常见问题:Azure 到 Azure 的灾难恢复Common questions: Azure-to-Azure disaster recovery

本文解答有关使用 Azure Site Recovery 将 Azure VM 灾难恢复到另一 Azure 区域的常见问题。This article answers common questions about disaster recovery of Azure VMs to another Azure region for when you use Azure Site Recovery.

常规General

Site Recovery 如何计费?How is Site Recovery priced?

请查看 VM 的 Azure Site Recovery 定价Review Azure Site Recovery pricing for VMs.

Azure Site Recovery 的免费层是如何工作的?How does the free tier for Azure Site Recovery work?

每个使用 Azure Site Recovery 保护的实例在其保护期的前 31 天内均享受免费。Every instance that is protected with Azure Site Recovery is free for the first 31 days of protection. 在这段时间后,对每个实例的保护将按 Azure 虚拟机的 Azure Site Recovery 定价计费。After that period, protection for each instance is at the rates in Azure Site Recovery pricing for Azure Virtual Machines.

在前 31 天的期限内,会产生其他 Azure 费用吗?During the first 31 days, will I incur any other Azure charges?

是的。Yes. 尽管受保护实例的 Azure Site Recovery 在前 31 天内为免费,但你可能会产生 Azure 存储器、存储事务和数据传输的费用。Even though Azure Site Recovery is free during the first 31 days of a protected instance, you might incur charges for Azure Storage, storage transactions, and data transfers. 恢复后的虚拟机也可能会产生 Azure 计算费用。A recovered Virtual Machine might also incur Azure compute charges. Azure Site Recovery 定价中提供了有关定价的完整详细信息。Get complete details on pricing at Azure Site Recovery pricing.

Azure 虚拟机灾难恢复的最佳做法是什么?What are the best practices for Azure Virtual Machines disaster recovery?

  1. 了解 Azure 到 Azure 体系结构Understand Azure-to-Azure architecture
  2. 查看支持和不支持的配置Review the supported and not-supported configurations
  3. 为 Azure VM 设置灾难恢复Set up disaster recovery for Azure VMs
  4. 运行测试故障转移Run a test failover
  5. 故障转移和故障回复到主要区域Fail over and fail back to the primary region

如何确保目标区域的容量?How is capacity ensured in the target region?

Site Recovery 团队和 Azure 容量管理团队规划了足够的基础结构容量。The Site Recovery team and Azure capacity management team plan for sufficient infrastructure capacity. 启动故障转移时,团队还会帮助确保将受 Site Recovery 保护的 VM 实例部署到目标区域。When you start a failover, the teams also help ensure VM instances that are protected by Site Recovery will deploy to the target region.

复制Replication

是否可以复制通过 Azure 磁盘加密启用的 VM?Can I replicate VMs enabled through Azure disk encryption?

是的。Yes. Site Recovery 支持已启用 Azure 磁盘加密的 VM 的灾难恢复。Site Recovery supports disaster recovery of VMs that have Azure Disk Encryption enabled. 启用复制后,Azure 会将所有必需的磁盘加密密钥和机密从用户上下文中的源区域复制到目标区域。When you enable replication, Azure copies all the required disk encryption keys and secrets from the source region to the target region in the user context. 如果你没有相应权限,则安全管理员可以使用脚本来复制密钥和机密。If you don't have the appropriate permissions, your security administrator can use a script to copy the keys and secrets.

  • 运行 Windows 的 Azure VM,Site Recovery 支持 Azure 磁盘加密。Site Recovery supports Azure Disk Encryption for Azure VMs that are running Windows.
  • Site Recovery 支持 Azure 磁盘加密版本 0.1(包含需要 Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) 的架构)。Site Recovery supports Azure Disk Encryption version 0.1, which has a schema that requires Azure Active Directory (Azure AD). Site Recovery 还支持版本 1.1(不需要 Azure AD)。Site Recovery also supports version 1.1, which doesn't require Azure AD. 详细了解 Azure 磁盘加密的扩展架构Learn more about the extension schema for Azure disk encryption.
    • 对于 Azure 磁盘加密版本 1.1,你必须使用带有托管磁盘的 Windows VM。For Azure Disk Encryption version 1.1, you have to use the Windows VMs with managed disks.
    • 详细了解如何为加密 VM 启用复制。Learn more about enabling replication for encrypted VMs.

