常见问题:Azure 到 Azure 的灾难恢复Common questions: Azure-to-Azure disaster recovery

本文介绍了关于使用 Azure Site Recovery 将 Azure VM 灾难恢复到另一个 Azure 区域的常见问题解答。This article answers common questions about disaster recovery of Azure VMs to another Azure region for when you use Azure Site Recovery.

常规General

Site Recovery 如何计费?How is Site Recovery priced?

请查阅 VM 的 Azure Site Recovery 定价Review Azure Site Recovery pricing for VMs.

Azure Site Recovery 的免费层是如何工作的?How does the free tier for Azure Site Recovery work?

每个使用 Azure Site Recovery 保护的实例在其保护期的前 31 天内均享受免费。Every instance that is protected with Azure Site Recovery is free for the first 31 days of protection. 在此之后,对每个实例的保护将按 Azure 虚拟机的 Azure Site Recovery 定价中的费率进行收费。After that period, protection for each instance is at the rates in Azure Site Recovery pricing for Azure Virtual Machines.

在前 31 天的期限内,会产生其他 Azure 费用吗?During the first 31 days, will I incur any other Azure charges?

是的。Yes. 尽管 Azure Site Recovery 在实例受保护的前 31 天是免费的,但你可能需要支付 Azure 存储、存储交易和数据传输费用。Even though Azure Site Recovery is free during the first 31 days of a protected instance, you might incur charges for Azure Storage, storage transactions, and data transfers. 已恢复的虚拟机还可能会产生 Azure 计算费用。A recovered Virtual Machine might also incur Azure compute charges. 有关定价的完整详细信息,请访问 Azure Site Recovery 定价Get complete details on pricing at Azure Site Recovery pricing.

Azure 虚拟机灾难恢复的最佳做法是什么?What are the best practices for Azure Virtual Machines disaster recovery?

  1. 了解 Azure 到 Azure 体系结构Understand Azure-to-Azure architecture
  2. 查看支持和不支持的配置Review the supported and not-supported configurations
  3. 为 Azure VM 设置灾难恢复Set up disaster recovery for Azure VMs
  4. 运行测试故障转移Run a test failover
  5. 故障转移和故障回复到主要区域Fail over and fail back to the primary region

如何确保目标区域中的容量?How is capacity ensured in the target region?

Site Recovery 团队和 Azure 容量管理团队计划了足够的基础结构容量。The Site Recovery team and Azure capacity management team plan for sufficient infrastructure capacity. 如果你启动故障转移,这些团队还会帮助确保受 Site Recovery 保护的 VM 实例将部署到目标区域。When you start a failover, the teams also help ensure VM instances that are protected by Site Recovery will deploy to the target region.

复制Replication

是否可以复制通过 Azure 磁盘加密启用的 VM?Can I replicate VMs enabled through Azure disk encryption?

是的。Yes. Site Recovery 支持对已启用 Azure 磁盘加密的 VM 进行灾难恢复。Site Recovery supports disaster recovery of VMs that have Azure Disk Encryption enabled. 如果你启用复制,Azure 会将源区域中所有必需的磁盘加密密钥和机密复制到用户上下文中的目标区域。When you enable replication, Azure copies all the required disk encryption keys and secrets from the source region to the target region in the user context. 如果你没有适当的权限,安全管理员可以使用脚本来复制密钥和机密。If you don't have the appropriate permissions, your security administrator can use a script to copy the keys and secrets.

  • Site Recovery 支持对运行 Windows 的 Azure VM 使用 Azure 磁盘加密。Site Recovery supports Azure Disk Encryption for Azure VMs that are running Windows.
  • Site Recovery 支持 Azure 磁盘加密版本 0.1,此版本的架构需要 Azure Active Directory (Azure AD)。Site Recovery supports Azure Disk Encryption version 0.1, which has a schema that requires Azure Active Directory (Azure AD). Site Recovery 还支持不需要 Azure AD 的版本 1.1。Site Recovery also supports version 1.1, which doesn't require Azure AD. 详细了解 Azure 磁盘加密的扩展架构Learn more about the extension schema for Azure disk encryption.
    • 对于 Azure 磁盘加密版本 1.1,必须使用包含托管磁盘的 Windows VM。For Azure Disk Encryption version 1.1, you have to use the Windows VMs with managed disks.
    • 详细了解如何为加密 VM 启用复制。Learn more about enabling replication for encrypted VMs.

