使用 Azure 数据工厂从 FTP 服务器复制数据Copy data from FTP server by using Azure Data Factory

适用于:是 Azure 数据工厂是 Azure Synapse Analytics(预览版)APPLIES TO: yesAzure Data Factory yesAzure Synapse Analytics (Preview)

本文概述了如何从 FTP 服务器复制数据。This article outlines how to copy data from FTP server. 若要了解 Azure 数据工厂,请阅读介绍性文章To learn about Azure Data Factory, read the introductory article.

支持的功能Supported capabilities

以下活动支持此 FTP 连接器:This FTP connector is supported for the following activities:

具体而言,此 FTP 连接器支持:Specifically, this FTP connector supports:

FTP 连接器支持以被动模式运行的 FTP 服务器。The FTP connector support FTP server running in passive mode. 不支持主动模式。Active mode is not supported.

先决条件Prerequisites

如果数据存储是以下方式之一配置的,则需要设置自承载集成运行时才能连接到此数据存储:If your data store is configured in one of the following ways, you need to set up a self-hosted integration runtime to connect to the data store:

  • 数据存储位于本地网络内部、Azure 虚拟网络内部或 Amazon 虚拟私有云内。The data store is located inside an on-premises network, inside an Azure virtual network, or inside Amazon Virtual Private Cloud.
  • 数据存储是一种托管的云数据服务,只有在防火墙规则中列入允许列表的 IP 才能访问该服务。The data store is a managed cloud data service where the access is restricted to IPs that are whitelisted in the firewall rules.

入门Get started

若要使用管道执行复制活动,可以使用以下工具或 SDK 之一:To perform the Copy activity with a pipeline, you can use one of the following tools or SDKs:

对于特定于 FTP 的数据工厂实体,以下部分提供有关用于定义这些实体的属性的详细信息。The following sections provide details about properties that are used to define Data Factory entities specific to FTP.

链接服务属性Linked service properties

FTP 链接服务支持以下属性:The following properties are supported for FTP linked service:

属性Property 说明Description 必须Required
typetype type 属性必须设置为:FtpServerThe type property must be set to: FtpServer. Yes
hosthost 指定 FTP 服务器的名称或 IP 地址。Specify the name or IP address of the FTP server. Yes
portport 指定 FTP 服务器侦听的端口。Specify the port on which the FTP server is listening.
允许的值是:整数,默认值是 21。Allowed values are: integer, default value is 21.
No
enableSslenableSsl 指定是否通过 SSL/TLS 通道使用 FTP。Specify whether to use FTP over an SSL/TLS channel.
允许的值是:true(默认)、false。Allowed values are: true (default), false.
No
enableServerCertificateValidationenableServerCertificateValidation 指定在通过 SSL/TLS 通道使用 FTP 时,是否要启用服务器 TLS/SSL 证书验证。Specify whether to enable server TLS/SSL certificate validation when you are using FTP over SSL/TLS channel.
允许的值是:true(默认)、false。Allowed values are: true (default), false.
No
authenticationTypeauthenticationType 指定身份验证类型。Specify the authentication type.
允许值包括:BasicAnonymousAllowed values are: Basic, Anonymous
Yes
userNameuserName 指定有权访问 FTP 服务器的用户。Specify the user who has access to the FTP server. No
passwordpassword 指定用户 (userName) 的密码。Specify the password for the user (userName). 将此字段标记为 SecureString 以安全地将其存储在数据工厂中或引用存储在 Azure Key Vault 中的机密Mark this field as a SecureString to store it securely in Data Factory, or reference a secret stored in Azure Key Vault. No
connectViaconnectVia 用于连接到数据存储的集成运行时The Integration Runtime to be used to connect to the data store. 先决条件部分了解更多信息。Learn more from Prerequisites section. 如果未指定,则使用默认 Azure Integration Runtime。If not specified, it uses the default Azure Integration Runtime. No

备注

FTP 连接器支持在不使用加密或使用显式 SSL/TLS 加密的情况下访问 FTP 服务器;不支持隐式 SSL/TLS 加密。The FTP connector supports accessing FTP server with either no encryption or explicit SSL/TLS encryption; it doesn’t support implicit SSL/TLS encryption.