是否可将 VM 复制到另一个订阅?Can I replicate VMs to another subscription?

是的,可将 Azure VM 复制到同一 Azure AD 租户中的不同订阅。Yes, you can replicate Azure VMs to a different subscription within the same Azure AD tenant.

在复制时选择另一个订阅,即可配置跨订阅的灾难恢复。Configure disaster recovery across subscriptions by selecting another subscription at the time of replication.

是否可将区域固定的 Azure VM 复制到另一个区域?Can I replicate zone-pinned Azure VMs to another region?

是的,可将区域固定的 VM 复制到另一个区域。Yes, you can replicate zone-pinned VMs to another region.

是否可以排除磁盘?Can I exclude disks?

是的,可以在保护时使用 PowerShell 排除磁盘。Yes, you can exclude disks at the time of protection by using PowerShell. 有关详细信息,请参阅如何从复制中排除磁盘For more information, see how to exclude disks from replication.

是否可以向复制的 VM 添加新磁盘并为这些磁盘启用复制?Can I add new disks to replicated VMs and enable replication for them?

是。包含托管磁盘的 Azure VM 支持将新磁盘添加到复制的 VM 并为其启用复制。Yes, adding new disks to replicated VMs and enabling replication for them is supported for Azure VMs with managed disks. 将新磁盘添加到已启用复制的 Azure VM 时,该 VM 的复制运行状况将显示警告。When you add a new disk to an Azure VM that's enabled for replication, replication health for the VM shows a warning. 该警告指出可以保护 VM 上的一个或多个磁盘。That warning states that one or more disks on the VM are available for protection. 可以为添加的磁盘启用复制。You can enable replication for added disks.

  • 如果为添加的磁盘启用保护,此警告会在初始复制后消失。If you enable protection for the added disks, the warning will disappear after the initial replication.
  • 如果没有为磁盘启用复制,则可以消除警告。If you don't enable replication for the disk, you can dismiss the warning.
  • 如果故障转移某个添加了磁盘并启用了复制的 VM,则会创建复制点。If you fail over a VM that has an added disk and replication enabled, there are replication points. 复制点将显示可恢复的磁盘。The replication points will show the disks that are available for recovery.

例如,假设某个 VM 最初包含单个磁盘,后来你添加了一个新磁盘。For example, let's say a VM has a single disk and you add a new one. 在添加该磁盘之前可能已创建了一个复制点。There might be a replication point that was created before you added the disk. 此复制点将显示 VM 包括“1 个磁盘,共 2 个”。This replication point will show that it consists of "1 of 2 disks."

Site Recovery 不支持将磁盘从复制的 VM 中“热删除”。Site Recovery doesn't support "hot remove" of a disk from a replicated VM. 如果删除某个 VM 磁盘,则需先禁用该 VM 的复制,然后为其重新启用复制。If you remove a VM disk, you need to disable and then re-enable replication for the VM.

可以多久复制到 Azure 一次?How often can I replicate to Azure?

将 Azure VM 复制到另一个 Azure 区域时,复制是持续性的。Replication is continuous when you're replicating Azure VMs to another Azure region. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 到 Azure 复制体系结构For more information, see the Azure-to-Azure replication architecture.

是否可以在某个区域中复制虚拟机?Can I replicate virtual machines within a region? 我需要使用此功能来迁移 VM。I need this functionality to migrate VMs.

无法使用 Azure 到 Azure 的磁盘恢复解决方案在区域中复制 VM。You can't use an Azure-to-Azure disk recovery solution to replicate VMs within a region.

是否可将 VM 实例复制到任意 Azure 区域?Can I replicate VM instances to any Azure region?

使用 Site Recovery,可以在同一地理群集中的任意两个区域之间复制和恢复 VM。By using Site Recovery, you can replicate and recover VMs between any two regions within the same geographic cluster. 地理群集的定义考虑到了数据延迟和主权。Geographic clusters are defined with data latency and sovereignty in mind. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Site Recovery 的区域支持矩阵For more information, see the Site Recovery region support matrix.

Site Recovery 需要建立 Internet 连接?Does Site Recovery require internet connectivity?

否,Site Recovery 不需要建立 Internet 连接。No, Site Recovery doesn't require internet connectivity. 但它确实需要访问 Site Recovery URL 和 IP 范围,如 Azure VM 灾难恢复中的网络中所述。But it does require access to Site Recovery URLs and IP ranges, as mentioned in networking in Azure VM disaster recovery.

是否可以为不同的层复制具有不同资源组的应用程序?Can I replicate an application that has a separate resource group for separate tiers?

是的,你可以复制应用程序并且也在另一个资源组中保留灾难恢复配置。Yes, you can replicate the application and keep the disaster recovery configuration in a separate resource group too.

例如,如果应用程序的每个应用层、数据库层和 Web 层位于不同的资源组中,则必须选择复制向导三次才能保护所有层。For example, if your application has each tier's application, database, and web in a separate resource group, then you have to select the replication wizard three times to protect all the tiers. Site Recovery 会将这三个层复制到三个不同的资源组中。Site Recovery will replicate these three tiers into three different resource groups.

能否跨资源组移动存储帐户?Can I move storage accounts across resource groups?

否,此方案不受支持。No, this is an unsupported scenario. 但是,如果你意外地将存储帐户移到不同的资源组并删除了原始资源组,则可以创建一个与旧资源组同名的新资源组,然后将该存储帐户移到此资源组。However, if you accidentally move storage accounts to a different resource group and delete the original resource group, then you can create a new resource group with the same name as the old resource group and then move the storage account to this resource group.

复制策略Replication policy

什么是复制策略?What is a replication policy?

复制策略定义恢复点保留历史记录的设置。A replication policy defines the settings for the retention history of recovery points. 该策略还定义应用一致性快照的频率。The policy also defines the frequency of app-consistent snapshots. 默认情况下,Azure Site Recovery 使用以下默认设置创建新的复制策略:By default, Azure Site Recovery creates a new replication policy with default settings of:

  • 恢复点历史记录的保留期为 24 小时。24 hours for the retention history of recovery points.
  • 应用一致性快照的频率为 60 分钟。60 minutes for the frequency of app-consistent snapshots.

详细了解复制设置Learn more about replication settings.

什么是崩溃一致性恢复点?What is a crash-consistent recovery point?

崩溃一致性恢复点包含创建快照期间拔下服务器的电源线时磁盘上的数据。A crash-consistent recovery point has the on-disk data as if you pulled the power cord from the server during the snapshot. 崩溃一致性恢复点不包含创建快照时内存中的任何内容。The crash-consistent recovery point doesn't include anything that was in memory when the snapshot was taken.

目前,大多数应用程序都可以从崩溃一致性快照正常恢复。Today, most applications can recover well from crash-consistent snapshots. 对于无数据库的操作系统以及文件服务器、DHCP 服务器、打印服务器等应用程序而言,崩溃一致性恢复点通常已足够。A crash-consistent recovery point is usually enough for no-database operating systems and applications like file servers, DHCP servers, and print servers.

崩溃一致性恢复点生成的频率是多少?What is the frequency of crash-consistent recovery point generation?

Site Recovery 每隔 5 分钟创建崩溃一致性恢复点。Site Recovery creates a crash-consistent recovery point every 5 minutes.

什么是应用程序一致性恢复点?What is an application-consistent recovery point?

