Azure 备份术语表Azure Backup glossary

使用 Azure 备份时,此术语词汇表非常有用。This glossary of terms can be helpful when using Azure Backup.

备注

  • 标有“(特定于工作负载的术语)”的术语是指仅在 Azure 备份支持的特定工作负载子集中相关的术语。Terms which are marked with the prefix "(Workload-specific term)" refer to those terms which are only relevant in the context of a specific subset of workloads that Azure Backup supports.
  • 对于 Azure 备份文档中常用但指其他 Azure 服务的术语,将提供一个指向相关 Azure 服务文档的直接链接。For terms which are used commonly in Azure Backup documentation but refer to other Azure services, a direct link is provided to the documentation of the relevant Azure service.

备用位置恢复Alternate location recovery

执行从恢复点到位置(不是在其中创建了备份的源位置)的恢复。A recovery done from the recovery point to a location other than the original location where the backups were taken. 使用 Azure VM 备份时,这意味着会将 VM 还原到执行备份的原始服务器以外的服务器。When using Azure VM backup, this would mean restoring the VM to a server other than the original server where the backups were taken.

应用程序一致性备份Application consistent backup

(特定于工作负载的术语)(Workload-specific term)

应用程序一致性备份捕获内存内容和挂起的 I/O 操作。Application-consistent backups capture memory content and pending I/O operations. 应用一致性快照使用 VSS VSS 编写器(或适用于 Linux 的前或后脚本)来确保备份之前的应用数据一致性。App-consistent snapshots use a VSS VSS writer (or pre or post scripts for Linux) to ensure the consistency of the app data before a backup occurs. 了解详细信息Learn more.

Azure 资源管理器 (ARM) 模板Azure Resource Manager (ARM) templates

请参阅 ARM 模板文档Refer to ARM templates documentation.

自动保护(用于数据库)Autoprotection (for databases)

(特定于工作负载的术语)(Workload-specific term)

自动保护是一种功能,可让你自动保护独立 SQL Server 实例或 SQL Server Always On 可用性组中的所有数据库。Autoprotection is a capability that lets you automatically protect all the databases in a standalone SQL Server instance or a SQL Server Always On availability group. 它不仅支持对现有数据库进行备份,还可保护将来可能添加的所有数据库。Not only does it enable backups for the existing databases, but it also protects all the databases that you may add in future.

可用性(存储复制类型)Availability (Storage Replication types)

Azure 备份提供了三种类型的复制来保持存储和数据的高可用性:Azure Backup offers three types of replication to keep your storage and data highly available:

LRSLRS

本地冗余存储 (LRS) 将数据中心的存储缩放单元中的备份数据复制三次(创建三个备份数据副本)。Locally redundant storage (LRS) replicates your backup data three times (it creates three copies of your backup data) in a storage scale unit in a datacenter. 备份数据的所有副本都存在于同一区域。All copies of the backup data exist within the same region. LRS 是一种低成本选择,可在本地硬件故障时保护备份数据。LRS is a low-cost option for protecting your backup data from local hardware failures.

GRSGRS

异地冗余存储 (GRS) 是默认的和推荐的复制选项。Geo-redundant storage (GRS) is the default and recommended replication option. GRS 将备份数据复制到离源数据主位置数英里之外的次要区域中。GRS replicates your backup data to a secondary region, hundreds of miles away from the primary location of the source data. GRS 的成本比 LRS 的高,但 GRS 提供更高的备份数据持久度,即使出现区域性服务中断也是如此。GRS costs more than LRS, but GRS provides a higher level of durability for your backup data, even if there's a regional outage.

Azure 命令行界面 (CLI)Azure Command-Line Interface (CLI)

请参阅 Azure CLI 文档Refer to Azure CLI documentation.

Azure PolicyAzure Policy

请参阅 Azure Policy 文档Refer to Azure Policy documentation.

Azure PowerShellAzure PowerShell

请参阅 Azure PowerShell 文档Refer to Azure PowerShell documentation.

Azure 资源管理器 (ARM)Azure Resource Manager (ARM)

请参阅 Azure 资源管理器文档Refer to Azure Resource Manager documentation.

Azure 磁盘加密 (ADE)Azure Disk Encryption (ADE)

请参阅 Azure 磁盘加密文档Refer to Azure Disk Encryption documentation.

