IoT 中心术语表Glossary of IoT Hub terms

本文列出了一些在 IoT 中心文章中使用的常用术语。This article lists some of the common terms used in the IoT Hub articles.

高级消息队列协议Advanced Message Queueing Protocol

高级消息队列协议 (AMQP)IoT 中心支持的一种消息传送协议,适用于与设备通信。Advanced Message Queueing Protocol (AMQP) is one of the messaging protocols that IoT Hub supports for communicating with devices. 有关 IoT 中心支持的消息传递协议的详细信息,请参阅使用 IoT 中心发送和接收消息For more information about the messaging protocols that IoT Hub supports, see Send and receive messages with IoT Hub.

自动设备管理Automatic Device Management

Azure IoT 中心内的自动设备管理功能可将许多复杂且重复性的任务自动化,包括在大型设备阵列的整个生命周期内对其进行管理。Automatic Device Management in Azure IoT Hub automates many of the repetitive and complex tasks of managing large device fleets over the entirety of their lifecycles. 使用自动设备管理,可以根据设备的属性将一组设备指定为目标、定义所需的配置,并在设备进入管理范畴时让 IoT 中心更新这些设备。With Automatic Device Management, you can target a set of devices based on their properties, define a desired configuration, and let IoT Hub update devices whenever they come into scope. 包括自动设备配置IoT Edge 自动部署Consists of automatic device configurations and IoT Edge automatic deployments.

自动设备配置Automatic device configuration

解决方案后端可以使用自动设备配置将所需属性分配到一组设备孪生,并使用系统指标和自定义指标来报告状态。Your solution back end can use automatic device configurations to assign desired properties to a set of device twins and report status using system metrics and custom metrics.

Azure 经典 CLIAzure classic CLI

Azure 经典 CLI 是一个跨平台、开放源代码、基于 shell 的命令工具,适用于在 Microsoft Azure 中创建和管理资源。The Azure classic CLI is a cross-platform, open-source, shell-based, command tool for creating and managing resources in Microsoft Azure. 此版本的 CLI 仅应用于经典部署。This version of the CLI should be used for classic deployments only.

Azure CLIAzure CLI

Azure CLI 是一个跨平台、开源、基于 shell 的命令工具,适用于在 Microsoft Azure 中创建和管理资源。The Azure CLI is a cross-platform, open-source, shell-based, command tool for creating and managing resources in Microsoft Azure.

Azure IoT 设备 SDKAzure IoT device SDKs

提供了多种语言的 设备 SDK ,以便于用户创建与 IoT 中心交互的 设备应用There are device SDKs available for multiple languages that enable you to create device apps that interact with an IoT hub. IoT 中心教程介绍了如何使用这些设备 SDK。The IoT Hub tutorials show you how to use these device SDKs. 可以在此 GitHub 存储库中找到有关设备 SDK 的源代码和进一步信息。You can find the source code and further information about the device SDKs in this GitHub repository.

Azure IoT 资源管理器Azure IoT Explorer

Azure IoT 资源管理器用于查看设备正在发送的遥测、使用设备属性和调用命令。The Azure IoT Explorer is used to view the telemetry the device is sending, work with device properties, and call commands. 还可以使用资源管理器与设备进行交互并对设备进行测试,管理即插即用设备。You can also use the explorer to interact with and test your devices, and to manage plug and play devices.

Azure IoT 服务 SDKAzure IoT service SDKs

提供了多种语言的 服务 SDK ,以便于用户创建与 IoT 中心交互的 后端应用There are service SDKs available for multiple languages that enable you to create back-end apps that interact with an IoT hub. IoT 中心教程介绍了如何使用这些服务 SDK。The IoT Hub tutorials show you how to use these service SDKs. 可以在此 GitHub 存储库中找到有关服务 SDK 的源代码和进一步信息。You can find the source code and further information about the service SDKs in this GitHub repository.

Azure IoT ToolsAzure IoT Tools

Azure IoT 工具是一个跨平台的开放源代码 Visual Studio Code 扩展,可帮助你在 VS Code 中管理 Azure IoT 中心和设备。The Azure IoT Tools is a cross-platform, open-source Visual Studio Code extension that helps you manage Azure IoT Hub and devices in VS Code. 使用 Azure IoT 工具,IoT 开发人员可以轻松在 VS Code 中开发 IoT 项目。With Azure IoT Tools, IoT developers could develop IoT project in VS Code with ease.

Azure 门户Azure portal

Microsoft Azure 门户 是一个中心位置,可在其中预配和管理 Azure 资源。The Microsoft Azure portal is a central place where you can provision and manage your Azure resources. 该门户使用 _边栏选项卡_组织其内容。It organizes its content using blades.

Azure PowerShellAzure PowerShell

Azure PowerShell 是一个 cmdlet 集合,可用于通过 Windows PowerShell 管理 Azure。Azure PowerShell is a collection of cmdlets you can use to manage Azure with Windows PowerShell. 可以使用 cmdlet 来创建、测试、部署和管理通过 Azure 平台传送的解决方案和服务。You can use the cmdlets to create, test, deploy, and manage solutions and services delivered through the Azure platform.