示例 1:使用 Anonymous 身份验证Example 1: using Anonymous authentication

{
    "name": "FTPLinkedService",
    "properties": {
        "type": "FtpServer",
        "typeProperties": {
            "host": "<ftp server>",
            "port": 21,
            "enableSsl": true,
            "enableServerCertificateValidation": true,
            "authenticationType": "Anonymous"
        },
        "connectVia": {
            "referenceName": "<name of Integration Runtime>",
            "type": "IntegrationRuntimeReference"
        }
    }
}

示例 2:使用 Basic 身份验证Example 2: using Basic authentication

{
    "name": "FTPLinkedService",
    "properties": {
        "type": "FtpServer",
        "typeProperties": {
            "host": "<ftp server>",
            "port": 21,
            "enableSsl": true,
            "enableServerCertificateValidation": true,
            "authenticationType": "Basic",
            "userName": "<username>",
            "password": {
                "type": "SecureString",
                "value": "<password>"
            }
        },
        "connectVia": {
            "referenceName": "<name of Integration Runtime>",
            "type": "IntegrationRuntimeReference"
        }
    }
}

数据集属性Dataset properties

有关可用于定义数据集的各部分和属性的完整列表,请参阅数据集一文。For a full list of sections and properties available for defining datasets, see the Datasets article.

Azure 数据工厂支持以下文件格式。Azure Data Factory supports the following file formats. 请参阅每一篇介绍基于格式的设置的文章。Refer to each article for format-based settings.

在基于格式的数据集中的 location 设置下,FTP 支持以下属性:The following properties are supported for FTP under location settings in format-based dataset:

属性Property 说明Description 必须Required
typetype 数据集中 location 下的 type 属性必须设置为 FtpServerLocationThe type property under location in dataset must be set to FtpServerLocation. Yes
folderPathfolderPath 文件夹的路径。The path to folder. 如果要使用通配符筛选文件夹,请跳过此设置并在活动源设置中指定。If you want to use wildcard to filter folder, skip this setting and specify in activity source settings. No
fileNamefileName 给定 folderPath 下的文件名。The file name under the given folderPath. 如果要使用通配符筛选文件,请跳过此设置并在活动源设置中指定。If you want to use wildcard to filter files, skip this setting and specify in activity source settings. No

示例:Example:

{
    "name": "DelimitedTextDataset",
    "properties": {
        "type": "DelimitedText",
        "linkedServiceName": {
            "referenceName": "<FTP linked service name>",
            "type": "LinkedServiceReference"
        },
        "schema": [ < physical schema, optional, auto retrieved during authoring > ],
        "typeProperties": {
            "location": {
                "type": "FtpServerLocation",
                "folderPath": "root/folder/subfolder"
            },
            "columnDelimiter": ",",
            "quoteChar": "\"",
            "firstRowAsHeader": true,
            "compressionCodec": "gzip"
        }
    }
}

复制活动属性Copy activity properties

有关可用于定义活动的各部分和属性的完整列表,请参阅管道一文。For a full list of sections and properties available for defining activities, see the Pipelines article. 本部分提供 FTP 源支持的属性列表。This section provides a list of properties supported by FTP source.

FTP 作为源FTP as source

Azure 数据工厂支持以下文件格式。Azure Data Factory supports the following file formats. 请参阅每一篇介绍基于格式的设置的文章。Refer to each article for format-based settings.

在基于格式的复制源中的 storeSettings 设置下,FTP 支持以下属性:The following properties are supported for FTP under storeSettings settings in format-based copy source:

属性Property 说明Description 必须Required
typetype storeSettings 下的 type 属性必须设置为 FtpReadSettingsThe type property under storeSettings must be set to FtpReadSettings. Yes
找到要复制的文件:Locate the files to copy:
选项 1:静态路径OPTION 1: static path
从数据集中指定的给定文件夹/文件路径复制。Copy from the given folder/file path specified in the dataset. 若要复制文件夹中的所有文件,请另外将 wildcardFileName 指定为 *If you want to copy all files from a folder, additionally specify wildcardFileName as *.
选项 2:通配符OPTION 2: wildcard
- wildcardFolderPath- wildcardFolderPath
带通配符的文件夹路径,用于筛选源文件夹。The folder path with wildcard characters to filter source folders.
允许的通配符为:*(匹配零个或更多个字符)和 ?(匹配零个或单个字符);如果实际文件夹名称中包含通配符或此转义字符,请使用 ^ 进行转义。Allowed wildcards are: * (matches zero or more characters) and ? (matches zero or single character); use ^ to escape if your actual folder name has wildcard or this escape char inside.
请参阅文件夹和文件筛选器示例中的更多示例。See more examples in Folder and file filter examples.
No
选项 2:通配符OPTION 2: wildcard
- wildcardFileName- wildcardFileName
给定 folderPath/wildcardFolderPath 下带有通配符的文件名,用于筛选源文件。The file name with wildcard characters under the given folderPath/wildcardFolderPath to filter source files.
允许的通配符为:*(匹配零个或更多个字符)和 ?(匹配零个或单个字符);如果实际文件夹名称中包含通配符或此转义字符,请使用 ^ 进行转义。Allowed wildcards are: * (matches zero or more characters) and ? (matches zero or single character); use ^ to escape if your actual folder name has wildcard or this escape char inside. 请参阅文件夹和文件筛选器示例中的更多示例。See more examples in Folder and file filter examples.
Yes
选项 3:文件列表OPTION 3: a list of files
- fileListPath- fileListPath
指明复制给定文件集。Indicates to copy a given file set. 指向包含要复制的文件列表的文本文件,每行一个文件(即数据集中所配置路径的相对路径)。Point to a text file that includes a list of files you want to copy, one file per line, which is the relative path to the path configured in the dataset.
使用此选项时,请不要在数据集中指定文件名。When using this option, do not specify file name in dataset. 请参阅文件列表示例中的更多示例。See more examples in File list examples.
No
其他设置:Additional settings:
recursiverecursive 指示是要从子文件夹中以递归方式读取数据,还是只从指定的文件夹中读取数据。Indicates whether the data is read recursively from the subfolders or only from the specified folder. 请注意,当 recursive 设置为 true 且接收器是基于文件的存储时,将不会在接收器上复制或创建空的文件夹或子文件夹。Note that when recursive is set to true and the sink is a file-based store, an empty folder or subfolder isn't copied or created at the sink.
允许的值为 true(默认值)和 falseAllowed values are true (default) and false.
如果配置 fileListPath,则此属性不适用。This property doesn't apply when you configure fileListPath.
No
deleteFilesAfterCompletiondeleteFilesAfterCompletion 指示是否会在二进制文件成功移到目标存储后将其从源存储中删除。Indicates whether the binary files will be deleted from source store after successfully moving to the destination store. 文件删除按文件进行。因此,当复制活动失败时,你会看到一些文件已经复制到目标并从源中删除,而另一些文件仍保留在源存储中。The file deletion is per file, so when copy activity fails, you will see some files have already been copied to the destination and deleted from source, while others are still remaining on source store.
此属性仅在二进制文件复制方案中有效,该方案中的数据源存储为 Blob、ADLS Gen2、S3、Google 云存储、文件、Azure 文件存储、SFTP 或 FTP。This property is only valid in binary copy scenario, where data source stores are Blob, ADLS Gen2, S3, Google Cloud Storage, File, Azure File, SFTP, or FTP. 默认值:false。The default value: false.
No
useBinaryTransferuseBinaryTransfer 指定是否使用二进制传输模式。Specify whether to use the binary transfer mode. 这些值在二进制模式下为 true(默认),在 ASCII 模式下为 false。The values are true for binary mode (default), and false for ASCII. No
enablePartitionDiscoveryenablePartitionDiscovery 对于已分区的文件,请指定是否从文件路径分析分区,并将它们添加为附加的源列。For files that are partitioned, specify whether to parse the partitions from the file path and add them as additional source columns.
允许的值为 false(默认)和 true 。Allowed values are false (default) and true.
No
partitionRootPathpartitionRootPath 启用分区发现时,请指定绝对根路径,以便将已分区文件夹读取为数据列。When partition discovery is enabled, specify the absolute root path in order to read partitioned folders as data columns.