是否可以从不同的资源组中选择自动化帐户?Can I select an Automation account from a different resource group?

此功能目前不受门户支持,但你可以通过 Powershell 从不同的资源组中选择自动化帐户。This is currently not supported via portal but you can choose an Automation account from a different resource group via Powershell.

指定与保管库位于不同资源组中的自动化帐户后,如果没有其他要指定的保管库,是否允许我删除 runbook?After specifying an Automation account that is in a different resource group than the vault, am I permitted to delete the runbook if there is no other vault to specify?

创建的自定义 runbook 是一个工具,如果不再需要它,则可以放心地删除它。The custom runbook created is a tool and it's safe to delete if the same is longer not required.

是否可将 VM 复制到另一个订阅?Can I replicate VMs to another subscription?

是的,可将 Azure VM 复制到同一 Azure AD 租户中的不同订阅。Yes, you can replicate Azure VMs to a different subscription within the same Azure AD tenant.

通过在复制时选择另一个订阅,配置跨订阅灾难恢复。Configure disaster recovery across subscriptions by selecting another subscription at the time of replication.

是否可将区域固定的 Azure VM 复制到另一个区域?Can I replicate zone-pinned Azure VMs to another region?

是的,可将区域固定的 VM 复制到另一个区域。Yes, you can replicate zone-pinned VMs to another region.

是否可以排除磁盘?Can I exclude disks?

是的,可以在保护时使用 PowerShell 排除磁盘。Yes, you can exclude disks at the time of protection by using PowerShell. 有关详细信息,请参阅如何从复制中排除磁盘For more information, see how to exclude disks from replication.

能否向已复制 VM 添加新磁盘,并为这些磁盘启用复制?Can I add new disks to replicated VMs and enable replication for them?

能,包含托管磁盘的 Azure VM 支持向已复制 VM 添加新磁盘,并为这些磁盘启用复制。Yes, adding new disks to replicated VMs and enabling replication for them is supported for Azure VMs with managed disks. 如果你将新磁盘添加到已启用复制的 Azure VM,VM 的复制运行状况会显示警告。When you add a new disk to an Azure VM that's enabled for replication, replication health for the VM shows a warning. 此警告指明可保护 VM 上的一个或多个磁盘。That warning states that one or more disks on the VM are available for protection. 可以为添加的磁盘启用复制。You can enable replication for added disks.

  • 如果为添加的磁盘启用保护,此警告就会在初始复制后消失。If you enable protection for the added disks, the warning will disappear after the initial replication.
  • 如果没有为磁盘启用复制,可以消除警告。If you don't enable replication for the disk, you can dismiss the warning.
  • 如果对已添加磁盘且已启用复制的 VM 进行故障转移,则存在复制点。If you fail over a VM that has an added disk and replication enabled, there are replication points. 复制点显示可供恢复的磁盘。The replication points will show the disks that are available for recovery.

例如,假设 VM 有一个磁盘,你又添加了一个新磁盘。For example, let's say a VM has a single disk and you add a new one. 可能有一个复制点是在你添加磁盘之前创建的。There might be a replication point that was created before you added the disk. 此复制点显示它由“2 个磁盘中的 1 个”组成。This replication point will show that it consists of "1 of 2 disks."

Site Recovery 不支持从已复制 VM 中“热删除”磁盘。Site Recovery doesn't support "hot remove" of a disk from a replicated VM. 如果删除 VM 磁盘,则需要先为 VM 禁用复制,再重新启用它。If you remove a VM disk, you need to disable and then re-enable replication for the VM.

可以多久复制到 Azure 一次?How often can I replicate to Azure?