Azure Resource ManagerAzure Resource Manager

可以使用 Azure Resource Manager 将解决方案中的资源作为一个组进行处理。Azure Resource Manager enables you to work with the resources in your solution as a group. 可以通过一个协调操作为解决方案部署、更新或删除资源。You can deploy, update, or delete the resources for your solution in a single, coordinated operation.

Azure 服务总线Azure Service Bus

通过服务总线,可在云端使用企业消息传递进行通信,也可采用中继进行通信,帮助将本地解决方案与云端连接。Service Bus provides cloud-enabled communication with enterprise messaging and relayed communication that helps you connect on-premises solutions with the cloud. 某些 IoT 中心教程使用服务总线队列Some IoT Hub tutorials make use Service Bus queues.

Azure 存储Azure Storage

Azure 存储是一种云存储解决方案。Azure Storage is a cloud storage solution. 它包含可用于存储非结构化的对象数据的 Blob 存储服务。It includes the Blob Storage service that you can use to store unstructured object data. 某些 IoT 中心教程使用 blob 存储。Some IoT Hub tutorials use blob storage.

后端应用Back-end app

IoT 中心环境中,后端应用是指连接到 IoT 中心的一个面向服务的终结点的应用。In the context of IoT Hub, a back-end app is an app that connects to one of the service-facing endpoints on an IoT hub. 例如,后端应用可以检索设备到云的消息或管理标识注册表For example, a back-end app might retrieve device-to-cloudmessages or manage the identity registry. 通常,后端应用在云中运行,但在许多教程中,后端应用是在本地开发计算机上运行的控制台应用。Typically, a back-end app runs in the cloud, but in many of the tutorials the back-end apps are console apps running on your local development machine.

内置终结点Built-in endpoints

每个 IoT 中心都包括一个与事件中心兼容的内置终结点Every IoT hub includes a built-in endpoint that is Event Hub-compatible. 可以使用任何适用于事件中心的机制从此终结点读取设备到云消息。You can use any mechanism that works with Event Hubs to read device-to-cloud messages from this endpoint.

云网关Cloud gateway

云网关使不能直接连接到 IoT 中心的设备能建立连接。A cloud gateway enables connectivity for devices that cannot connect directly to IoT Hub. 和在设备本地运行的 现场网关 相反,云网关在云中托管。A cloud gateway is hosted in the cloud in contrast to a field gateway that runs local to your devices. 云网关的一个典型用例是实现设备的协议转换。A typical use case for a cloud gateway is to implement protocol translation for your devices.

云到设备Cloud-to-device

指从 IoT 中心发送到已连接设备的消息。Refers to messages sent from an IoT hub to a connected device. 这些消息通常是命令,用于指示设备采取某项操作。Often, these messages are commands that instruct the device to take an action. 有关详细信息,请参阅使用 IoT 中心发送和接收消息For more information, see Send and receive messages with IoT Hub.

配置Configuration

在使用自动设备配置的情况下,可以通过 IoT 中心的配置为一组设备孪生定义所需的配置,并提供一组指标来报告状态和进度。In the context of automatic device configuration, a configuration within IoT Hub defines the desired configuration for a set of devices twins and provides a set of metrics to report status and progress.

连接字符串Connection string

使用应用程序代码中的连接字符串来封装连接到终结点所需的信息。You use connection strings in your app code to encapsulate the information required to connect to an endpoint. 连接字符串通常包含终结点的地址和安全信息,但连接字符串的格式因服务而异。A connection string typically includes the address of the endpoint and security information, but connection string formats vary across services. 与 IoT 中心服务关联的连接字符串有两种:There are two types of connection string associated with the IoT Hub service:

  • 设备连接字符串 使设备能够连接到 IoT 中心上面向设备的终结点。Device connection strings enable devices to connect to the device-facing endpoints on an IoT hub.
  • IoT 中心连接字符串 使后端应用能够连接到 IoT 中心上面向服务的终结点。IoT Hub connection strings enable back-end apps to connect to the service-facing endpoints on an IoT hub.

自定义终结点Custom endpoints

可在 IoT 中心创建自定义终结点来传递由路由规则调度的消息。You can create custom endpoints on an IoT hub to deliver messages dispatched by a routing rule. 自定义终结点会直接连接到事件中心、服务总线队列或服务总线主题。Custom endpoints connect directly to an Event hub, a Service Bus queue, or a Service Bus topic.

自定义网关Custom gateway

网关使不能直接连接到 IoT 中心的设备能建立连接。A gateway enables connectivity for devices that cannot connect directly to IoT Hub. 可以使用 Azure IoT Edge 生成自定义网关,以便使用自定义逻辑处理消息、自定义协议转换和进行边缘上的其他处理。You can use Azure IoT Edge to build custom gateways that implement custom logic to handle messages, custom protocol conversions, and other processing on the edge.

数据点消息Data-point message

数据点消息是指设备到云的消息,其中包含遥测数据(例如风速或温度)。A data-point message is a device-to-cloud message that contains telemetry data such as wind speed or temperature.