应用程序一致性恢复点是从应用程序一致性快照创建的。Application-consistent recovery points are created from application-consistent snapshots. 应用程序一致性恢复点捕获的数据与崩溃一致性快照相同,此外还会捕获内存中的数据,以及所有正在进行的事务。Application-consistent recovery points capture the same data as crash-consistent snapshots while also capturing data in memory and all transactions in process.

由于包含额外的内容,应用程序一致性快照涉及的操作最多,且花费的时间最长。Because of their extra content, application-consistent snapshots are the most involved and take the longest. 我们建议对数据库操作系统以及 SQL Server 等应用程序使用应用程序一致性恢复点。We recommend application-consistent recovery points for database operating systems and applications such as SQL Server.

应用程序一致性恢复点对应用程序性能有何影响?What is the impact of application-consistent recovery points on application performance?

应用程序一致性恢复点捕获内存中的以及正在处理的所有数据。Application-consistent recovery points capture all the data in memory and in process. 由于恢复点会捕获这些数据,因此需要在 Windows 上安装卷影复制服务等框架,使应用程序静止。Because recovery points capture that data, they require framework like Volume Shadow Copy Service on Windows to quiesce the application. 在工作负荷已进入繁忙状态时,如果捕获过程频繁发生,可能会影响性能。If the capturing process is frequent, it can affect performance when the workload is already busy. 对于非数据库工作负荷,不建议对应用一致性恢复点使用较低的频率。We don't recommend that you use low frequency for app-consistent recovery points for non-database workloads. 甚至对于数据库工作负荷,1 小时的频率也已足够。Even for database workload, 1 hour is enough.

应用程序一致性恢复点生成的最低频率是多少?What is the minimum frequency of application-consistent recovery point generation?

Site Recovery 可以创建一个应用程序一致性恢复点,其最小频率为 1 小时。Site Recovery can create an application-consistent recovery point with a minimum frequency of 1 hour.

如何生成和保存恢复点?How are recovery points generated and saved?

为了了解 Site Recovery 如何生成恢复点,让我们查看一个复制策略的示例。To understand how Site Recovery generates recovery points, let's see an example of a replication policy. 此复制策略的恢复点保留期为 24 小时,应用一致性快照的频率为 1 小时。This replication policy has a recovery point with a 24-hour retention window and an app-consistent frequency snapshot of 1 hour.

Site Recovery 每隔 5 分钟创建崩溃一致性恢复点。Site Recovery creates a crash-consistent recovery point every 5 minutes. 无法更改此频率。You can't change this frequency. 对于过去一小时,可以从 12 个崩溃一致性恢复点和 1 个应用一致性恢复点中进行选择。For the last hour, you can choose from 12 crash-consistent points and 1 app-consistent point. 一段时间后,Site Recovery 将删除过去一小时以前的所有恢复点,每小时只保存 1 个恢复点。As time progresses, Site Recovery prunes all the recovery points beyond the last hour and saves only 1 recovery point per hour.

以下屏幕截图演示了该示例。The following screenshot illustrates the example. 在屏幕截图中:In the screenshot:

  • 在过去一小时内,以 5 分钟的频率创建了恢复点。Within the past hour, there are recovery points with a frequency of 5 minutes.

  • 超出一小时后,Site Recovery 只保留了 1 个恢复点。Beyond the past hour, Site Recovery keeps only 1 recovery point.

    生成的恢复点列表

可以恢复到哪个最早的时间点?How far back can I recover?

可以使用的最早恢复点是 72 小时。The oldest recovery point that you can use is 72 hours.

我的复制策略是创建 24 小时的恢复点。I have a replication policy of 24 hours. 如果某个问题导致 Site Recovery 有 24 小时以上无法生成恢复点,会发生什么情况?What will happen if a problem prevents Site Recovery from generating recovery points for more than 24 hours? 以前的恢复点是否将丢失?Will my previous recovery points be lost?

