Azure 备份 - 常见问题Azure Backup - Frequently asked questions

本文回答有关 Azure 备份服务的常见问题。This article answers common questions about the Azure Backup service.

恢复服务保管库Recovery Services vault

在每个 Azure 订阅中可以创建的保管库数量是否有任何限制?Is there any limit on the number of vaults that can be created in each Azure subscription?

是的。Yes. 在 Azure 备份支持的区域中,可以为每个订阅最多创建 500 个恢复服务保管库。You can create up to 500 Recovery Services vaults, per supported region of Azure Backup, per subscription. 如果需要更多保管库,请创建另一订阅。If you need additional vaults, create an additional subscription.

可针对每个保管库注册的服务器/计算机数量是否有限制?Are there limits on the number of servers/machines that can be registered against each vault?

每个保管库最多可以注册 1000 个 Azure 虚拟机。You can register up to 1000 Azure Virtual machines per vault. 如果使用 Azure 备份代理,每个保管库最多可以注册 50 个 MARS 代理。If you're using the Azure Backup Agent, you can register up to 50 MARS agents per vault. 并且,可以将 50 个 MABS 服务器/DPM 服务器注册到一个保管库。And you can register 50 MABS servers/DPM servers to a vault.

在保管库中可以保护多少个数据源/项?How many datasources/items can be protected in a vault?

可以在保管库中跨所有工作负荷(例如 IaaS VM、SQL)保护多达 2000 个数据源/项。You can protect up to 2000 datasources/items across all workloads (such as IaaS VM, SQL) in a vault. 例如,如果已在保管库中保护了 500 个 VM 和 400 个 Azure 文件存储共享,则最多只能保护其中的 1100 个 SQL 数据库。For example, if you've already protected 500 VMs and 400 Azure Files shares in the vault, you can only protect up to 1100 SQL databases in it.

每个保管库可以创建多少个策略?How many policies can I create per vault?

每个保管库最多只能有 200 个策略。You can only have up to 200 policies per vault.

如果本组织有一个保管库,如何在还原数据时将数据与保管库中的其他服务器隔离?If my organization has one vault, how can I isolate data from different servers in the vault when restoring data?

设置备份时,你想要一起恢复的服务器数据应使用相同密码。Server data that you want to recover together should use the same passphrase when you set up backup. 如果要将恢复隔离到一个特定服务器或多个服务器,仅使用该服务器的密码。If you want to isolate recovery to a specific server or servers, use a passphrase for that server or servers only. 例如,人力资源服务器可能使用一个加密通行短语,会计结算服务器使用另一个通行短语,而存储服务器使用第三个通行短语。For example, human resources servers could use one encryption passphrase, accounting servers another, and storage servers a third.

是否可以将备份数据移动到另一个保管库?Can I move backup data to another vault?

否。No. 保管库中存储的备份数据无法移动到不同的保管库。Backup data stored in a vault can't be moved to a different vault.

备份后是否可以从 GRS 更改为 LRS?Can I change from GRS to LRS after a backup?

存储复制类型默认设置为异地冗余存储 (GRS)。The storage replication type by default is set to geo-redundant storage (GRS). 配置备份后,将禁用修改选项且不可更改。Once you configure the backup, the option to modify is disabled and can't be changed.

存储复制类型

如果你已配置了备份,并且必须从 GRS 移动到 LRS,请参阅如何在配置备份后从 GRS 更改到 LRSIf you've already configured the backup and must move from GRS to LRS, then see How to change from GRS to LRS after configuring backup.

是否可以对备份到恢复服务保管库的 VM 执行项级别还原 (ILR)?Can I do an Item Level Restore (ILR) for VMs backed up to a Recovery Services vault?