将 Azure VM 复制到另一个 Azure 区域时,复制是持续性的。Replication is continuous when you're replicating Azure VMs to another Azure region. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 到 Azure 复制体系结构For more information, see the Azure-to-Azure replication architecture.

是否可以在某个区域中复制虚拟机?Can I replicate virtual machines within a region? 我需要此功能来迁移 VM。I need this functionality to migrate VMs.

无法使用 Azure 到 Azure 磁盘恢复解决方案在一个区域内复制 VM。You can't use an Azure-to-Azure disk recovery solution to replicate VMs within a region.

能否将 VM 实例复制到任意 Azure 区域?Can I replicate VM instances to any Azure region?

使用 Site Recovery,可以在同一个地理群集中的任意两个区域之间复制和恢复 VM。By using Site Recovery, you can replicate and recover VMs between any two regions within the same geographic cluster. 地理群集的定义考虑到了数据延迟和主权。Geographic clusters are defined with data latency and sovereignty in mind. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Site Recovery 的区域支持矩阵For more information, see the Site Recovery region support matrix.

Site Recovery 需要建立 Internet 连接?Does Site Recovery require internet connectivity?

否,Site Recovery 不需要连接到 Internet。No, Site Recovery doesn't require internet connectivity. 但它需要能够访问 Site Recovery URL 和 IP 范围,如 Azure VM 灾难恢复中的网络中所述。But it does require access to Site Recovery URLs and IP ranges, as mentioned in networking in Azure VM disaster recovery.

能否复制对各个层有不同资源组的应用?Can I replicate an application that has a separate resource group for separate tiers?

能,可以复制应用,且灾难恢复配置也保留在单独的资源组中。Yes, you can replicate the application and keep the disaster recovery configuration in a separate resource group too.

例如,如果应用将每一层的应用、数据库和 Web 放置在不同的资源组中,那么你必须选择复制向导三次,才能保护所有层。For example, if your application has each tier's application, database, and web in a separate resource group, then you have to select the replication wizard three times to protect all the tiers. Site Recovery 会将这三个层复制到三个不同的资源组中。Site Recovery will replicate these three tiers into three different resource groups.

能否跨资源组移动存储帐户?Can I move storage accounts across resource groups?

否,此方案不受支持。No, this is an unsupported scenario. 不过,如果你意外地将存储帐户移到不同的资源组,并删除了原始资源组,则可以新建一个与旧资源组同名的资源组,然后将存储帐户移到此资源组中。However, if you accidentally move storage accounts to a different resource group and delete the original resource group, then you can create a new resource group with the same name as the old resource group and then move the storage account to this resource group.

复制策略Replication policy

什么是复制策略?What is a replication policy?

复制策略定义了恢复点的保留历史记录设置。A replication policy defines the settings for the retention history of recovery points. 此策略还定义了应用一致性快照的频率。The policy also defines the frequency of app-consistent snapshots. 默认情况下,Azure Site Recovery 使用以下默认设置创建新的复制策略:By default, Azure Site Recovery creates a new replication policy with default settings of:

  • 恢复点历史记录的保留期为 24 小时。24 hours for the retention history of recovery points.
  • 应用一致性快照的频率为 60 分钟。60 minutes for the frequency of app-consistent snapshots.

详细了解复制设置Learn more about replication settings.

什么是崩溃一致性恢复点?What is a crash-consistent recovery point?

故障一致性恢复点包含,与在快照期间从服务器拔下电源线时一样的磁盘上数据。A crash-consistent recovery point has the on-disk data as if you pulled the power cord from the server during the snapshot. 故障一致性恢复点不包含在拍摄快照时的任何内存中数据。The crash-consistent recovery point doesn't include anything that was in memory when the snapshot was taken.

目前,大多数应用程序都可以从崩溃一致性快照正常恢复。Today, most applications can recover well from crash-consistent snapshots. 对于无数据库的操作系统以及文件服务器、DHCP 服务器、打印服务器等应用程序而言,崩溃一致性恢复点通常已足够。A crash-consistent recovery point is usually enough for no-database operating systems and applications like file servers, DHCP servers, and print servers.