后端存储/云存储/备份存储Backend storage / Cloud storage / Backup storage

备份实例使用的实际存储。The actual storage used by a backup instance. 包括备份实例存在的所有保留点的大小(由备份和保留策略定义)。Includes the size of all retention points that exist for the backup instance (as defined by the backup and retention policy).

裸机备份Bare metal backup

备份操作系统文件和关键卷上的所有数据(用户数据除外)。Backup of operating system files and all data on critical volumes, except for user data. 根据定义,裸机备份包括系统状态备份。By definition, a bare metal backup includes a system state backup. 在计算机不会启动的情况下,如果必须彻底恢复,则可通过此备份获得保护。It provides protection when a computer won't start and you have to recover everything. 了解详细信息Learn more.

备份扩展/VM 扩展Backup extensions / VM extensions

(特定于 Azure VM 工作负载类型)(Specific to Azure VM workload type)

Azure 虚拟机 (VM) 扩展是小型应用程序,可在 Azure VM 上提供部署后配置和自动化任务。Azure virtual machine (VM) extensions are small applications that provide post-deployment configuration and automation tasks on Azure VMs. Azure 备份通过为在计算机上运行的 Azure VM 代理安装一个扩展来备份 Azure VM。Azure Backup backs up Azure VMs by installing an extension to the Azure VM agent running on the machine. Azure 备份会自动管理这些扩展,用户无需手动更新这些扩展。Azure Backup automatically manages these extensions and users don't need to manually update these extensions.

备份实例/备份项Backup instance / Backup item

备份到具有特定备份和保留策略的保管库的数据源构成备份实例或备份项。A datasource backed up to a vault with a particular backup and retention policy constitutes a backup instance or a backup item.

备份规则/备份策略Backup rule / Backup policy

备份规则是用户定义的规则,它指定在数据源上执行备份的时间和频率。A backup rule is a user-defined rule that specifies when and how often backups should be performed on a datasource. 对于某些工作负载类型,备份策略还提供了一种指定要应用于数据源的快照方法(完全、增量、差异)的方法。For some workload types, backup policy also provides a way to specify the snapshot method to be applied on the datasource (full, incremental, differential). 备份策略通常作为备份规则和保留规则的组合创建。Backup policies are often created as a combination of backup rules and retention rules.

备份保管库Backup vault

类型为 Microsoft.DataProtection/BackupVaults 的 Azure 资源管理器资源。An Azure Resource Manager resource of type Microsoft.DataProtection/BackupVaults. 目前,备份保管库用于备份 Azure Databases for PostgreSQL 服务器。Currently, Backup vaults are used to back up Azure Databases for PostgreSQL Server. 详细了解备份保管库Learn more about Backup vaults.

BCDR(业务连续性和灾难恢复)BCDR (Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery)

BCDR 涉及组织必须采用的一组流程,以确保应用和工作负载在计划内和计划外服务或 Azure 中断期间启动和运行,且业务中断最小。BCDR involves a set of processes an organization must adopt to ensure apps and workloads are up and running during planned and unplanned service or Azure outages, with minimal business disruption. 详细了解 Azure 提供的各种服务,以帮助你创建合理的 BCDR 策略。Learn more about the various services that Azure offers to help you create a sound BCDR strategy.

变动Churn

在两个连续备份之间备份的数据更改百分比。The percent of change in the data being backed up between two consecutive backups. 这可能是由于增加了新数据,或者修改或删除了现有数据。This could be because of addition of new data, or the modification or deletion of existing data.

崩溃一致性备份Crash-consistent backup

(特定于工作负载的术语)(Workload-specific term)

如果在备份时 Azure VM 关闭,则往往会发生崩溃一致性快照。Crash-consistent snapshots typically occur if an Azure VM shuts down at the time of backup. 仅会捕获和备份备份时磁盘上已存在的数据。Only the data that already exists on the disk at the time of backup is captured and backed up. 了解详细信息Learn more.

Data boxData box

请参阅 Azure Data Box 文档Refer to data box documentation.

数据源Datasource

作为备份候选项的资源(Azure 资源、代理资源或本地资源)。A resource (Azure resource, proxy-resource, or on-premises resource) which is a candidate for being backed up. 例如 Azure VM。For example, an Azure VM.