所需配置Desired configuration

在与设备孪生相关的语境中,所需配置是指设备孪生中要与设备同步的完整的属性和元数据集。In the context of a device twin, desired configuration refers to the complete set of properties and metadata in the device twin that should be synchronized with the device.

所需属性Desired properties

在与设备孪生相关的语境中,所需属性是设备孪生的一部分,和报告属性一起用于同步设备配置或条件。In the context of a device twin, desired properties is a subsection of the device twin that is used with reported properties to synchronize device configuration or condition. 所需属性只能由后端应用设置,并由设备应用遵守。Desired properties can only be set by a back-end app and are observed by the device app.

设备到云Device-to-cloud

指从已连接设备发送到 IoT 中心的消息。Refers to messages sent from a connected device to IoT Hub. 这些消息可能是数据点交互式消息。These messages may be data point or interactive messages. 有关详细信息,请参阅使用 IoT 中心发送和接收消息For more information, see Send and receive messages with IoT Hub.

设备Device

在 IoT 上下文中,设备通常是指小型、独立的计算设备,可用于收集数据或控制其他设备。In the context of IoT, a device is typically a small-scale, standalone computing device that may collect data or control other devices. 例如,设备可以是环境监视设备,也可以是控制器,控制温室中的浇水和通风系统。For example, a device might be an environmental monitoring device, or a controller for the watering and ventilation systems in a greenhouse. 设备目录提供经过认证的可用于 IoT 中心的硬件设备列表。The device catalog provides a list of hardware devices certified to work with IoT Hub.

设备应用Device app

设备应用在用户的设备上运行,处理与 IoT 中心的通信。A device app runs on your device and handles the communication with your IoT hub. 通常情况下,实现设备应用时会使用一个 Azure IoT 设备 SDKTypically, you use one of the Azure IoT device SDKs when you implement a device app. 在许多 IoT 教程中,为方便起见使用 模拟设备In many of the IoT tutorials, you use a simulated device for convenience.

设备条件Device condition

设备应用报告的设备状态信息,例如当前正在使用的连接方法。Refers to device state information, such as the connectivity method currently in use, as reported by a device app. 设备应用 还可以报告其功能。Device apps can also report their capabilities. 可以使用设备孪生查询条件和功能的信息。You can query for condition and capability information using device twins.

设备数据Device data

设备数据是指存储在 IoT 中心 标识注册表中的每个设备数据。Device data refers to the per-device data stored in the IoT Hub identity registry. 可以导入和导出此数据。It is possible to import and export this data.

设备资源管理器Device explorer

设备资源管理器已被 Azure IoT 资源管理器取代,后者用于查看设备正在发送的遥测、使用设备属性和调用命令。The device explorer has been replaced with the Azure IoT Explorer, which is used to view the telemetry the device is sending, work with device properties, and call commands. 还可以使用资源管理器与设备进行交互并对设备进行测试,管理即插即用设备。You can also use the explorer to interact with and test your devices, and to manage plug and play devices.

设备标识Device identity

设备标识是分配给在 标识注册表中注册的每个设备的唯一标识符。The device identity is the unique identifier assigned to every device registered in the identity registry.

设备管理Device management

设备管理包含在 IoT 解决方案中管理设备的完整生命周期,包括规划、预配、配置、监视和停用设备。Device management encompasses the full lifecycle associated with managing the devices in your IoT solution including planning, provisioning, configuring, monitoring, and retiring

设备管理模式Device management patterns

IoT 中心 支持常见的设备管理模式,包括重新启动、执行恢复出厂设置,以及执行设备的固件更新。IoT hub enables common device management patterns including rebooting, performing factory resets, and performing firmware updates on your devices.

设备 REST APIDevice REST API

在设备上使用设备 REST API,可以将设备到云消息发送到 IoT 中心,并能从 IoT 中心接收云到设备消息。You can use the Device REST API from a device to send device-to-cloud messages to an IoT hub, and receive cloud-to-device messages from an IoT hub. 通常情况下,使用 IoT 中心教程中演示的一种较高级别的 设备 SDKTypically, you should use one of the higher-level device SDKs as shown in the IoT Hub tutorials.

Device ProvisioningDevice provisioning

设备预配是将初始设备数据添加到解决方案中的存储的过程。Device provisioning is the process of adding the initial device data to the stores in your solution. 要使新设备能够连接到中心,必须将新设备 ID 和密钥添加到 IoT 中心的标识注册表To enable a new device to connect to your hub, you must add a device ID and keys to the IoT Hub identity registry. 在预配过程中,可能需要初始化其他解决方案存储中的设备特定数据。As part of the provisioning process, you might need to initialize device-specific data in other solution stores.

设备孪生Device twin

设备孪生是存储设备状态信息(如元数据、配置和条件)的 JSON 文档。A device twin is JSON document that stores device state information such as metadata, configurations, and conditions. IoT 中心 为在 IoT 中心预配的每台设备保留一个设备孪生。IoT Hub persists a device twin for each device that you provision in your IoT hub. 借助设备孪生可以在设备和解决方案后端之间同步 设备条件 和配置。Device twins enable you to synchronize device conditions and configurations between the device and the solution back end. 可以通过查询设备孪生来定位特定设备和查询长时间运行的操作状态。You can query device twins to locate specific devices and query the status of long-running operations.