崩溃一致性恢复点生成的频率是多少?What is the frequency of crash-consistent recovery point generation?

Site Recovery 每隔 5 分钟创建崩溃一致性恢复点。Site Recovery creates a crash-consistent recovery point every 5 minutes.

什么是应用程序一致性恢复点?What is an application-consistent recovery point?

应用程序一致性恢复点是从应用程序一致性快照创建的。Application-consistent recovery points are created from application-consistent snapshots. 应用一致性恢复点除了捕获与故障一致性快照相同的数据,还捕获内存中数据以及进程中的所有事务。Application-consistent recovery points capture the same data as crash-consistent snapshots while also capturing data in memory and all transactions in process.

由于包含额外内容,因此应用一致性快照涉及最多且耗时最长。Because of their extra content, application-consistent snapshots are the most involved and take the longest. 我们建议对数据库操作系统以及 SQL Server 等应用程序使用应用程序一致性恢复点。We recommend application-consistent recovery points for database operating systems and applications such as SQL Server.

应用程序一致性恢复点对应用程序性能有何影响?What is the impact of application-consistent recovery points on application performance?

应用一致性恢复点捕获内存中和进程中的所有数据。Application-consistent recovery points capture all the data in memory and in process. 因为恢复点捕获此类数据,所以它们需要 Windows 上的卷影复制服务等框架来让应用处于静止状态。Because recovery points capture that data, they require framework like Volume Shadow Copy Service on Windows to quiesce the application. 如果捕获过程频繁发生,当工作负荷已经很忙时,它可能会影响性能。If the capturing process is frequent, it can affect performance when the workload is already busy. 对于非数据库工作负荷,建议不要对应用一致性恢复点使用低频率。We don't recommend that you use low frequency for app-consistent recovery points for non-database workloads. 即使对于数据库工作负荷,1 小时也足够了。Even for database workload, 1 hour is enough.

应用程序一致性恢复点生成的最低频率是多少?What is the minimum frequency of application-consistent recovery point generation?

Site Recovery 可以创建最低频率为 1 小时的应用一致性恢复点。Site Recovery can create an application-consistent recovery point with a minimum frequency of 1 hour.

如何生成和保存恢复点?How are recovery points generated and saved?

为了理解 Site Recovery 如何生成恢复点,让我们来看一个复制策略示例。To understand how Site Recovery generates recovery points, let's see an example of a replication policy. 此复制策略有一个恢复点,它的保留期为 24 小时,应用一致性快照频率为 1 小时。This replication policy has a recovery point with a 24-hour retention window and an app-consistent frequency snapshot of 1 hour.

Site Recovery 每隔 5 分钟创建崩溃一致性恢复点。Site Recovery creates a crash-consistent recovery point every 5 minutes. 你无法更改此频率。You can't change this frequency. 对于过去一个小时,你可以从 12 个故障一致性恢复点和 1 个应用一致性恢复点中进行选择。For the last hour, you can choose from 12 crash-consistent points and 1 app-consistent point. 随着时间的推移,Site Recovery 会删除过去一个小时之外的所有恢复点,并且每小时只保存 1 个恢复点。As time progresses, Site Recovery prunes all the recovery points beyond the last hour and saves only 1 recovery point per hour.

以下屏幕截图演示了该示例。The following screenshot illustrates the example. 在屏幕截图中:In the screenshot:

  • 在过去一个小时内,有一些频率为 5 分钟的恢复点。Within the past hour, there are recovery points with a frequency of 5 minutes.

  • 在过去一个小时之外,Site Recovery 只保留 1 个恢复点。Beyond the past hour, Site Recovery keeps only 1 recovery point.

    生成的恢复点列表

可以恢复到哪个最早的时间点?How far back can I recover?

可以使用的最早恢复点是 72 小时。The oldest recovery point that you can use is 72 hours.

我有保留期为 24 小时的复制策略。I have a replication policy of 24 hours. 如果某个问题导致 Site Recovery 超过 24 小时无法生成恢复点,将会怎样?What will happen if a problem prevents Site Recovery from generating recovery points for more than 24 hours? 以前的恢复点是否将丢失?Will my previous recovery points be lost?