DPM (Data Protection Manager)DPM (Data Protection Manager)

(特定于工作负载的术语)(Workload-specific term)

请参阅 DPM 文档Refer to the DPM documentation.

ExpressRouteExpressRoute

请参阅 ExpressRoute 文档Refer to the ExpressRoute documentation.

文件系统一致性备份File system consistent backup

(特定于工作负载的术语)(Workload-specific term)

文件系统一致性备份通过同时创建所有文件的快照来提供一致性。File-system consistent backups provide consistency by taking a snapshot of all files at the same time. 了解详细信息Learn more.

前端存储/源大小Frontend storage / Source size

要为数据源备份的数据的大小。The size of the data to be backed up for a datasource. 数据源的前端大小确定其受保护的实例计数。The frontend size of a datasource determines its Protected Instance count.

完整备份Full backup

在完整备份中,每个备份都会存储整个数据源的副本。In full backups, a copy of the whole data source is stored for every backup.

GFS 备份策略GFS Backup Policy

GFS(祖父-父-子)备份策略使你能够定义每周、每月和每年的备份计划,以及每日备份计划。A GFS (Grandfather-father-son) backup policy is one that enables you to define weekly, monthly, and yearly backup schedules in addition to the daily backup schedule. 每周备份称为“子”,每月备份称为“父”,每年的备份称为“祖父”。The weekly backups are known "sons", the monthly backups are known as "fathers" and the yearly backups are known as "grandfathers". 可以将每组备份副本配置为保留不同的时间,以便对备份副本的保留选择进行更多自定义。Each of these sets of backup copies can be configured to be retained for different durations of time, allowing for more customization of retention choices for backup copies. GFS 策略有助于以更高效存储的方式长时间保留备份。GFS policies are useful in retaining backups for a long period of time in a more storage-efficient manner.

IaaS VM/Azure VMIaaS VMs / Azure VMs

请参阅 Azure VM 文档Refer to the Azure VM documentation.

增量备份Incremental backup

增量备份仅存储自上次备份以来发生更改的块。Incremental backups store only the blocks that have changed since the previous backup.

即时还原Instant restore

(特定于工作负载的术语)即时还原涉及直接从计算机的备份快照还原计算机(而不是从保管库中的快照副本还原计算机)。(Workload specific term) Instant restore involves restoring a machine directly from its backup snapshot rather than from the copy of the snapshot in the vault. 即时还原比从保管库还原快。Instant restores are faster than restores from a vault. 可用的即时还原点数取决于为快照配置的保留持续时间。The number of instant restore points available depends on the retention duration configured for snapshots. 目前仅适用于 Azure VM 备份。Currently applicable for Azure VM backup only.

IOPSIOPS

每秒输入/输出操作数。Input/output operations per second.

项级还原Item-level restore

(特定于工作负载的术语)(Workload-specific term)

从恢复点还原计算机内的各个文件或文件夹。Restoring individual files or folders inside the machine from the recovery point.

作业Job

由用户或 Azure 备份服务创建的与备份相关的任务。A backup-related task that is created by a user or the Azure Backup service. 作业可以是计划作业,也可以是按需作业(临时)。Jobs can be either scheduled or on-demand (ad-hoc). 有不同类型的作业(备份、还原、配置保护等)。There are different types of jobs - backup, restore, configure protection, and so on. 了解有关作业的详细信息Learn more about jobs.

MABS/Azure 备份服务器MABS / Azure Backup Server

(特定于工作负载的术语)(Workload-specific term)

使用 Azure 备份服务器,可以通过一个控制台保护应用程序工作负载,如 Hyper-V VM、Microsoft SQL Server、SharePoint Server、Microsoft Exchange 和 Windows 客户端。With Azure Backup Server, you can protect application workloads such as Hyper-V VMs, Microsoft SQL Server, SharePoint Server, Microsoft Exchange, and Windows clients from a single console. 它从 DPM 继承大部分工作负载备份功能,但有一些差异。It inherits much of the workload backup functionality from DPM, but with a few differences. 了解更多信息Learn more

托管磁盘Managed disks

请参阅托管磁盘文档Refer to the Managed disks documentation.