直接方法Direct method

直接方法可让你通过在 IoT 中心上调用 API来触发在设备上执行的方法。A direct method is a way for you to trigger a method to execute on a device by invoking an API on your IoT hub.

终结点Endpoint

IoT 中心公开了多个终结点,以便使应用能够连接到 IoT 中心。An IoT hub exposes multiple endpoints that enable your apps to connect to the IoT hub. 有面向设备的终结点,通过此终结点设备可以执行一些操作,例如发送设备到云的消息和接收云到设备的消息。There are device-facing endpoints that enable devices to perform operations such as sending device-to-cloud messages and receiving cloud-to-device messages. 有面向服务的管理终结点,通过此终结点后端应用可执行一些操作,如设备标识管理和设备孪生管理。There are service-facing management endpoints that enable back-end apps to perform operations such as device identity management and device twin management. 有面向服务的 内置终结点 ,用于读取设备到云消息。There are service-facing built-in endpoints for reading device-to-cloud messages. 可创建自定义终结点,接收由路由规则调度的设备到云消息。You can create custom endpoints to receive device-to-cloud messages dispatched by a routing rule.

事件中心服务Event Hubs service

事件中心是高度可缩放的数据引入服务,每秒可以引入数以百万计的事件。Event Hubs is a highly scalable data ingress service that can ingest millions of events per second. 该服务使用户能够处理和分析连接设备和应用程序产生的大量数据。The service enables you to process and analyze the massive amounts of data produced by your connected devices and applications. 有关该服务与 IoT 中心服务的比较的信息,请参阅 Azure IoT 中心与 Azure 事件中心的比较For a comparison with the IoT Hub service, see Comparison of Azure IoT Hub and Azure Event Hubs.

与事件中心兼容的终结点Event Hub-compatible endpoint

如果要读取发送到 IoT 中心的 设备到云 的消息,可以先连接到中心的终结点,然后使用与事件中心兼容的任何方法读取这些消息。To read device-to-cloud messages sent to your IoT hub, you can connect to an endpoint on your hub and use any Event Hub-compatible method to read those messages. 事件中心兼容的方法包括使用事件中心 SDKAzure 流分析Event Hub-compatible methods include using the Event Hubs SDKs and Azure Stream Analytics.

现场网关Field gateway

无法直接连接到 IoT 中心 的设备可以通过现场网关进行连接,而现场网关通常与设备一起部署在本地。A field gateway enables connectivity for devices that cannot connect directly to IoT Hub and is typically deployed locally with your devices. 有关详细信息,请参阅什么是 Azure IoT 中心?For more information, see What is Azure IoT Hub?

免费帐户Free account

可以创建免费的 Azure 帐户,以便使用 IoT 中心服务(及其他 Azure 服务)完成 IoT 中心教程和试验。You can create a free Azure account to complete the IoT Hub tutorials and experiment with the IoT Hub service (and other Azure services).

网关Gateway

网关使不能直接连接到 IoT 中心的设备能建立连接。A gateway enables connectivity for devices that cannot connect directly to IoT Hub. 另请参阅现场网关云网关自定义网关See also Field Gateway, Cloud Gateway, and Custom Gateway.

标识注册表Identity registry

标识注册表是 IoT 中心的内置组件,用于存储允许连接到 IoT 中心的单个设备的信息。The identity registry is the built-in component of an IoT hub that stores information about the individual devices permitted to connect to an IoT hub.

交互式消息Interactive message

交互式消息是 云到设备 的消息,可在解决方案后端触发即时操作。An interactive message is a cloud-to-device message that triggers an immediate action in the solution back end. 例如,设备可能会发送故障警报,而该故障会自动记录到 CRM 系统中。For example, a device might send an alarm about a failure that should be automatically logged in to a CRM system.

自动设备管理Automatic Device Management

Azure IoT 中心内的自动设备管理功能可将许多复杂且重复性的任务自动化,包括在大型设备阵列的整个生命周期内对其进行管理。Automatic Device Management in Azure IoT Hub automates many of the repetitive and complex tasks of managing large device fleets over the entirety of their lifecycles. 使用自动设备管理,可以根据设备的属性将一组设备指定为目标、定义所需的配置,并在设备进入管理范畴时让 IoT 中心更新这些设备。With Automatic Device Management, you can target a set of devices based on their properties, define a desired configuration, and let IoT Hub update devices whenever they come into scope. 包括自动设备配置IoT Edge 自动部署Consists of automatic device configurations and IoT Edge automatic deployments.

IoT EdgeIoT Edge

Azure IoT Edge 支持在本地设备进行 Azure 服务和解决方案特定代码的云驱动部署。Azure IoT Edge enables cloud-driven deployment of Azure services and solution-specific code to on-premises devices. IoT Edge 设备可以聚合其他设备的数据,以在数据发送到云之前执行计算和分析。IoT Edge devices can aggregate data from other devices to perform computing and analytics before the data is sent to the cloud. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure IoT EdgeFor more information, see Azure IoT Edge.