不会,Site Recovery 将保留以前的所有恢复点。No, Site Recovery will keep all your previous recovery points. 根据恢复点的保留期,Site Recovery 仅在生成新点时才替换最早的点。Depending on the recovery points' retention window, Site Recovery replaces the oldest point only if it generates new points. 由于此问题,Site Recovery 无法生成任何新的恢复点。Because of the problem, Site Recovery can't generate any new recovery points. 在有新的恢复点之前,所有旧的恢复点都将在到达保留期后保留。Until there are new recovery points, all the old points will remain after you reach the window of retention.

在 VM 上启用复制后,如何更改复制策略?After replication is enabled on a VM, how do I change the replication policy?

转到“Site Recovery 保管库” > “Site Recovery 基础结构” > “复制策略”。 Go to Site Recovery Vault > Site Recovery Infrastructure > Replication policies. 选择要编辑的策略,然后保存所做的更改。Select the policy that you want to edit, and save the changes. 任何更改也会应用到现有的所有复制。Any change will apply to all the existing replications too.

所有恢复点是包含 VM 的完整副本还是差异副本?Are all the recovery points a complete copy of the VM or a differential?

生成的第一个恢复点包含完整副本。The first recovery point that's generated has the complete copy. 任何后续恢复点包含增量更改。Any successive recovery points have delta changes.

增大恢复点保留期是否会增加存储成本?Does increasing the retention period of recovery points increase the storage cost?

是的。Yes. 如果将保留期从 24 小时增大到 72 小时,则 Site Recovery 将保存额外 48 小时的恢复点。If you increase the retention period from 24 hours to 72 hours, Site Recovery will save the recovery points for an additional 48 hours. 增加的时间会产生存储费用。The added time will incur storage charges.

能否在 Linux 服务器中启用应用一致性复制?Can I enable replication with app-consistency in Linux servers?

是的。Yes. 适用于 Linux 操作系统的 Azure Site Recovery 支持通过应用程序自定义脚本实现应用一致性。Azure Site Recovery for Linux Operation System supports application custom scripts for app-consistency. 在保障应用一致性时,Azure Site Recovery 移动代理将使用带有 pre 和 post 选项的自定义脚本。The custom script with pre and post-options will be used by the Azure Site Recovery Mobility Agent during app-consistency. 了解详细信息Learn more

多 VM 一致性Multi-VM consistency

什么是多 VM 一致性?What is multi-VM consistency?

多 VM 一致性可以确保恢复点在所有已复制虚拟机之间保持一致。Multi-VM consistency ensures that the recovery point is consistent across all the replicated virtual machines.

Site Recovery 提供了“多 VM 一致性”选项,用于创建所有虚拟机的复制组。Site Recovery provides a Multi-VM consistency option, which creates a replication group of all the machines.

如果你对虚拟机进行故障转移,它们会共用故障一致性恢复点和应用一致性恢复点。When you fail over the virtual machines, they'll have shared crash-consistent and app-consistent recovery points.

请阅读关于如何启用多 VM 一致性的整个教程。Go through the tutorial to enable multi-VM consistency.

能否对多 VM 一致性复制组中的单个虚拟机进行故障转移?Can I fail over a single virtual machine within a multi-VM consistency replication group?

选择“多 VM 一致性”选项即表明应用依赖于组中的所有虚拟机。When you select the Multi-VM consistency option, you're stating that the application has a dependency on all the virtual machines within a group. 不允许对单个虚拟机进行故障转移。Single virtual machine failover isn't allowed.

可以在多 VM 一致性复制组中复制多少个虚拟机?How many virtual machines can I replicate as a part of a multi-VM consistency replication group?

在一个复制组中,可以一同复制 16 个虚拟机。You can replicate 16 virtual machines together in a replication group.

何时应启用多 VM 一致性?When should I enable multi-VM consistency?