MARS 代理MARS Agent

(特定于工作负载的术语)(Workload-specific term)

也称为“Azure 备份代理”或“恢复服务代理”,Azure 备份使用 MARS 代理将本地计算机和 Azure VM 中的数据备份到 Azure 中的恢复服务保管库 。Also known as Azure Backup agent or Recovery Services agent, the MARS agent is used by Azure Backup to back up data from on-premises machines and Azure VMs to a backup Recovery Services vault in Azure. 了解详细信息Learn more.

NSG(网络安全组)NSG (Network Security Group)

请参阅 NSG 文档Refer to the NSG documentation.

脱机种子设定Offline seeding

脱机种子设定是指在不使用网络带宽的情况下,离线传输初始(完整)备份的过程。Offline seeding refers to the process of transferring the initial (full) backup offline, without the use of network bandwidth. 它提供的机制是,将备份数据复制到物理存储设备,然后将这些设备运送到附近的 Azure 数据中心,再将其中的备份数据上传到恢复服务保管库。It provides a mechanism to copy backup data onto physical storage devices, which are then shipped to a nearby Azure datacenter and uploaded onto a Recovery Services vault. 了解详细信息Learn more.

按需备份/临时备份On-demand backup / Ad hoc backup

由用户在一次需要的基础上触发的备份作业,而不是基于已为资源配置的备份计划(策略)。A backup job that is triggered by a user on a one-time need basis, and not based on the backup schedule (policy) that has been configured for the resource.

原始位置恢复 (OLR)Original location recovery (OLR)

执行从还原点到源位置(已在其中创建了备份)的恢复,将其替换为存储在恢复点中的状态。A recovery done from the restore point to the source location from where the backups were taken, replacing it with the state stored in the recovery point. 使用 Azure VM 备份时,这意味着将 VM 还原到进行备份的原始服务器。When using Azure VM backup, this would mean restoring the VM to the original server where the backups were taken.

通行短语Passphrase

(特定于工作负载的术语)(Workload-specific term)

使用 MARS 代理向/从 Azure 备份或还原本地计算机时,通行短语用于加密和解密数据。A passphrase is used to encrypt and decrypt data while backing up or restoring your on-premises or local machine using the MARS agent to or from Azure.

受保护的实例Protected instance

受保护的实例是指用于配置 Azure 备份的计算机、物理或虚拟服务器。A protected instance refers to the computer, physical or virtual server you use to configure the backup to Azure. 从计费角度来看,计算机的受保护的实例计数是计算机前端大小的函数。From a billing standpoint, Protected Instance Count for a machine is a function of its frontend size. 因此,一个备份实例(例如,一个备份到 Azure 的 VM)可以与多个受保护的实例相对应,具体取决于其前端大小。Thus, a single backup instance (such as a VM backed up to Azure) can correspond to multiple protected instances, depending on its frontend size. 了解详细信息Learn more.

RBAC(基于角色的访问控制)RBAC (Role-based access control)

请参阅 RBAC 文档Refer to the RBAC documentation.

恢复点/还原点/保留点/时间点 (PIT)Recovery point/ Restore point/ Retention point / Point-in-time (PIT)

要备份的原始数据的副本。A copy of the original data that is being backed up. 保留点与时间戳关联,因此你可以使用该点将项目还原到特定时间点。A retention point is associated with a timestamp so you can use this to restore an item to a particular point in time.

恢复服务保管库Recovery Services vault

类型为 Microsoft.RecoveryServices/vaults 的 Azure 资源管理器资源。An Azure Resource Manager resource of type Microsoft.RecoveryServices/vaults. 目前,恢复服务保管库用于备份以下工作负载:Azure VM、Azure VM 中的 SQL 以及 Azure VM 中的 SAP HANA。Currently, Recovery Services vaults are used to back up the following workloads: Azure VMs, SQL in Azure VMs, and SAP HANA in Azure VMs. 它还用于使用 MARS、Azure 备份服务器 (MABS) 和 System Center DPM 备份本地工作负载。It's also used to back up on-premises workloads using MARS, Azure Backup Server (MABS), and System Center DPM. 详细了解恢复服务保管库Learn more about Recovery Services vaults.

资源组Resource group

请参阅 Azure 资源管理器文档Refer to the Azure Resource Manager documentation.

REST APIREST API

请参阅 Azure REST API 文档Refer to the Azure REST API documentation.