不会,Site Recovery 将保留以前的所有恢复点。No, Site Recovery will keep all your previous recovery points. 根据恢复点的保留期,仅当 Site Recovery 生成了新的恢复点时,它才会替换最早的恢复点。Depending on the recovery points' retention window, Site Recovery replaces the oldest point only if it generates new points. 由于此问题,Site Recovery 无法生成任何新的恢复点。Because of the problem, Site Recovery can't generate any new recovery points. 到达保留期之后,在出现新的恢复点之前,所有旧恢复点将会保留。Until there are new recovery points, all the old points will remain after you reach the window of retention.

在 VM 上启用复制后,如何更改复制策略?After replication is enabled on a VM, how do I change the replication policy?

转到“Site Recovery 保管库” > “Site Recovery 基础结构” > “复制策略”。 Go to Site Recovery Vault > Site Recovery Infrastructure > Replication policies. 选择要编辑的策略并保存所做的更改。Select the policy that you want to edit, and save the changes. 任何更改也会应用到现有的所有复制。Any change will apply to all the existing replications too.

所有恢复点是包含 VM 的完整副本还是差异副本?Are all the recovery points a complete copy of the VM or a differential?

生成的第一个恢复点包含完整副本。The first recovery point that's generated has the complete copy. 任何后续恢复点包含增量更改。Any successive recovery points have delta changes.

增大恢复点保留期是否会增加存储成本?Does increasing the retention period of recovery points increase the storage cost?

是的。Yes. 如果将保留期从 24 小时增大到 72 小时,则 Site Recovery 将保存额外 48 小时的恢复点。If you increase the retention period from 24 hours to 72 hours, Site Recovery will save the recovery points for an additional 48 hours. 增加的时间会产生存储费用。The added time will incur storage charges.

多 VM 一致性Multi-VM consistency

什么是多 VM 一致性?What is multi-VM consistency?

多 VM 一致性可以确保恢复点在所有复制的虚拟机之间保持一致。Multi-VM consistency ensures that the recovery point is consistent across all the replicated virtual machines.

Site Recovery 提供“多 VM 一致性”选项用于创建所有计算机的复制组。Site Recovery provides a Multi-VM consistency option, which creates a replication group of all the machines.

故障转移虚拟机时,这些虚拟机将获得共享的崩溃一致性恢复点和应用一致性恢复点。When you fail over the virtual machines, they'll have shared crash-consistent and app-consistent recovery points.

请阅读有关启用多 VM 一致性的教程。Go through the tutorial to enable multi-VM consistency.

是否可以故障转移多 VM 一致性复制组中的单个虚拟机?Can I fail over a single virtual machine within a multi-VM consistency replication group?

选择“多 VM 一致性”选项即表明应用程序依赖于组中的所有虚拟机。When you select the Multi-VM consistency option, you're stating that the application has a dependency on all the virtual machines within a group. 不允许故障转移单个虚拟机。Single virtual machine failover isn't allowed.

可以通过多 VM 一致性复制组复制多少个虚拟机?How many virtual machines can I replicate as a part of a multi-VM consistency replication group?

在一个复制组中,可以一同复制 16 个虚拟机。You can replicate 16 virtual machines together in a replication group.

何时应启用多 VM 一致性?When should I enable multi-VM consistency?

由于多 VM 一致性的 CPU 消耗量较大,启用此功能可能会影响工作负荷性能。Because multi-VM consistency is CPU intensive, enabling it can affect workload performance. 请仅在计算机运行相同的工作负荷并且你需要在多个计算机之间保持一致时,才使用多 VM 一致性。Use multi-VM consistency only if machines are running the same workload and you need consistency across multiple machines. 例如,如果应用程序中有两个 SQL Server 实例和两个 Web 服务器,则你只应为 SQL Server 实例启用多 VM 一致性。For example, if you have two SQL Server instances and two web servers in an application, you should have multi-VM consistency for the SQL Server instances only.

是否可以将已在复制的 VM 添加到复制组?Can you add an already replicating VM to a replication group?

可以在启用复制的同时将 VM 添加到新的复制组。You can add a VM to a new replication group while enabling replication. 还可以在启用复制的同时将 VM 添加到现有复制组。You can also add a VM to an existing replication group while enabling replication. 但是,不能将已在复制的 VM 添加到新的复制组或现有复制组。However, you cannot add an already replicating VM to a new replication group or existing replication group.

故障转移Failover

如何确保 Azure VM 在目标区域的容量?How is capacity ensured in the target region for Azure VMs?

Site Recovery 团队和 Azure 容量管理团队规划了足够的基础结构容量。The Site Recovery team and Azure capacity management team plan for sufficient infrastructure capacity. 启动故障转移时,团队还会帮助确保将受 Site Recovery 保护的 VM 实例部署到目标区域。When you start a failover, the teams also help ensure VM instances that are protected by Site Recovery will deploy to the target region.

故障转移是自动发生的吗?Is failover automatic?

故障转移不是自动的。Failover isn't automatic. 可以在门户中单击一下鼠标来启动故障转移,或者使用 PowerShell 来触发故障转移。You can start failovers with a single click in the portal, or you can use PowerShell to trigger a failover.

是否可以在故障转移后保留公共 IP 地址?Can I keep a public IP address after a failover?

无法在故障转移后保留生产应用程序的公共 IP 地址。You can't keep the public IP address of the production application after a failover.

在故障转移过程中启动某个工作负荷时,需要将 Azure 公共 IP 资源分配到该工作负荷。When you bring up a workload as part of the failover process, you need to assign an Azure public IP resource to the workload. 该 Azure 公共 IP 资源必须在目标区域中可用。The Azure public IP resource has to be available in the target region. 可以手动分配 Azure 公共 IP 资源,或者使用恢复计划自动分配。You can assign the Azure public IP resource manually, or you can automate it with a recovery plan. 了解如何设置故障转移后的公共 IP 地址Learn how to set up public IP addresses after failover.

在故障转移期间是否可以保留专用 IP 地址?Can I keep a private IP address during a failover?

是的,可以保留专用 IP 地址。Yes, you can keep a private IP address. 默认情况下,为 Azure VM 启动灾难恢复时,Site Recovery 将根据源资源设置创建目标资源。By default, when you enable disaster recovery for Azure VMs, Site Recovery creates target resources based on source resource settings. 对于配置有静态 IP 地址的 Azure 虚拟机,Site Recovery 会尝试为目标 VM 预配同一 IP 地址(如果未占用)。For Azure Virtual Machines configured with static IP addresses, Site Recovery tries to provision the same IP address for the target VM if it's not in use. 了解如何在故障转移期间保留 IP 地址Learn about keeping IP addresses during failover.

故障转移之后,为何向服务器分配新 IP 地址?After a failover, why is the server assigned a new IP address?

故障转移时,Site Recovery 会尽量提供 IP 地址。Site Recovery tries to provide the IP address at the time of failover. 如果该地址被另一个虚拟机占用,则 Site Recovery 会将下一个可用 IP 地址设为目标。If another virtual machine is taking that address, Site Recovery sets the next available IP address as the target.

详细了解如何设置虚拟网络的网络映射和 IP 寻址Learn more about setting up network mapping and IP addressing for virtual networks.

什么是最新(最低 RPO) 恢复点?What are Latest (lowest RPO) recovery points?

“最新(最低 RPO)”选项首先处理已发送到 Site Recovery 服务的所有数据。The Latest (lowest RPO) option first processes all the data that has been sent to the Site Recovery. 服务处理数据后,将为每个 VM 创建恢复点,然后故障转移到该 VM。After the service processes the data, it creates a recovery point for each VM before failing over to the VM. 此选项提供最低的恢复点目标 (RPO)。This option provides the lowest recovery point objective (RPO). 故障转移后创建的 VM 包含触发故障转移时复制到 Site Recovery 的所有数据。The VM created after failover has all the data replicated to Site Recovery from when the failover was triggered.