如果未指定,默认情况下,If it is not specified, by default,
- 在数据集或源的文件列表中使用文件路径时,分区根路径是在数据集中配置的路径。- When you use file path in dataset or list of files on source, partition root path is the path configured in dataset.
- 使用通配符文件夹筛选器时,分区根路径是第一个通配符前的子路径。- When you use wildcard folder filter, partition root path is the sub-path before the first wildcard.

例如,假设你将数据集中的路径配置为“root/folder/year=2020/month=08/day=27”:For example, assuming you configure the path in dataset as "root/folder/year=2020/month=08/day=27":
- 如果将分区根路径指定为“root/folder/year=2020”,则除了文件内的列外,复制活动还会生成另外两列 monthday,其值分别为“08”和“27”。- If you specify partition root path as "root/folder/year=2020", copy activity will generate two more columns month and day with value "08" and "27" respectively, in addition to the columns inside the files.
- 如果未指定分区根路径,则不会生成额外的列。- If partition root path is not specified, no extra column will be generated.
No
maxConcurrentConnectionsmaxConcurrentConnections 可以同时连接到数据存储的连接数。The number of the connections to connect to the data store concurrently. 仅在要限制与数据存储的并发连接时指定。Specify only when you want to limit the concurrent connection to the data store. No

示例:Example:

"activities":[
    {
        "name": "CopyFromFTP",
        "type": "Copy",
        "inputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<Delimited text input dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "outputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<output dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "typeProperties": {
            "source": {
                "type": "DelimitedTextSource",
                "formatSettings":{
                    "type": "DelimitedTextReadSettings",
                    "skipLineCount": 10
                },
                "storeSettings":{
                    "type": "FtpReadSettings",
                    "recursive": true,
                    "wildcardFolderPath": "myfolder*A",
                    "wildcardFileName": "*.csv"
                }
            },
            "sink": {
                "type": "<sink type>"
            }
        }
    }
]

文件夹和文件筛选器示例Folder and file filter examples

本部分介绍使用通配符筛选器生成文件夹路径和文件名的行为。This section describes the resulting behavior of the folder path and file name with wildcard filters.

folderPathfolderPath fileNamefileName recursiverecursive 源文件夹结构和筛选器结果(用粗体表示的文件已检索)Source folder structure and filter result (files in bold are retrieved)
Folder* (为空,使用默认值)(empty, use default) falsefalse FolderAFolderA
    File1.csv    File1.csv
    File2.json    File2.json
    Subfolder1    Subfolder1
        File3.csv        File3.csv
        File4.json        File4.json
        File5.csv        File5.csv
AnotherFolderBAnotherFolderB
    File6.csv    File6.csv
Folder* (为空,使用默认值)(empty, use default) true FolderAFolderA
    File1.csv    File1.csv
    File2.json    File2.json
    Subfolder1    Subfolder1
        File3.csv        File3.csv
        File4.json        File4.json
        File5.csv        File5.csv
AnotherFolderBAnotherFolderB
    File6.csv    File6.csv
Folder* *.csv falsefalse FolderAFolderA
    File1.csv    File1.csv
    File2.json    File2.json
    Subfolder1    Subfolder1
        File3.csv        File3.csv
        File4.json        File4.json
        File5.csv        File5.csv
AnotherFolderBAnotherFolderB
    File6.csv    File6.csv
Folder* *.csv true FolderAFolderA
    File1.csv    File1.csv
    File2.json    File2.json
    Subfolder1    Subfolder1
        File3.csv        File3.csv
        File4.json        File4.json
        File5.csv        File5.csv
AnotherFolderBAnotherFolderB
    File6.csv    File6.csv

文件列表示例File list examples

本部分介绍了在复制活动源中使用文件列表路径时的结果行为。This section describes the resulting behavior of using file list path in copy activity source.

