete the wrong resource group or resources. 如果在现有的包含要保留资源的资源组中创建了 IoT 中心,则只删除 IoT 中心资源本身,而不要删除资源组。If you created the IoT Hub inside an existing resource group that contains resources you want to keep, only delete the IoT Hub resource itself instead of deleting the resource group.

若要按名称删除资源组,请执行以下操作:To delete a resource group by name:

  1. 登录到 Azure 门户,然后选择“资源组”。 Sign in to the Azure portal and select Resource groups.

  2. 在“按名称筛选”文本框中,键入包含 IoT 中心的资源组的名称 。In the Filter by name textbox, type the name of the resource group containing your IoT Hub.

  3. 在结果列表中的资源组右侧,选择“...”,然后选择“删除资源组” 。To the right of your resource group in the result list, select ... then Delete resource group.


  4. 系统会要求确认是否删除资源组。You will be asked to confirm the deletion of the resource group. 再次键入资源组的名称进行确认,然后选择“删除” 。Type the name of your resource group again to confirm, and then select Delete. 片刻之后,将会删除该资源组及其包含的所有资源。After a few moments, the resource group and all of its contained resources are deleted.

后续步骤Next steps

在本快速入门中,你设置了 IoT 中心、注册了设备、将模拟遥测数据从 iOS 设备发送到了中心,并从中心读取了遥测数据。In this quickstart, you set up an IoT hub, registered a device, sent simulated telemetry to the hub from an iOS device, and read the telemetry from the hub.

若要了解如何从后端应用程序控制模拟设备,请继续阅读下一快速入门教程。To learn how to control your simulated device from a back-end application, continue to the next quickstart.