由于多 VM 一致性占用大量 CPU 资源,启用它可能会影响工作负荷性能。Because multi-VM consistency is CPU intensive, enabling it can affect workload performance. 只有在虚拟机运行相同的工作负荷,且你需要在多个虚拟机之间保持一致性时,才使用多 VM 一致性。Use multi-VM consistency only if machines are running the same workload and you need consistency across multiple machines. 例如,如果一个应用中有两个 SQL Server 实例和两个 Web 服务器,只应为 SQL Server 实例启用多 VM 一致性。For example, if you have two SQL Server instances and two web servers in an application, you should have multi-VM consistency for the SQL Server instances only.

能否将已复制 VM 添加到复制组?Can you add an already replicating VM to a replication group?

可以将 VM 添加到新的复制组,同时启用复制。You can add a VM to a new replication group while enabling replication. 还可以将 VM 添加到现有的复制组,同时启用复制。You can also add a VM to an existing replication group while enabling replication. 但是,不能将已在复制的 VM 添加到新的或现有的复制组。However, you cannot add an already replicating VM to a new replication group or existing replication group.

故障转移Failover

如何确保 Azure VM 的目标区域中的容量?How is capacity ensured in the target region for Azure VMs?

Site Recovery 团队和 Azure 容量管理团队计划了足够的基础结构容量。The Site Recovery team and Azure capacity management team plan for sufficient infrastructure capacity. 如果你启动故障转移,这些团队还会帮助确保受 Site Recovery 保护的 VM 实例将部署到目标区域。When you start a failover, the teams also help ensure VM instances that are protected by Site Recovery will deploy to the target region.

故障转移是自动发生的吗?Is failover automatic?

故障转移不是自动的。Failover isn't automatic. 可以在门户中单击一下来启动故障转移,也可以使用 PowerShell 来触发故障转移。You can start failovers with a single click in the portal, or you can use PowerShell to trigger a failover.

能否在故障转移后保留公共 IP 地址?Can I keep a public IP address after a failover?

在故障转移后,无法保留生产应用的公共 IP 地址。You can't keep the public IP address of the production application after a failover.

在故障转移过程中启动工作负荷时,需要向工作负荷分配 Azure 公共 IP 资源。When you bring up a workload as part of the failover process, you need to assign an Azure public IP resource to the workload. Azure 公共 IP 资源必须在目标区域中可用。The Azure public IP resource has to be available in the target region. 可以手动分配 Azure 公共 IP 资源,也可以使用恢复计划来自动分配。You can assign the Azure public IP resource manually, or you can automate it with a recovery plan. 了解如何在故障转移后设置公共 IP 地址Learn how to set up public IP addresses after failover.

能否在故障转移期间保留专用 IP 地址?Can I keep a private IP address during a failover?

能,可以保留专用 IP 地址。Yes, you can keep a private IP address. 默认情况下,为 Azure VM 启动灾难恢复时,Site Recovery 将根据源资源设置创建目标资源。By default, when you enable disaster recovery for Azure VMs, Site Recovery creates target resources based on source resource settings. 对于配置有静态 IP 地址的 Azure 虚拟机,Site Recovery 会尝试为没有使用的目标 VM 预配相同的 IP 地址。For Azure Virtual Machines configured with static IP addresses, Site Recovery tries to provision the same IP address for the target VM if it's not in use. 了解如何在故障转移期间保留 IP 地址Learn about keeping IP addresses during failover.

为什么在故障转移后要向服务器分配新的 IP 地址?After a failover, why is the server assigned a new IP address?

故障转移时,Site Recovery 会尽量提供 IP 地址。Site Recovery tries to provide the IP address at the time of failover. 如果该地址被另一个虚拟机占用,则 Site Recovery 会将下一个可用 IP 地址设为目标。If another virtual machine is taking that address, Site Recovery sets the next available IP address as the target.

详细了解如何设置虚拟网络的网络映射和 IP 地址Learn more about setting up network mapping and IP addressing for virtual networks.

什么是最新(最低 RPO) 恢复点?What are Latest (lowest RPO) recovery points?