IoT Edge 代理IoT Edge agent

IoT Edge 运行时部件负责部署和监视模块。The part of the IoT Edge runtime responsible for deploying and monitoring modules.

IoT Edge 设备IoT Edge device

IoT Edge 设备已安装 IoT Edge 运行时,并且在设备详细信息中标记为“IoT Edge 设备”。IoT Edge devices have the IoT Edge runtime installed and are flagged as “IoT Edge device” in the device details. 了解如何在 Linux 的模拟设备上部署 Azure IoT Edge - 预览Learn how to deploy Azure IoT Edge on a simulated device in Linux - preview.

IoT Edge 自动部署IoT Edge automatic deployment

IoT Edge 自动部署配置 IoT Edge 设备的目标集以运行 IoT Edge 模块集。An IoT Edge automatic deployment configures a target set of IoT Edge devices to run a set of IoT Edge modules. 每次部署持续确保符合其目标条件的所有设备运行指定的模块集,即使是在创建新设备或者为满足目标条件修改设备时。Each deployment continuously ensures that all devices that match its target condition are running the specified set of modules, even when new devices are created or are modified to match the target condition. 每个 IoT Edge 设备仅接收满足其目标条件的最高优先级部署。Each IoT Edge device only receives the highest priority deployment whose target condition it meets. 了解有关 IoT Edge 自动部署的详细信息。Learn more about IoT Edge automatic deployment.

IoT Edge 部署清单IoT Edge deployment manifest

Json 文档包含要在一个或多个 IoT Edge 设备的模块孪生中复制的信息,以部署一组模块、路由和关联模块所需属性。A Json document containing the information to be copied in one or more IoT Edge devices' module twin(s) to deploy a set of modules, routes and associated module desired properties.

IoT Edge 网关设备IoT Edge gateway device

有下游设备的 IoT Edge 设备。An IoT Edge device with downstream device. 下游设备可以是 IoT Edge 设备,也可以不是 IoT Edge 设备。The downstream device can be either IoT Edge or not IoT Edge device.

IoT Edge 中心IoT Edge hub

IoT Edge 运行时部件负责模块间通信、上游(流向 IoT 中心)和下游(离开 IoT Edge)通信。The part of the IoT Edge runtime responsible for module to module communications, upstream (toward IoT Hub) and downstream (away from IoT Hub) communications.

IoT Edge 叶设备IoT Edge leaf device

没有下游设备的 IoT Edge 设备。An IoT Edge device with no downstream device.

IoT Edge 模块IoT Edge module

IoT Edge 模块是可部署到 IoT Edge 设备的 Docker 容器。An IoT Edge module is a Docker container that you can deploy to IoT Edge devices. 它执行特定的任务,例如从设备引入消息、转换消息,或者将消息发送到 IoT 中心。It performs a specific task, such as ingesting a message from a device, transforming a message, or sending a message to an IoT hub. 它与其他模块进行通信并将数据发送到 IoT Edge 运行时。It communicates with other modules and sends data to the IoT Edge runtime. 了解开发 IoT Edge 模块的要求和工具Understand the requirements and tools for developing IoT Edge modules.

IoT Edge 模块标识IoT Edge module identity

IoT 中心模块标识注册表中的记录详细说明,模块用来向 Edge 中心或 IoT 中心进行身份验证的存在和安全凭证。A record in the IoT Hub module identity registry detailing the existence and security credentials to be used by a module to authenticate with an edge hub or IoT Hub.

IoT Edge 模块映像IoT Edge module image

IoT Edge 运行时用来实例化模块实例的 docker 映像。The docker image that is used by the IoT Edge runtime to instantiate module instances.

IoT Edge 模块孪生IoT Edge module twin

保存在存储模块实例状态信息的 IoT 中心内的 Json 文档。A Json document persisted in the IoT Hub that stores the state information for a module instance.

IoT Edge 优先级IoT Edge priority

当两个 IoT Edge 部署以同一设备为目标时,应用优先级更高的部署。When two IoT Edge deployments target the same device, the deployment with higher priority gets applied. 如果两个部署优先级相同,则应用创建日期更晚的部署。If two deployments have the same priority, the deployment with the later creation date gets applied. 了解有关优先级的详细信息。Learn more about priority.

IoT Edge 运行时IoT Edge runtime

IoT Edge 运行时包括 Microsoft 分发用于安装在 IoT Edge 设备上的所有内容。IoT Edge runtime includes everything that Microsoft distributes to be installed on an IoT Edge device. 其中包括 Edge 代理、Edge 中心和 IoT Edge 安全守护程序。It includes Edge agent, Edge hub, and the IoT Edge security daemon.

IoT Edge 将模块设置为单个设备IoT Edge set modules to a single device

在一个设备的模块孪生上复制 IoT Edge 清单内容的操作。An operation that copies the content of an IoT Edge manifest on one device' module twin. 基础 API 是泛型“应用配置”,仅将 IoT Edge 清单作为输入。The underlying API is a generic 'apply configuration', which simply takes an IoT Edge manifest as an input.