  • 由 Azure VM 备份支持的 Azure VM 支持 ILR。ILR is supported for Azure VMs backed up by Azure VM backup. 有关详细信息,请参阅相关文章For more information, see article
  • Azure 备份服务器 (MABS) 或 System Center DPM 备份的本地 VM 的联机恢复点不支持 ILR。ILR isn't supported for online recovery points of on-premises VMs backed up by Azure Backup Server (MABS) or System Center DPM.

Azure 备份代理Azure Backup agent

在哪里可以找到有关 Azure VM 备份的 Azure 备份代理的常见问题?Where can I find common questions about the Azure Backup agent for Azure VM backup?

  • 有关在 Azure VM 上运行的代理,请阅读此常见问题解答For the agent running on Azure VMs, read this FAQ.
  • 如需用于备份 Azure 文件夹的代理,请阅读此常见问题解答For the agent used to back up Azure file folders, read this FAQ.

常规备份General backup

备份计划是否有限制?Are there limits on backup scheduling?

是的。Yes.

  • 可以备份 Windows Server 或 Windows 计算机,最多一天三次。You can back up Windows Server or Windows machines up to three times a day. 可以将计划策略设置为每日或每周计划。You can set the scheduling policy to daily or weekly schedules.
  • 可以备份 DPM,最多一天两次。You can back up DPM up to twice a day. 可以将计划策略设置为每日、每周、每月或每年。You can set the scheduling policy to daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly.
  • Azure VM 可每日备份一次。You back up Azure VMs once a day.

支持哪些操作系统进行备份?What operating systems are supported for backup?

Azure 备份支持操作系统对文件和文件夹以及使用 Azure 备份服务器和 DPM 保护的工作负载应用程序进行备份。Azure Backup supports these operating systems for backing up files and folders, and apps protected by Azure Backup Server and DPM.

OSOS SKUSKU 详细信息Details
工作站Workstation
Windows 10 64 位Windows 10 64 bit Enterprise、Pro、HomeEnterprise, Pro, Home 计算机应运行最新服务包和更新。Machines should be running the latest services packs and updates.
Windows 8.1 64 位Windows 8.1 64 bit Enterprise、ProEnterprise, Pro 计算机应运行最新服务包和更新。Machines should be running the latest services packs and updates.
Windows 8 64 位Windows 8 64 bit Enterprise、ProEnterprise, Pro 计算机应运行最新服务包和更新。Machines should be running the latest services packs and updates.
Windows 7 64 位Windows 7 64 bit Ultimate、Enterprise、Professional、Home Premium、Home Basic、StarterUltimate, Enterprise, Professional, Home Premium, Home Basic, Starter 计算机应运行最新服务包和更新。Machines should be running the latest services packs and updates.
服务器Server
Windows Server 2019 64 位Windows Server 2019 64 bit Standard、Datacenter、EssentialsStandard, Datacenter, Essentials 使用最新服务包/更新。With the latest service packs/updates.
Windows Server 2016 64 位Windows Server 2016 64 bit Standard、Datacenter、EssentialsStandard, Datacenter, Essentials 使用最新服务包/更新。With the latest service packs/updates.
Windows Server 2012 R2 64 位Windows Server 2012 R2 64 bit Standard、Datacenter、FoundationStandard, Datacenter, Foundation 使用最新服务包/更新。With the latest service packs/updates.
Windows Server 2012 64 位Windows Server 2012 64 bit Datacenter、Foundation、StandardDatacenter, Foundation, Standard 使用最新服务包/更新。With the latest service packs/updates.
Windows Storage Server 2016 64 位Windows Storage Server 2016 64 bit Standard、WorkgroupStandard, Workgroup 使用最新服务包/更新。With the latest service packs/updates.
Windows Storage Server 2012 R2 64 位Windows Storage Server 2012 R2 64 bit Standard、Workgroup、EssentialStandard, Workgroup, Essential 使用最新服务包/更新。With the latest service packs/updates.
Windows Storage Server 2012 64 位Windows Storage Server 2012 64 bit Standard、WorkgroupStandard, Workgroup 使用最新服务包/更新。With the latest service packs/updates.
Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 64 位Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 64 bit Standard、Enterprise、Datacenter、FoundationStandard, Enterprise, Datacenter, Foundation 使用最新更新。With the latest updates.
Windows Server 2008 64 位Windows Server 2008 64 bit Standard、Enterprise、DatacenterStandard, Enterprise, Datacenter 使用最新更新。With latest updates.