“最新(最低 RPO)”选项先处理已发送到 Site Recovery 的所有数据。The Latest (lowest RPO) option first processes all the data that has been sent to the Site Recovery. 在处理数据后,服务会在故障转移到 VM 之前为每个 VM 创建一个恢复点。After the service processes the data, it creates a recovery point for each VM before failing over to the VM. 此选项提供了最低恢复点目标 (RPO)。This option provides the lowest recovery point objective (RPO). 在故障转移后创建的 VM 包含自故障转移触发起复制到 Site Recovery 的所有数据。The VM created after failover has all the data replicated to Site Recovery from when the failover was triggered.

最新(最低 RPO) 恢复点是否影响故障转移 RTO?Do Latest (lowest RPO) recovery points have an impact on failover RTO?

是的。Yes. 因为 Site Recovery 在故障转移之前处理所有挂起的数据,所以此选项的恢复时间目标 (RTO) 比其他选项更高。Site Recovery processes all pending data before failing over, so this option has a higher recovery time objective (RTO) compared to other options.

恢复点中的“最新处理”选项指的是什么?What does the Latest processed option in recovery points mean?

“最新处理”选项将计划中的所有 VM 故障转移到 Site Recovery 处理的最新恢复点。The Latest processed option fails over all VMs in the plan to the latest recovery point that Site Recovery processed. 若要查看特定 VM 的最新恢复点,请检查 VM 设置中的“最新恢复点”。To see the latest recovery point for a specific VM, check Latest Recovery Points in the VM settings. 此选项提供低的 RTO,因为无需费时处理未经处理的数据。This option provides a low RTO, because no time is spent processing unprocessed data.

如果主要区域遇到意外故障,会怎么样?What happens if my primary region experiences an unexpected outage?

可以在服务中断后触发故障转移。You can trigger a failover after the outage. Site Recovery 不需要从主要区域进行连接,即可执行故障转移。Site Recovery doesn't need connectivity from the primary region to do the failover.

VM 故障转移的 RTO 是什么?What is an RTO of a VM failover?

Site Recovery 的 RTO SLA 为 2 小时Site Recovery has an RTO SLA of 2 hours. 不过,在大多数情况下,Site Recovery 在几分钟内即可对虚拟机进行故障转移。However, most of the time, Site Recovery fails over virtual machines within minutes. 可以通过转到故障转移作业来计算 RTO,此作业显示了启动 VM 所需的时间。You can calculate the RTO by going to the failover jobs, which show the time it took to bring up the VM. 有关恢复计划 RTO,请参考下一部分。For Recovery plan RTO, refer to the next section.

恢复计划Recovery plans

什么是恢复计划?What is a recovery plan?

Site Recovery 中的恢复计划可以协调 VM 的故障转移恢复。A recovery plan in Site Recovery orchestrates the failover recovery of VMs. 它有助于实现恢复的一致准确性、可重复性和自动化。It helps make the recovery consistently accurate, repeatable, and automated. 恢复计划要满足以下需求:A recovery plan addresses the following needs:

  • 定义一组可以一起故障转移的虚拟机Defining a group of virtual machines that fail over together
  • 定义虚拟机之间的依赖关系,使应用程序能够适时启动Defining the dependencies between virtual machines so that the application comes up accurately
  • 自动完成恢复以及自定义的手动操作,以便除虚拟机故障转移以外,还可以实现其他任务Automating the recovery along with custom manual actions to achieve tasks other than the failover of virtual machines

详细了解如何创建恢复计划Learn more about creating recovery plans.

如何在恢复计划中实现定序?How is sequencing achieved in a recovery plan?

在恢复计划中,可以创建多个组来实现定序。In a recovery plan, you can create multiple groups to achieve sequencing. 每次故障转移一个组。Every group fails over at one time. 同一个组中的虚拟机一起进行故障转移,然后进行另一个组的故障转移。Virtual machines that are part of the same group fail over together, followed by another group. 若要了解如何使用恢复计划为应用程序建模,请参阅关于恢复计划To learn how to model an application by using a recovery plan, see About recovery plans.

如何找到恢复计划的 RTO?How can I find the RTO of a recovery plan?

若要检查恢复计划的 RTO,请对恢复计划执行测试故障转移,然后转到“Site Recovery 作业”。To check the RTO of a recovery plan, do a test failover for the recovery plan and go to Site Recovery jobs. 在下面的示例中,查看作业“SAPTestRecoveryPla”n。In the following example, see the job SAPTestRecoveryPlan. 此作业花费了 8 分钟 59 秒来故障转移所有虚拟机,并执行指定的操作。The job took 8 minutes and 59 seconds to fail over all the virtual machines and do specified actions.

Site Recovery 作业列表

是否可将自动化 Runbook 添加到恢复计划?Can I add automation runbooks to the recovery plan?

是的,可将 Azure 自动化 Runbook 集成到恢复计划中。Yes, you can integrate Azure Automation runbooks into your recovery plan. 详细了解如何添加 Azure 自动化 RunbookLearn more about adding Azure Automation runbooks.

重新保护和故障回复Reprotection and failback

我从主要区域故障转移到了灾难恢复区域。I failed over from the primary region to a disaster recovery region. DR 区域中的 VM 是否自动受到保护?Are VMs in a DR region protected automatically?

否。No. 将 Azure VM 从一个区域故障转移到另一个区域后,VM 将在灾难恢复区域中启动,但处于不受保护状态。When you fail over Azure VMs from one region to another, the VMs start up in the DR region in an unprotected state. 若要将 VM 故障回复到主要区域,需要重新保护次要区域中的 VM。To fail back the VMs to the primary region, you need to reprotect the VMs in the secondary region.

重新保护时,Site Recovery 是否将完整的数据从次要区域复制到主要区域?At the time of reprotection, does Site Recovery replicate complete data from the secondary region to the primary region?

这取决于具体的情况。It depends on the situation. 如果源区域 VM 存在,那么只同步源磁盘与目标磁盘之间的更改。If the source region VM exists, then only changes between the source disk and the target disk are synchronized. Site Recovery 将通过比较磁盘来计算差异,然后传输数据。Site Recovery computes the differentials by comparing the disks, and then it transfers the data. 此过程通常需要几个小时。This process usually takes a few hours. 若要详细了解重新保护期间所发生的情况,请参阅在主要区域中重新保护已故障转移的 Azure VM 实例For more information about what happens during reprotection, see Reprotect failed over Azure VM instances to the primary region.

故障回复需要多长时间?How much time does it take to fail back?

完成重新保护后,故障回复所需的时间类似于从主要区域故障转移到次要区域所需的时间。After reprotection, failback takes about the same amount of time it takes to fail over from the primary region to a secondary region.

容量Capacity

如何确保 Azure VM 在目标区域的容量?How is capacity ensured in the target region for Azure VMs?

Site Recovery 团队和 Azure 容量管理团队计划了足够的基础结构容量。The Site Recovery team and Azure capacity management team plan for sufficient infrastructure capacity. 启动故障转移时,团队还会帮助确保将受 Site Recovery 保护的 VM 实例部署到目标区域。When you start a failover, the teams also help ensure VM instances that are protected by Site Recovery will deploy to the target region.

安全性Security

复制数据是否会发送到 Site Recovery 服务?Is replication data sent to the Site Recovery service?

否。Site Recovery 不会截获已复制数据,也不包含 VM 上运行的组件的任何相关信息。No, Site Recovery doesn't intercept replicated data, and it doesn't have any information about what's running on your VMs. 只有协调复制与故障转移所需的元数据将发送到站点恢复服务。Only the metadata needed to orchestrate replication and failover is sent to the Site Recovery service.

Site Recovery 获得了 ISO 27001:2013、27018、HIPAA 和 DPA 认证。Site Recovery is ISO 27001:2013, 27018, HIPAA, and DPA certified. 此服务正在接受 SOC2 和 FedRAMP JAB 评估。The service is undergoing SOC2 and FedRAMP JAB assessments.

站点恢复是否将复制数据加密?Does Site Recovery encrypt replication?

是,Azure 中的传输中加密和静态加密均受支持。Yes, both encryption in transit and encryption at rest in Azure are supported.

后续步骤Next steps