假设有以下源文件夹结构,并且要复制加粗显示的文件:Assuming you have the following source folder structure and want to copy the files in bold:

示例源结构Sample source structure FileListToCopy.txt 中的内容Content in FileListToCopy.txt ADF 配置ADF configuration
rootroot
    FolderA    FolderA
        File1.csv        File1.csv
        File2.json        File2.json
        Subfolder1        Subfolder1
            File3.csv            File3.csv
            File4.json            File4.json
            File5.csv            File5.csv
    元数据    Metadata
        FileListToCopy.txt        FileListToCopy.txt
File1.csvFile1.csv
Subfolder1/File3.csvSubfolder1/File3.csv
Subfolder1/File5.csvSubfolder1/File5.csv
在数据集中:In dataset:
- 文件夹路径:root/FolderA- Folder path: root/FolderA

在复制活动源中:In copy activity source:
- 文件列表路径:root/Metadata/FileListToCopy.txt- File list path: root/Metadata/FileListToCopy.txt

文件列表路径指向同一数据存储中的文本文件,其中包含要复制的文件列表,每行一个文件,以及在数据集中配置的路径的相对路径。The file list path points to a text file in the same data store that includes a list of files you want to copy, one file per line with the relative path to the path configured in the dataset.

Lookup 活动属性Lookup activity properties

若要了解有关属性的详细信息,请查看 Lookup 活动To learn details about the properties, check Lookup activity.

GetMetadata 活动属性GetMetadata activity properties

若要了解有关属性的详细信息,请查看 GetMetadata 活动To learn details about the properties, check GetMetadata activity

Delete 活动属性Delete activity properties

若要详细了解这些属性,请查看 Delete 活动To learn details about the properties, check Delete activity

旧模型Legacy models

备注

仍按原样支持以下模型,以实现向后兼容性。The following models are still supported as-is for backward compatibility. 建议你以后使用前面部分中提到的新模型,ADF 创作 UI 已经切换到生成新模型。You are suggested to use the new model mentioned in above sections going forward, and the ADF authoring UI has switched to generating the new model.

旧数据集模型Legacy dataset model

propertiesProperty 说明Description 必需Required
typetype 数据集的 type 属性必须设置为:FileShareThe type property of the dataset must be set to: FileShare Yes
folderPathfolderPath 文件夹路径。Path to the folder. 支持通配符筛选器,允许的通配符为:*(匹配零个或更多个字符)和 ?(匹配零个或单个字符);如果实际文件夹名中包含通配符或此转义字符,请使用 ^ 进行转义。Wildcard filter is supported, allowed wildcards are: * (matches zero or more characters) and ? (matches zero or single character); use ^ to escape if your actual folder name has wildcard or this escape char inside.

示例:“rootfolder/subfolder/”,请参阅文件夹和文件筛选器示例中的更多示例。Examples: rootfolder/subfolder/, see more examples in Folder and file filter examples.
Yes
fileNamefileName 指定“folderPath”下的文件的“名称或通配符筛选器”。Name or wildcard filter for the file(s) under the specified "folderPath". 如果没有为此属性指定任何值,则数据集会指向文件夹中的所有文件。If you don't specify a value for this property, the dataset points to all files in the folder.

对于筛选器,允许的通配符为:*(匹配零个或更多字符)和 ?(匹配零个或单个字符)。For filter, allowed wildcards are: * (matches zero or more characters) and ? (matches zero or single character).
- 示例 1:"fileName": "*.csv"- Example 1: "fileName": "*.csv"
- 示例 2:"fileName": "???20180427.txt"- Example 2: "fileName": "???20180427.txt"
如果实际文件名内具有通配符或此转义符,请使用 ^ 进行转义。Use ^ to escape if your actual file name has wildcard or this escape char inside.
No
formatformat 如果想要在基于文件的存储之间按原样复制文件(二进制副本),可以在输入和输出数据集定义中跳过格式节。If you want to copy files as-is between file-based stores (binary copy), skip the format section in both input and output dataset definitions.