Azure 备份不支持 32 位操作系统。Azure Backup doesn't support 32-bit operating systems.

对于 Azure VM Linux 备份,Azure 备份支持 Azure 认可的分发版列表,但 Core OS Linux 和 32 位操作系统除外。For Azure VM Linux backups, Azure Backup supports the list of distributions endorsed by Azure, except Core OS Linux and 32-bit operating system. 只要 VM 上装有 VM 代理且支持 Python,其他自带 Linux 发行版应该也能正常运行。Other bring-your-own Linux distributions might work as long as the VM agent is available on the VM, and support for Python exists.

是否存在数据备份的大小限制?Are there size limits for data backup?

大小限制如下所示:Sizes limits are as follows:

OS/计算机OS/machine 数据源的大小限制Size limit of data source
Windows 8 或更高版本Windows 8 or later 54,400 GB54,400 GB
Windows 7Windows 7 1700 GB1700 GB
Windows Server 2012 或更高版本Windows Server 2012 or later 54,400 GB54,400 GB
Windows Server 2008、Windows Server 2008 R2Windows Server 2008, Windows Server 2008 R2 1700 GB1700 GB
Azure VMAzure VM 请参阅 Azure VM 备份的支持矩阵See the support matrix for Azure VM backup

如何确定数据源大小?How is the data source size determined?

下表说明了如何确定每个数据源大小。The following table explains how each data source size is determined.

数据源Data source 详细信息Details
数据量(Volume)Volume 从正在备份的单个卷 VM 备份的数据量。The amount of data being backed up from single volume VM being backed up.
SQL Server 数据库SQL Server database 所备份的单个数据库的大小。Size of single database size being backed up.
SharePointSharePoint 正在备份的 SharePoint 场中内容和配置数据库的总和。Sum of the content and configuration databases within a SharePoint farm being backed up.
ExchangeExchange 正在备份 Exchange 服务器中所有 Exchange 数据库的总和。Sum of all Exchange databases in an Exchange server being backed up.
BMR/系统状态BMR/System state 正在备份计算机的 BMR 或系统状态的每个副本。Each individual copy of BMR or system state of the machine being backed up.

使用恢复服务保管库备份的数据量是否有限制?Is there a limit on the amount of data backed up using a Recovery Services vault?

对可以使用恢复服务保管库进行备份的总数据量没有限制。There's no limit on the total amount of data you can back up using a Recovery Services vault. 单个数据源(Azure VM 除外)大小最大可为 54,400 GB。The individual data sources (other than Azure VMs), can be a maximum of 54,400 GB in size. 有关限制的详细信息,请参阅支持矩阵中的保管库限制部分For more information about limits, see the vault limits section in the support matrix.

为什么传输到恢复服务保管库的数据的大小小于选择进行备份的数据?Why is the size of the data transferred to the Recovery Services vault smaller than the data selected for backup?

从 Azure 备份代理、DPM 和 Azure 备份服务器备份的数据都会在传输之前进行压缩和加密。Data backed up from Azure Backup Agent, DPM, and Azure Backup Server is compressed and encrypted before being transferred. 应用压缩和加密后,保管库中的数据将减少 30-40%。With compression and encryption is applied, the data in the vault is 30-40% smaller.

可以从保管库中的恢复点删除单个文件吗?Can I delete individual files from a recovery point in the vault?

不可以,Azure 备份不支持从存储的备份中删除或清除单个项。No, Azure Backup doesn't support deleting or purging individual items from stored backups.

如果在备份作业开始后取消,是否会删除已传输的备份数据?If I cancel a backup job after it starts, is the transferred backup data deleted?