IoT Edge 目标条件IoT Edge target condition

在 IoT Edge 部署中,目标条件是设备孪生标记上的任意布尔条件,以选择部署的目标设备(例如 tag.environment = prod)。持续评估目标条件,以包括满足需求的任何新设备或者删除不再满足要求的设备。In an IoT Edge deployment, Target condition is any Boolean condition on device twins’ tags to select the target devices of the deployment, for example tag.environment = prod. The target condition is continuously evaluated to include any new devices that meet the requirements or remove devices that no longer do. 了解有关目标条件的详细信息Learn more about target condition

IoT 中心IoT Hub

IoT 中心是一项完全托管的 Azure 服务,可在数百万个设备和一个解决方案后端之间实现安全可靠的双向通信。IoT Hub is a fully managed Azure service that enables reliable and secure bidirectional communications between millions of devices and a solution back end. 有关详细信息,请参阅什么是 Azure IoT 中心?For more information, see What is Azure IoT Hub? 使用 Azure 订阅可以创建 IoT 中心来处理 IoT 消息传送工作负荷。Using your Azure subscription, you can create IoT hubs to handle your IoT messaging workloads.

IoT 中心度量值IoT Hub metrics

IoT 中心指标向用户提供有关 Azure 订阅中的 IoT 中心的状态数据。IoT Hub metrics give you data about the state of the IoT hubs in your Azure subscription. 可以使用 IoT 中心指标评估服务以及连接到服务的设备的总体运行状况。IoT Hub metrics enable you to assess the overall health of the service and the devices connected to it. IoT 中心指标可以帮助用户了解 IoT 中心发生的情况,并调查根本原因,而无需联系 Azure 支持部门。IoT Hub metrics can help you see what is going on with your IoT hub and investigate root-cause issues without needing to contact Azure support.

IoT 中心查询语言IoT Hub query language

IoT 中心查询语言是一种类似于 SQL 的语言,用于查询 和设备孪生。The IoT Hub query language is a SQL-like language that enables you to query your and device twins.

IoT 中心资源 REST APIIoT Hub Resource REST API

使用 IoT 中心资源 REST API,可以管理 Azure 订阅中的 IoT 中心,包括创建、更新和删除中心等操作。You can use the IoT Hub Resource REST API to manage the IoT hubs in your Azure subscription performing operations such as creating, updating, and deleting hubs.

IoT 解决方案加速器IoT solution accelerators

Azure IoT 解决方案加速器将多个 Azure 服务一起打包到解决方案中。Azure IoT solution accelerators package together multiple Azure services into solutions. 利用这些解决方案,能够快速开始使用常用 IoT 方案的端到端实现。These solutions enable you to get started quickly with end-to-end implementations of common IoT scenarios.

适用于 Azure CLI 的 IoT 扩展The IoT extension for Azure CLI

适用于 Azure CLI 的 IoT 扩展是一个跨平台的命令行工具。The IoT extension for Azure CLI is a cross-platform, command-line tool. 使用该工具可以管理 标识注册表中的设备、向设备发送消息和文件和接收来自设备的消息和文件,以及监视 IoT 中心的操作。The tool enables you to manage your devices in the identity registry, send and receive messages and files from your devices, and monitor your IoT hub operations.

作业Job

解决方案后端可以使用作业来计划和跟踪在 IoT 中心注册的一组设备上的活动。Your solution back end can use jobs to schedule and track activities on a set of devices registered with your IoT hub. 活动包括更新设备孪生所需的属性、更新设备孪生标记,以及调用直接方法Activities include updating device twin desired properties, updating device twin tags, and invoking direct methods. IoT 中心还用于在标识注册表导入和导出内容。IoT Hub also uses to import to and export from the identity registry.

模块Modules

在设备端,可以使用 IoT 中心设备 SDK 创建模块,其中每个模块都与 IoT 中心单独建立连接。On the device side, the IoT Hub device SDKs enable you to create modules where each one opens an independent connection to IoT Hub. 通过此功能,可对设备上的不同组件使用不同的命名空间。This functionality enables you to use separate namespaces for different components on your device.

模块标识和模块孪生提供的功能与设备标识设备孪生相同,但前者的粒度更细。Module identity and module twin provide the same capabilities as device identity and device twin but at a finer granularity. 这种更高的粒度级可让有能力的设备(例如基于操作系统的设备,或管理多个组件的固件设备)隔离其中每个组件的配置和状态。This finer granularity enables capable devices, such as operating system-based devices or firmware devices managing multiple components, to isolate configuration and conditions for each of those components.

模块标识Module identity

模块标识是分配给设备所属的每个模块的唯一标识符。The module identity is the unique identifier assigned to every module that belong to a device. 模块标识也注册到标识注册表中。Module identity is also registered in the identity registry.

模块孪生Module twin

与设备孪生类似,模块孪生是存储模块状态信息(如元数据、配置和条件)的 JSON 文档。Similar to device twin, a module twin is JSON document that stores module state information such as metadata, configurations, and conditions. IoT 中心为在 IoT 中心的设备标识下预配的每个模块实体保留一个模块孪生。IoT Hub persists a module twin for each module identity that you provision under a device identity in your IoT hub. 可以借助模块孪生在模块和解决方案后端之间同步模块条件和配置。Module twins enable you to synchronize module conditions and configurations between the module and the solution back end. 可以通过查询模块孪生来定位特定模块和查询长时间运行的操作状态。You can query module twins to locate specific modules and query the status of long-running operations.