保留规则Retention rule

用户定义的规则,用于指定备份应保留的时长。A user-defined rule that specifies how long backups should be retained.

RPO(恢复点目标)RPO (Recovery Point Objective)

RPO 表示在数据丢失情况下可能的最大数据丢失量。RPO indicates the maximum data loss that is possible in a data-loss scenario. 这取决于备份频率。This is determined by backup frequency.

RTO(恢复时间目标)RTO (Recovery Time Objective)

RTO 表示数据在数据丢失后可恢复到上一个可用时间点的最大可能时间。RTO indicates the maximum possible time in which data can be restored to the last available point-in-time after a data loss scenario.

计划内备份Scheduled backup

由为给定项配置的备份策略自动触发的备份作业。A backup job that is automatically triggered by the backup policy configured for the given item.

次要区域/配对区域Secondary region / Paired region

区域对由同一地理位置中的两个区域组成。A regional pair consists of two regions within the same geography. 一个是主要区域,另一个是次要区域。One is the primary region, and the other is the secondary region. 某些 Azure 服务(包括具有 GRS 设置的 Azure 备份)使用配对区域,以确保业务连续性并防止数据丢失。Paired regions are used by some Azure services (including Azure Backup with GRS settings) to ensure business continuity and protect against data loss. 了解详细信息Learn more.

软删除Soft delete

软删除是一项有助于防止意外删除备份数据的功能。Soft delete is a feature that helps guard against accidental deletion of backup data. 在使用软删除的情况下,即使恶意行动者删除了备份(或用户意外删除了备份数据),备份数据也仍会保留一段额外的时间,因此可以恢复该备份项,而不会丢失数据。With soft delete, even if a malicious actor deletes a backup (or backup data is accidentally deleted), the backup data is retained for an additional period of time, allowing the recovery of that backup item with no data loss. 了解详细信息Learn more.

快照Snapshot

快照是虚拟硬盘 (VHD) 的完整只读副本。A snapshot is a full, read-only copy of a virtual hard drive (VHD). 详细了解磁盘快照文件快照Learn more about disk snapshots and file snapshots.

存储帐户Storage account

请参阅存储帐户文档Refer to the Storage account documentation.

订阅Subscription

Azure 订阅是用于在 Azure 中预置资源的逻辑容器。An Azure subscription is a logical container used to provision resources in Azure. 它保存所有资源(如虚拟机 (VM)、数据库等)的详细信息。It holds the details of all your resources, like virtual machines (VMs), databases, and more.

系统状态备份System State backup

(特定于工作负载的术语)(Workload-specific term)

备份操作系统文件。Backs up operating system files. 通过这种备份可以在计算机启动时进行恢复,但系统文件和注册表会丢失。This backup allows you to recover when a computer starts, but system files and the registry are lost. 了解详细信息Learn more.

租户Tenant

租户是组织的表示形式。A tenant is a representation of an organization. 它是 Azure AD 专用实例,组织或应用开发人员与 Microsoft 建立关系时(例如注册 Azure、Microsoft Intune 或 Microsoft 365)会收到该实例。It's a dedicated instance of Azure AD that an organization or app developer receives when the organization or app developer creates a relationship with Microsoft, like signing up for Azure, Microsoft Intune, or Microsoft 365.

非托管磁盘Unmanaged disk

请参阅非托管磁盘文档Refer to the Unmanaged disks documentation.

保管库Vault

Azure 中包含备份数据的存储实体。A storage entity in Azure that houses backup data. 也是 RBAC 和计费的单位。It's also a unit of RBAC and billing. 目前有两种类型的保管库:恢复服务保管库和备份保管库。Currently there are two types of vaults - Recovery Services vault and Backup vault.

保管库凭据Vault credentials

保管库凭据文件是门户为每个保管库生成的证书。The vault credentials file is a certificate generated by the portal for each vault. 将本地服务器注册到保管库时使用此文件。This is used while registering an on-premises server to the vault. 了解详细信息Learn more.

VNET(虚拟网络)VNET (Virtual Network)

请参阅 VNET 文档Refer to the VNET documentation.

VSS(Windows 卷影复制服务)VSS (Windows Volume Shadow Copy Service)

请参阅 VSS 文档Refer to the VSS documentation.

后续步骤Next steps