否。No. 在备份作业取消之前传输到保管库中的所有数据将保留在保管库中。All data that was transferred into the vault before the backup job was canceled remains in the vault.

  • Azure 备份使用检查点机制,在备份过程中偶尔要对备份数据添加检查点。Azure Backup uses a checkpoint mechanism to occasionally add checkpoints to the backup data during the backup.
  • 由于备份数据中有检查点,下次备份过程可以验证文件的完整性。Because there are checkpoints in the backup data, the next backup process can validate the integrity of the files.
  • 下一备份作业会在已备份数据的基础上进行增量备份。The next backup job will be incremental to the data previously backed up. 增量备份仅传输新的或已更改的数据,这相当于更好地利用带宽。Incremental backups only transfer new or changed data, which equates to better utilization of bandwidth.

如果取消 Azure VM 的备份作业,则会忽略任何已传输的数据。If you cancel a backup job for an Azure VM, any transferred data is ignored. 下次备份作业将传输上次成功的备份作业之后的增量数据。The next backup job transfers incremental data from the last successful backup job.

保留和恢复Retention and recovery

DPM 和不带 DPM 的 Windows 计算机的保留策略是否相同?Are the retention policies for DPM and Windows machines without DPM the same?

是的,它们都有每日、每周、每月和每年保留策略。Yes, they both have daily, weekly, monthly, and yearly retention policies.

能否自定义保留策略?Can I customize retention policies?

是的,可以自定义策略。Yes, you have customize policies. 例如,可以配置每周和每日保留期要求,但不能配置每年和每月保留期要求。For example, you can configure weekly and daily retention requirements, but not yearly and monthly.

是否可以对备份计划和保留策略使用不同时间?Can I use different times for backup scheduling and retention policies?

否。No. 只能在备份时间点应用保留策略。Retention policies can only be applied on backup points. 例如,此图显示了中午 12 点和下午 6 点创建的备份保留策略。For example, this image shows a retention policy for backups taken at 12am and 6pm.

计划备份和保持

如果备份保留了很长一段时间,是否需要更多时间才能恢复较旧的数据点?If a backup is kept for a long time, does it take more time to recover an older data point?

否。No. 恢复最旧或最新时间点所需的时间相同。The time to recover the oldest or the newest point is the same. 每个恢复点的行为类似一个完整的点。Each recovery point behaves like a full point.

如果每个恢复点相当于完整的点,它会影响总体可计费备份存储吗?If each recovery point is like a full point, does it impact the total billable backup storage?

典型的长期保留点产品将备份数据存储为完整的点。Typical long-term retention point products store backup data as full points.

  • 完整点的存储 效率不高 ,但能使还原变得更方便和快速。The full points are storage inefficient but are easier and faster to restore.
  • 增量复制为高效存储,但要求还原数据链,这会影响恢复时间Incremental copies are storage efficient but require you to restore a chain of data, which impacts your recovery time

Azure 备份存储体系结构在这两方面都能提供最佳性能,它以最佳方式存储数据,以便快速还原,且产生的存储成本低。Azure Backup storage architecture gives you the best of both worlds by optimally storing data for fast restores and incurring low storage costs. 这种方法可确保提高(入口和出口)带宽使用效率。This ensures that your ingress and egress bandwidth is used efficiently. 数据存储量和恢复数据所需的时间都会尽量减少。The amount of data storage, and the time needed to recover the data, is kept to a minimum. 了解有关增量备份的更多信息。Learn more about incremental backups.

可创建的恢复点数量是否有限制?Is there a limit on the number of recovery points that can be created?

最多可为单个受保护实例创建 9999 个恢复点。You can create up to 9999 recovery points per protected instance. 受保护的实例包括计算机、服务器(物理或虚拟)或备份到 Azure 的工作负载。A protected instance is a computer, server (physical or virtual), or workload that backs up to Azure.