最新(最低 RPO) 恢复点是否影响故障转移 RTO?Do Latest (lowest RPO) recovery points have an impact on failover RTO?

是的。Yes. Site Recovery 在故障转移之前需要处理所有挂起的数据,因此,此选项的恢复时间目标 (RTO) 比其他选项更高。Site Recovery processes all pending data before failing over, so this option has a higher recovery time objective (RTO) compared to other options.

恢复点中的“最新处理”选项指的是什么?What does the Latest processed option in recovery points mean?

“最新处理”选项将计划中的所有 VM 故障转移到 Site Recovery 处理的最新恢复点。The Latest processed option fails over all VMs in the plan to the latest recovery point that Site Recovery processed. 若要查看特定 VM 的最新恢复点,请检查 VM 设置中的“最新恢复点”。To see the latest recovery point for a specific VM, check Latest Recovery Points in the VM settings. 此选项提供低的 RTO,因为无需费时处理未经处理的数据。This option provides a low RTO, because no time is spent processing unprocessed data.

如果主要区域的服务意外中断,会出现什么情况?What happens if my primary region experiences an unexpected outage?

可以在服务中断后触发故障转移。You can trigger a failover after the outage. Site Recovery 不需要从主要区域建立连接即可执行故障转移。Site Recovery doesn't need connectivity from the primary region to do the failover.

什么是 VM 故障转移的 RTO?What is an RTO of a VM failover?

Site Recovery 的 RTO SLA 为 2小时Site Recovery has an RTO SLA of 2 hours. 但是,大多数情况下,Site Recovery 会在几分钟内对虚拟机进行故障转移。However, most of the time, Site Recovery fails over virtual machines within minutes. 可以转到故障转移作业来计算 RTO,该作业显示启动 VM 所需的时间。You can calculate the RTO by going to the failover jobs, which show the time it took to bring up the VM. 有关恢复计划的 RTO,请参阅下一部分。For Recovery plan RTO, refer to the next section.

恢复计划Recovery plans

什么是恢复计划?What is a recovery plan?

Site Recovery 中的恢复计划可以协调 VM 的故障转移恢复。A recovery plan in Site Recovery orchestrates the failover recovery of VMs. 它有助于实现恢复的一致准确性、可重复性和自动化。It helps make the recovery consistently accurate, repeatable, and automated. 恢复计划可解决以下需求:A recovery plan addresses the following needs:

  • 定义一组可以一起故障转移的虚拟机Defining a group of virtual machines that fail over together
  • 定义虚拟机之间的依赖关系,使应用程序能够适时启动Defining the dependencies between virtual machines so that the application comes up accurately
  • 自动完成恢复以及自定义的手动操作,以便除虚拟机故障转移以外,还可以实现其他任务Automating the recovery along with custom manual actions to achieve tasks other than the failover of virtual machines

详细了解如何创建恢复计划Learn more about creating recovery plans.

如何在恢复计划中实现定序?How is sequencing achieved in a recovery plan?

在恢复计划中,可以创建多个组来实现定序。In a recovery plan, you can create multiple groups to achieve sequencing. 每次故障转移一个组。Every group fails over at one time. 同一个组中的虚拟机将一起故障转移,然后再故障转移另一个组中的虚拟机。Virtual machines that are part of the same group fail over together, followed by another group. 若要了解如何使用恢复计划为应用程序建模,请参阅关于恢复计划To learn how to model an application by using a recovery plan, see About recovery plans.

如何找到恢复计划的 RTO?How can I find the RTO of a recovery plan?