MQTTMQTT

MQTTIoT 中心支持的与设备进行通信的消息传递协议之一。MQTT is one of the messaging protocols that IoT Hub supports for communicating with devices. 有关 IoT 中心支持的消息传递协议的详细信息,请参阅使用 IoT 中心发送和接收消息For more information about the messaging protocols that IoT Hub supports, see Send and receive messages with IoT Hub.

操作监视Operations monitoring

使用 IoT 中心操作监视可实时监视其 IoT 中心上的操作状态。IoT Hub operations monitoring enables you to monitor the status of operations on your IoT hub in real time. IoT 中心 可以跨多个类别的操作跟踪事件。IoT Hub tracks events across several categories of operations. 可以选择将一个或多个类别的事件发送到 IoT 中心终结点进行处理。You can opt into sending events from one or more categories to an IoT Hub endpoint for processing. 可以监视数据中是否有错误,或根据数据模式设置更复杂的处理行为。You can monitor the data for errors or set up more complex processing based on data patterns.

物理设备Physical device

物理设备是真实的设备,如连接到 IoT 中心的 Raspberry Pi。A physical device is a real device such as a Raspberry Pi that connects to an IoT hub. 为方便起见,许多 IoT 中心教程使用 模拟设备 ,以便在本地计算机上运行示例。For convenience, many of the IoT Hub tutorials use simulated devices to enable you to run samples on your local machine.

主要和次要密钥Primary and secondary keys

连接到 IoT 中心的面向设备或面向服务的终结点时, 连接字符串 包含密钥以授予用户访问权限。When you connect to a device-facing or service-facing endpoint on an IoT hub, your connection string includes key to grant you access. 标识注册表中添加设备或者在中心添加共享访问策略时,服务将生成主要和次要密钥。When you add a device to the identity registry or add a shared access policy to your hub, the service generates a primary and secondary key. 拥有两个密钥能够在更新密钥时从一个密钥切换到另一个密钥,而不丢失对 IoT 中心的访问。Having two keys enables you to roll over from one key to another when you update a key without losing access to the IoT hub.

协议网关Protocol gateway

协议网关通常部署在云中,为连接到 IoT 中心的设备提供协议转换服务。A protocol gateway is typically deployed in the cloud and provides protocol translation services for devices connecting to IoT Hub. 有关详细信息,请参阅什么是 Azure IoT 中心?For more information, see What is Azure IoT Hub?

配额和限制Quotas and throttling

各种配额可用于 IoT 中心,其中许多配额因所在的中心的层而异。There are various quotas that apply to your use of IoT Hub, many of the quotas vary based on the tier of the IoT hub. IoT 中心在运行时也对服务的使用实施一些限制IoT Hub also applies throttles to your use of the service at run time.

报告的配置Reported configuration

在与设备孪生相关的上下文中,报告的配置是指设备孪生中的完整属性和元数据集,该配置应报告给解决方案后端。In the context of a device twin, reported configuration refers to the complete set of properties and metadata in the device twin that should be reported to the solution back end.

报告的属性Reported properties

在与设备孪生相关的语境中,报告的属性是设备孪生的一部分,和所需属性一起用于同步设备配置或条件。In the context of a device twin, reported properties is a subsection of the device twin used with desired properties to synchronize device configuration or condition. 报告的属性只能由设备应用设置,可由后端应用读取和查询。Reported properties can only be set by the device app and can be read and queried by a back-end app.

资源组Resource group

Azure Resource Manager 使用资源组将相关的资源组合在一起。Azure Resource Manager uses resource groups to group related resources together. 通过使用资源组,可以对组中的所有资源同时执行操作。You can use a resource group to perform operations on all the resources on the group simultaneously.

重试策略Retry policy

连接到云服务时使用重试策略来处理暂时性错误You use a retry policy to handle transient errors when you connect to a cloud service.

路由规则Routing rules

需要在 IoT 中心配置路由规则,将设备到云消息路由到内置终结点自定义终结点,以供解决方案后端处理。You configure routing rules in your IoT hub to route device-to-cloud messages to a built-in endpoint or to custom endpoints for processing by your solution back end.

SASL PLAINSASL PLAIN

SASL PLAIN 是一种协议,AMQP 协议使用它来传输安全令牌。SASL PLAIN is a protocol that the AMQP protocol uses to transfer security tokens.

服务 REST APIService REST API

可以从解决方案后端使用服务 REST API 来管理设备。You can use the Service REST API from the solution back end to manage your devices. 使用 API,不仅可以检索和更新设备孪生属性,还能调用直接方法并安排作业The API enables you to retrieve and update device twin properties, invoke direct methods, and schedule jobs. 通常情况下,使用 IoT 中心教程中演示的一种较高级别的 服务 SDKTypically, you should use one of the higher-level service SDKs as shown in the IoT Hub tutorials.