若要分析具有特定格式的文件,以下是受支持的文件格式类型:TextFormat、JsonFormat、AvroFormat、OrcFormat、ParquetFormat 。If you want to parse files with a specific format, the following file format types are supported: TextFormat, JsonFormat, AvroFormat, OrcFormat, ParquetFormat. 请将格式中的“type”属性设置为上述值之一。Set the type property under format to one of these values. 有关详细信息,请参阅文本格式Json 格式Avro 格式Orc 格式Parquet 格式部分。For more information, see Text Format, Json Format, Avro Format, Orc Format, and Parquet Format sections.
否(仅适用于二进制复制方案)No (only for binary copy scenario)
compressioncompression 指定数据的压缩类型和级别。Specify the type and level of compression for the data. 有关详细信息,请参阅受支持的文件格式和压缩编解码器For more information, see Supported file formats and compression codecs.
支持的类型包括:GZipDeflateBZip2ZipDeflateSupported types are: GZip, Deflate, BZip2, and ZipDeflate.
支持的级别为:“最佳”和“最快” 。Supported levels are: Optimal and Fastest.
No
useBinaryTransferuseBinaryTransfer 指定是否使用二进制传输模式。Specify whether to use the binary transfer mode. 这些值在二进制模式下为 true(默认),在 ASCII 模式下为 false。The values are true for binary mode (default), and false for ASCII. No

提示

如需复制文件夹下的所有文件,请仅指定 folderPathTo copy all files under a folder, specify folderPath only.
如需复制具有给定名称的单个文件,请使用文件夹部分指定 folderPath 并使用文件名指定 fileNameTo copy a single file with a given name, specify folderPath with folder part and fileName with file name.
如需复制文件夹下的文件子集,请指定文件夹部分的 folderPath 和通配符筛选器部分的 fileNameTo copy a subset of files under a folder, specify folderPath with folder part and fileName with wildcard filter.

备注

如果文件筛选器使用“fileFilter”属性,则在建议你今后使用添加到“fileName”的新筛选器功能时,仍按原样支持该属性。If you were using "fileFilter" property for file filter, it is still supported as-is, while you are suggested to use the new filter capability added to "fileName" going forward.

示例:Example:

{
    "name": "FTPDataset",
    "properties": {
        "type": "FileShare",
        "linkedServiceName":{
            "referenceName": "<FTP linked service name>",
            "type": "LinkedServiceReference"
        },
        "typeProperties": {
            "folderPath": "folder/subfolder/",
            "fileName": "myfile.csv.gz",
            "format": {
                "type": "TextFormat",
                "columnDelimiter": ",",
                "rowDelimiter": "\n"
            },
            "compression": {
                "type": "GZip",
                "level": "Optimal"
            }
        }
    }
}

旧复制活动源模型Legacy copy activity source model

propertiesProperty 说明Description 必需Required
typetype 复制活动 source 的 type 属性必须设置为:FileSystemSourceThe type property of the copy activity source must be set to: FileSystemSource Yes
recursiverecursive 指示是要从子文件夹中以递归方式读取数据,还是只从指定的文件夹中读取数据。Indicates whether the data is read recursively from the sub folders or only from the specified folder. 当 recursive 设置为 true 且接收器是基于文件的存储时,将不会在接收器上复制/创建空的文件夹/子文件夹。Note when recursive is set to true and sink is file-based store, empty folder/sub-folder will not be copied/created at sink.
允许的值为:true(默认)、false Allowed values are: true (default), false
No
maxConcurrentConnectionsmaxConcurrentConnections 可以同时连接到存储库的连接数。The number of the connections to connect to storage store concurrently. 仅在要限制与数据存储的并发连接时指定。Specify only when you want to limit the concurrent connection to the data store. No

示例:Example:

"activities":[
    {
        "name": "CopyFromFTP",
        "type": "Copy",
        "inputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<FTP input dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "outputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<output dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "typeProperties": {
            "source": {
                "type": "FileSystemSource",
                "recursive": true
            },
            "sink": {
                "type": "<sink type>"
            }
        }
    }
]

后续步骤Next steps

有关 Azure 数据工厂中复制活动支持作为源和接收器的数据存储的列表,请参阅支持的数据存储For a list of data stores supported as sources and sinks by the copy activity in Azure Data Factory, see supported data stores.