若要检查恢复计划的 RTO,请对恢复计划执行测试故障转移,然后转到“Site Recovery 作业”。To check the RTO of a recovery plan, do a test failover for the recovery plan and go to Site Recovery jobs. 在以下示例中,可以看到作业 SAPTestRecoveryPlanIn the following example, see the job SAPTestRecoveryPlan. 作业花费了 8 分 59 秒故障转移所有虚拟机并执行指定的操作。The job took 8 minutes and 59 seconds to fail over all the virtual machines and do specified actions.

Site Recovery 作业列表

是否可将自动化 Runbook 添加到恢复计划?Can I add automation runbooks to the recovery plan?

是的,可将 Azure 自动化 Runbook 集成到恢复计划中。Yes, you can integrate Azure Automation runbooks into your recovery plan. 详细了解如何添加 Azure 自动化 RunbookLearn more about adding Azure Automation runbooks.

重新保护和故障回复Reprotection and failback

我已从主要区域故障转移到灾难恢复区域。I failed over from the primary region to a disaster recovery region. 灾难恢复区域中的 VM 是否会自动受到保护?Are VMs in a DR region protected automatically?

否。No. 将 Azure VM 从一个区域故障转移到另一个区域后,VM 将在灾难恢复区域中启动,但处于不受保护状态。When you fail over Azure VMs from one region to another, the VMs start up in the DR region in an unprotected state. 若要将 VM 故障回复到主要区域,需要重新保护次要区域中的 VM。To fail back the VMs to the primary region, you need to reprotect the VMs in the secondary region.

重新保护时,Site Recovery 是否将完整的数据从次要区域复制到主要区域?At the time of reprotection, does Site Recovery replicate complete data from the secondary region to the primary region?

这取决于具体的情况。It depends on the situation. 如果源区域 VM 存在,则只会同步源磁盘与目标磁盘之间的更改。If the source region VM exists, then only changes between the source disk and the target disk are synchronized. Site Recovery 将通过比较磁盘来计算差异,然后传输数据。Site Recovery computes the differentials by comparing the disks, and then it transfers the data. 此过程通常需要几个小时。This process usually takes a few hours. 有关重新保护期间所发生情况的详细信息,请参阅在主要区域中重新保护已故障转移的 Azure VM 实例For more information about what happens during reprotection, see Reprotect failed over Azure VM instances to the primary region.

故障回复需要多长时间?How much time does it take to fail back?

完成重新保护后,故障回复所需的时间类似于从主要区域故障转移到次要区域所需的时间。After reprotection, failback takes about the same amount of time it takes to fail over from the primary region to a secondary region.

容量Capacity

如何确保 Azure VM 在目标区域的容量?How is capacity ensured in the target region for Azure VMs?

Site Recovery 团队和 Azure 容量管理团队规划了足够的基础结构容量。The Site Recovery team and Azure capacity management team plan for sufficient infrastructure capacity. 启动故障转移时,团队还会帮助确保将受 Site Recovery 保护的 VM 实例部署到目标区域。When you start a failover, the teams also help ensure VM instances that are protected by Site Recovery will deploy to the target region.

安全性Security

复制数据是否会发送到 Site Recovery 服务?Is replication data sent to the Site Recovery service?

不会。Site Recovery 不会拦截复制的数据,也没有 VM 上运行的组件的任何相关信息。No, Site Recovery doesn't intercept replicated data, and it doesn't have any information about what's running on your VMs. 只有协调复制与故障转移所需的元数据会发送到站点恢复服务。Only the metadata needed to orchestrate replication and failover is sent to the Site Recovery service.

Site Recovery 已通过 ISO 27001:2013、27018、HIPAA 和 DPA 认证。Site Recovery is ISO 27001:2013, 27018, HIPAA, and DPA certified. 该服务目前正在接受 SOC2 和 FedRAMP JAB 评估。The service is undergoing SOC2 and FedRAMP JAB assessments.

Site Recovery 是否将复制数据加密?Does Site Recovery encrypt replication?

是的,传输中加密和 Azure 中的静态加密均受支持。Yes, both encryption in transit and encryption at rest in Azure are supported.

后续步骤Next steps