共享访问签名Shared access signature

共享访问签名 (SAS) 是基于 SHA–256 安全哈希或 URI 的身份验证机制。Shared Access Signatures (SAS) are an authentication mechanism based on SHA-256 secure hashes or URIs. SAS 身份验证有两个组件:共享访问策略_和_共享访问签名(通常称为令牌)。SAS authentication has two components: a Shared Access Policy and a Shared Access Signature (often called a token). 设备使用 SAS 在 IoT 中心进行身份验证。A device uses SAS to authenticate with an IoT hub. 后端应用 也使用 SAS 在 IoT 中心的面向服务的终结点上进行身份验证。Back-end apps also use SAS to authenticate with the service-facing endpoints on an IoT hub. 通常,在 连接字符串 中包含 SAS 令牌,应用使用此令牌建立与 IoT 中心的连接。Typically, you include the SAS token in the connection string that an app uses to establish a connection to an IoT hub.

共享访问策略Shared access policy

共享访问策略定义向具有有效的 主要密钥或次要密钥 (与该策略相关联)的任何人授予的权限。A shared access policy defines the permissions granted to anyone who has a valid primary or secondary key associated with that policy. 用户可以在 门户中管理中心的共享访问策略和密钥。You can manage the shared access policies and keys for your hub in the portal.

模拟设备Simulated device

为方便起见,许多 IoT 中心教程使用模拟设备,以便在本地计算机上运行示例。For convenience, many of the IoT Hub tutorials use simulated devices to enable you to run samples on your local machine. 相反, 物理设备 是真实的设备,如连接到 IoT 中心的 Raspberry Pi。In contrast, a physical device is a real device such as a Raspberry Pi that connects to an IoT hub.

解决方案Solution

解决方案 可以是包含一个或多个项目的 Visual Studio 解决方案。A solution can refer to a Visual Studio solution that includes one or more projects. _解决方案_也可能是包括诸如设备、设备应用、IoT 中心、其他 Azure 服务和后端应用等元素的 IoT 解决方案。A solution might also refer to an IoT solution that includes elements such as devices, device apps, an IoT hub, other Azure services, and back-end apps.

订阅Subscription

Azure 订阅是发生计费的地方。An Azure subscription is where billing takes place. 用户创建的每个 Azure 资源或使用的 Azure 服务均与单个订阅关联。Each Azure resource you create or Azure service you use is associated with a single subscription. 许多配额也在订阅级别应用。Many quotas also apply at the level of a subscription.

系统属性System properties

在与设备孪生相关的语境中,系统属性为只读,其中包括与设备使用情况相关的信息,例如上次活动时间和连接状态。In the context of a device twin, system properties are read-only and include information regarding the device usage such as last activity time and connection state.

TagsTags

在与设备孪生相关的语境中,标记是指由解决方案后端以 JSON 文档形式存储和检索的设备元数据。In the context of a device twin, tags are device metadata stored and retrieved by the solution back end in the form of a JSON document. 标记对设备上的应用不可见。Tags are not visible to apps on a device.

遥测Telemetry

设备收集遥测数据,如风速或温度,并使用数据点消息将遥测数据发送到 IoT 中心。Devices collect telemetry data, such as wind speed or temperature, and use data-point messages to send the telemetry to an IoT hub.

令牌服务Token service

可以使用令牌服务对设备实施身份验证机制。You can use a token service to implement an authentication mechanism for your devices. 它使用包含 DeviceConnect 权限的 IoT 中心 共享访问策略 创建 设备范围的 令牌。It uses an IoT Hub shared access policy with DeviceConnect permissions to create device-scoped tokens. 这些令牌可让设备连接到 IoT 中心。These tokens enable a device to connect to your IoT hub. 设备通过令牌服务使用自定义的身份验证机制进行身份验证。A device uses a custom authentication mechanism to authenticate with the token service. 如果设备成功通过身份验证,那么令牌服务向设备颁发 SAS 令牌用于访问 IoT 中心。IF the device authenticates successfully, the token service issues a SAS token for the device to use to access your IoT hub.

孪生查询Twin queries

设备和模块孪生查询使用类似于 SQL 的 IoT 中心查询语言从设备孪生或模块孪生中检索信息。Device and module twin queries use the SQL-like IoT Hub query language to retrieve information from your device twins or module twins. 可以使用相同的 IoT 中心查询语言,检索在 IoT 中心内运行的 的相关信息。You can use the same IoT Hub query language to retrieve information about running in your IoT hub.

孪生同步Twin synchronization

孪生同步使用设备孪生或模块孪生中的所需属性配置设备或模块,并检索其中的报告属性,以将这些属性存储在孪生中。Twin synchronization uses the desired properties in your device twins or module twins to configure your devices or modules and retrieve reported properties from them to store in the twin.

X.509 客户端证书X.509 client certificate

设备可以使用 X.509 证书在 IoT 中心进行身份验证。A device can use an X.509 certificate to authenticate with IoT Hub. 使用 X.509 证书是使用 SAS 令牌的替代方案。Using an X.509 certificate is an alternative to using a SAS token.