我可以恢复多少次备份到 Azure 的数据?How many times can I recover data that's backed up to Azure?

从 Azure 备份执行恢复的次数没有限制。There's no limit on the number of recoveries from Azure Backup.

还原数据时,Azure 的出口流量是否需要付费?When restoring data, do I pay for the egress traffic from Azure?

否。No. 恢复是免费的,不收取传出流量费。Recovery is free and you aren't charged for the egress traffic.

如果更改备份策略,会发生什么情况?What happens when I change my backup policy?

应用新策略时,将遵循新策略的计划和保留期。When a new policy is applied, schedule and retention of the new policy is followed.

  • 如果延长保留期,则会对现有的恢复点进行标记,按新策略要求来保留它们。If retention is extended, existing recovery points are marked to keep them according to new policy.
  • 如果缩短保留期,则会将其标记为在下一清理作业中删除,随后会将其删除。If retention is reduced, they are marked for pruning in the next cleanup job and subsequently deleted.

当停止备份但选择了保留备份数据这一选项时,数据保留多长时间?How long is data retained when stopping backups, but selecting the option to retain backup data?

当停止备份但保留数据时,用于数据清除的现有策略规则会停止执行,数据将无限期保留,直到管理员将其删除。When backups are stopped and the data is retained, existing policy rules for data pruning will cease and data will be retained indefinitely until initiated by the administrator for deletion.

EncryptionEncryption

发送到 Azure 的数据会加密吗?Is the data sent to Azure encrypted?

是的。Yes. 使用 AES256 在本地计算机上对数据进行加密。Data is encrypted on the on-premises machine using AES256. 数据通过安全的 HTTPS 链接发送。The data is sent over a secure HTTPS link. 在云中传输的数据仅在存储和恢复服务之间通过 HTTPS 链接进行保护。The data transmitted in cloud is protected by HTTPS link only between storage and recovery service. iSCSI 协议可保护恢复服务和用户计算机之间传输的数据。iSCSI protocol secures the data transmitted between recovery service and user machine. 安全隧道用于保护 iSCSI 通道。Secure tunneling is used to protect the iSCSI channel.

Azure 中的备份数据也会加密吗?Is the backup data on Azure encrypted as well?

是的。Yes. Azure 中的数据为静态加密。The data in Azure is encrypted-at-rest.

  • 对于本地备份,使用在备份到 Azure 时提供的密码提供静态加密。For on-premises backup, encryption-at-rest is provided using the passphrase you provide when backing up to Azure.
  • 对于 Azure VM,使用存储服务加密 (SSE) 对数据进行静态加密。For Azure VMs, data is encrypted-at-rest using Storage Service Encryption (SSE).

Azure 在任何时候都不会解密备份数据。Azure doesn't decrypt the backup data at any point.

用于加密备份数据的加密密钥的最小长度是多少?What is the minimum length of the encryption key used to encrypt backup data?

Azure 恢复服务 (MARS) 代理使用的加密密钥派生自密码长度应至少为 16 个字符的密码。The encryption key used by the Azure Recovery Services (MARS) Agent is derived from a passphrase that should be at least 16 characters long. 对于 Azure VM,对 Azure KeyVault 使用的密钥的长度没有限制。For Azure VMs, there's no limit to the length of keys used by Azure KeyVault.

如果我丢失了加密密钥,会发生什么情况?What happens if I misplace the encryption key? 能否恢复数据?Can I recover the data? Azure 能否恢复数据?Can Azure recover the data?

用于加密备份数据的密钥仅出现在你的站点上。The key used to encrypt the backup data is present only on your site. Azure 不会在 Azure 中保留副本,并且无权访问密钥。Azure doesn't maintain a copy in Azure and doesn't have any access to the key. 如果错放密钥,Azure 将无法恢复备份数据。If you misplace the key, Azure can't recover the backup data.

后续步骤Next steps

阅读其他常见问题:Read the other FAQs: