适用于 Azure IoT 中心的 Azure 安全基线Azure security baseline for Azure IoT Hub

适用于 Microsoft Azure IoT 中心的 Azure 安全基线包含可帮助你改进部署安全状况的建议。The Azure Security Baseline for Microsoft Azure IoT Hub contains recommendations that will help you improve the security posture of your deployment. 此服务的基线摘自 Azure 安全基准版本 1.0,其中提供了有关如何根据我们的最佳做法指导保护 Azure 上的云解决方案的建议。The baseline for this service is drawn from the Azure Security Benchmark version 1.0, which provides recommendations on how you can secure your cloud solutions on Azure with our best practices guidance. 有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线概述For more information, see Azure Security Baselines overview.

网络安全性Network security

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 网络安全For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Network security.

1.1:保护虚拟网络中的 Azure 资源1.1: Protect Azure resources within virtual networks

指南 :默认情况下,IoT 中心的主机名会映射到一个公共终结点,该终结点具有可通过 internet 以公开方式路由的 IP 地址。Guidance : By default, IoT Hub's hostnames map to a public endpoint with a publicly routable IP address over the internet. 不同的客户将共享此 IoT 中心公共终结点,广域网和本地网络中的 IoT 设备均可对其进行访问。Different customers share this IoT Hub public endpoint, and IoT devices in over wide-area networks and on-premises networks can all access it.

IoT 中心的功能,包括消息路由、文件上传和批量设备导入/导出,还需要配置有从 IoT 中心到客户拥有的 Azure 资源的连接(通过其公共终结点)。IoT Hub features including message routing, file upload, and bulk device import/export also require connectivity from IoT Hub to a customer-owned Azure resource over its public endpoint. 这些连接路径上的流量共同构成了从 IoT 中心到客户资源的出口流量。These connectivity paths collectively make up the egress traffic from IoT Hub to customer resources.

建议通过你自己运行的虚拟网络来限制与 Azure 资源(包括 Azure IoT 中心)的连接,以减少隔离网络中的连接风险,并直接将本地网络连接到 Azure 主干网络。Recommend restricting connectivity to your Azure resources (including Azure IoT Hub) through a virtual network that you own and operate to reduce connectivity exposure in an isolated network and enable on-premises network connectivity directly to Azure backbone network. 在可行的情况下,使用 Azure 专用链接和 Azure 专用终结点来启用从其他虚拟网络对服务的专用访问。Use Azure Private Link and Azure Private Endpoint, where feasible, to enable private access to your services from other virtual networks.

将设备中开放的硬件端口数保持在最低限度,以避免不必要的访问。Keep open hardware ports in your devices to a bare minimum to avoid unwanted access. 此外,建立相应机制来阻止或检测对设备的物理篡改。Additionally, build mechanisms to prevent or detect physical tampering of the device.

Azure 安全中心监视 :是Azure Security Center monitoring : Yes

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

1.2:监视和记录虚拟网络、子网和 NIC 的配置与流量1.2: Monitor and log the configuration and traffic of virtual networks, subnets, and NICs

指南 :使用 Azure 安全中心并遵循网络保护建议来帮助保护 Azure 网络资源。Guidance : Use Azure Security Center and follow the network protection recommendations to help secure your Azure network resources. 启用网络安全组流日志,并将日志发送到 Azure 存储帐户进行审核。Enable network security group flow logs and send the logs to an Azure Storage account for auditing. 你还可以将流日志发送到 Log Analytics 工作区,然后使用流量分析来提供有关 Azure 云中流量模式的见解。You can also send the flow logs to a Log Analytics workspace and then use Traffic Analytics to provide insights into traffic patterns in your Azure cloud. 流量分析的优势包括能够可视化网络活动、识别热点和安全威胁、了解通信流模式,以及查明网络不当配置。Some advantages of Traffic Analytics are the ability to visualize network activity, identify hot spots and security threats, understand traffic flow patterns, and pinpoint network misconfigurations.

Azure 安全中心监视 :是Azure Security Center monitoring : Yes

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

1.3:保护关键 Web 应用程序1.3: Protect critical web applications

指导 :不适用;此建议适用于 Azure 应用服务或计算资源上运行的 Web 应用程序。Guidance : Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for web applications running on Azure App Service or compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :不适用Responsibility : Not Applicable

1.4:拒绝与已知恶意的 IP 地址进行通信1.4: Deny communications with known malicious IP addresses

指南 :使用 IoT 中心 IP 筛选规则阻止已知的恶意 IP。Guidance : Block known malicious IPs with IoT Hub IP filter rules . 另外,通过适用于 IoT 的 Azure 安全中心记录恶意尝试行为并针对其发出警报。Malicious attempts are also recorded and alerted via Azure Security Center for IoT.

Azure DDoS 防护基本版已作为 IoT 中心的一部分启用,使用时无需额外付费。Azure DDoS Protection Basic is already enabled and available for no additional cost as part of IoT Hub. 始终可用的流量监控和常见网络级别攻击的实时风险缓解提供了 Microsoft 联机服务所采用的相同防御机制。Always-on traffic monitoring, and real-time mitigation of common network-level attacks, provide the same defenses utilized by Microsoft's online services. 整个 Azure 全球网络的规模可用于跨区域分散和缓解攻击流量。The entire scale of Azure's global network can be used to distribute and mitigate attack traffic across regions.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.5:记录网络数据包1.5: Record network packets

指南:不适用;此建议适用于生成网络数据包的产品/服务,这些数据包可由客户记录和查看。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for offerings that produce network packets that can be recorded and viewed by customers. IoT 中心不生成面向客户的网络数据包,并且不能直接部署到 Azure 虚拟网络中。IoT Hub does not produce network packets that are customer facing, and is not designed to deploy directly into Azure virtual networks.

Azure 安全中心监视:否Azure Security Center monitoring: No

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not Applicable

1.6:部署基于网络的入侵检测/入侵防护系统 (IDS/IPS)1.6: Deploy network-based intrusion detection/intrusion prevention systems (IDS/IPS)

指南:从 Azure 市场中选择一种产品/服务,该产品/服务应支持包含有效负载检查功能的 IDS/IPS 功能。Guidance: Select an offer from Azure Marketplace that supports IDS/IPS functionality with payload inspection capabilities. 如果不需要进行有效负载检查,则可以使用 Azure 防火墙威胁情报。When payload inspection is not a requirement, Azure Firewall threat intelligence can be used. 使用基于 Azure 防火墙威胁情报的筛选功能,针对进出已知恶意 IP 地址和域的流量发出警报并/或阻止该流量。Azure Firewall threat intelligence-based filtering is used to alert on and/or block traffic to and from known malicious IP addresses and domains. IP 地址和域源自 Microsoft 威胁智能源。The IP addresses and domains are sourced from the Microsoft Threat Intelligence feed.

在组织的每个网络边界上部署所选的防火墙解决方案,以检测并/或阻止恶意流量。Deploy the firewall solution of your choice at each of your organization's network boundaries to detect and/or block malicious traffic.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.7:管理发往 Web 应用程序的流量1.7: Manage traffic to web applications

指导:不适用;此建议适用于 Azure 应用服务或计算资源上运行的 Web 应用程序。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for web applications running on Azure App Service or compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not Applicable

1.8:最大程度地降低网络安全规则的复杂性和管理开销1.8: Minimize complexity and administrative overhead of network security rules

指南:对于需要访问 Azure IoT 中心的资源,请使用虚拟网络服务标记来定义网络安全组或 Azure 防火墙上的网络访问控制。Guidance: For resources that need access to your Azure IoT Hub, use Virtual Network service tags to define network access controls on network security Groups or Azure Firewall. 创建安全规则时,可以使用服务标记代替特定的 IP 地址。You can use service tags in place of specific IP addresses when creating security rules. 通过在规则的相应源或目标字段中指定服务标记名(例如,AzureIoTHub),可以允许或拒绝相应服务的流量。By specifying the service tag name (for example, AzureIoTHub) in the appropriate source or destination field of a rule, you can allow or deny the traffic for the corresponding service. Microsoft 会管理服务标记包含的地址前缀,并会在地址发生更改时自动更新服务标记。Microsoft manages the address prefixes encompassed by the service tag and automatically updates the service tag as addresses change.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.9:维护网络设备的标准安全配置1.9: Maintain standard security configurations for network devices

指南:使用 Azure Policy 为与 Azure IoT 中心命名空间关联的网络资源定义和实施标准安全配置。Guidance: Define and implement standard security configurations for network resources associated with your Azure IoT Hub namespaces with Azure Policy. 在“Microsoft.Devices”和“Microsoft.Network”命名空间中使用 Azure Policy 别名创建自定义策略,以审核或强制实施机器学习命名空间的网络配置。Use Azure Policy aliases in the "Microsoft.Devices" and "Microsoft.Network" namespaces to create custom policies to audit or enforce the network configuration of your Machine Learning namespaces.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.10:阐述流量配置规则1.10: Document traffic configuration rules

指南:对与 Azure IoT 中心部署关联的网络资源使用标记,以便按逻辑将这些资源组织成某种分类。Guidance: Use tags for network resources associated with your Azure IoT Hub deployment in order to logically organize them into a taxonomy.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

1.11:使用自动化工具来监视网络资源配置和检测更改1.11: Use automated tools to monitor network resource configurations and detect changes

指南:使用 Azure 活动日志监视网络资源配置,并检测与 Azure IoT 中心相关的网络资源的更改。Guidance: Use Azure Activity Log to monitor network resource configurations and detect changes for network resources related to Azure IoT Hub. 在 Azure Monitor 中创建当关键网络资源发生更改时触发的警报。Create alerts within Azure Monitor that will trigger when changes to critical network resources take place.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

日志记录和监视Logging and monitoring

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 日志记录和监视For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Logging and monitoring.

2.1:使用批准的时间同步源2.1: Use approved time synchronization sources

指南:Microsoft 为日志中的时间戳维护用于 Azure 资源(例如 Azure IoT 中心)的时间源。Guidance: Microsoft maintains the time source used for Azure resources such as Azure IoT Hub for timestamps in the logs.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:MicrosoftResponsibility: Microsoft

2.2:配置中心安全日志管理2.2: Configure central security log management

指南:通过 Azure Monitor 引入日志来聚合 Azure IoT 中心生成的安全数据。Guidance: Ingest logs via Azure Monitor to aggregate security data generated by Azure IoT Hub. 在 Azure Monitor 中,使用 Log Analytics 工作区来查询和执行分析,并使用存储帐户进行长期/存档存储。In Azure Monitor, use Log Analytics workspaces to query and perform analytics, and use storage accounts for long-term/archival storage. 或者,可以启用数据并将其加入 Azure Sentinel 或第三方安全信息和事件管理 (SIEM)。Alternatively, you can enable and on-board data to Azure Sentinel or a third-party Security Incident and Event Management (SIEM).

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.3:为 Azure 资源启用审核日志记录2.3: Enable audit logging for Azure resources

指导:在 Azure 资源上启用 Azure IoT 诊断设置,以访问审核日志、安全日志和资源日志。Guidance: Enable Azure IoT diagnostic settings on Azure resources for access to audit, security, and resource logs. 活动日志自动可用,包括事件源、日期、用户、时间戳、源地址、目标地址和其他有用元素。Activity logs, which are automatically available, include event source, date, user, timestamp, source addresses, destination addresses, and other useful elements.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.4:从操作系统收集安全日志2.4: Collect security logs from operating systems

指导:不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not Applicable

2.5:配置安全日志存储保留期2.5: Configure security log storage retention

指南:在 Azure Monitor 中,根据组织的合规性规章,为与 Azure IoT 中心实例关联的 Log Analytics 工作区设置日志保持期。Guidance: In Azure Monitor, set the log retention period for Log Analytics workspaces associated with your Azure IoT Hub instances according to your organization's compliance regulations.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.6:监视和审查日志2.6: Monitor and review Logs

指南:分析和监视日志中的异常行为,并定期审查来自 Azure IoT 中心的结果。Guidance: Analyze and monitor logs for anomalous behavior and regularly review the results from your Azure IoT Hub. 使用 Azure Monitor 和 Log Analytics 工作区查看日志并对日志数据执行查询。Use Azure Monitor and a Log Analytics workspace to review logs and perform queries on log data.

或者,可以启用数据并将其加入 Azure Sentinel 或第三方 SIEM。Alternatively, you can enable and on-board data to Azure Sentinel or a third-party SIEM.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.7:针对异常活动启用警报2.7: Enable alerts for anomalous activities

指南:使用适用于 IoT 的 Azure 安全中心和 Log Analytics 工作区监视安全日志和事件中的异常活动并发出警报。Guidance: Use Azure Security Center for IoT with a Log Analytics workspace for monitoring and alerting on anomalous activity found in security logs and events. 或者,可以启用数据并将其加入 Azure Sentinel。Alternatively, you can enable and on-board data to Azure Sentinel. 还可以使用 Azure Monitor 定义可能带来安全隐患的操作警报,例如流量意外下降时。You can also define operational alerts with Azure Monitor that may have security implications, such as when traffic drops unexpectedly.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

2.8:集中管理反恶意软件日志记录2.8: Centralize anti-malware logging

指南:不适用;Azure IoT 中心不会处理或生成与反恶意软件相关的日志。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure IoT Hub does not process or produce anti-malware related logs.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not Applicable

2.9:启用 DNS 查询日志记录2.9: Enable DNS query logging

指南:不适用;Azure IoT 中心不会处理或生成与 DNS 相关的日志。Guidance: Not applicable; Azure IoT Hub does not process or produce DNS-related logs.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not Applicable

2.10:启用命令行审核日志记录2.10: Enable command-line audit logging

指导:不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance: Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:不适用Responsibility: Not Applicable

标识和访问控制Identity and access control

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 标识和访问控制For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Identity and access control.

3.1:维护管理帐户的清单3.1: Maintain an inventory of administrative accounts

指南:借助 Azure 基于角色的访问控制 (Azure RBAC),可以通过角色分配管理对 Azure IoT 中心的访问。Guidance: Azure role-based access control (Azure RBAC) allows you to manage access to Azure IoT hub through role assignments. 可以将这些角色分配给用户、组服务主体和托管标识。You can assign these roles to users, groups service principals, and managed identities. 某些资源具有预定义的内置角色,可以通过工具(例如 Azure CLI、Azure PowerShell 或 Azure 门户)来清点或查询这些角色。There are pre-defined built-in roles for certain resources, and these roles can be inventoried or queried through tools such as Azure CLI, or Azure PowerShell, or the Azure portal.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.2:在适用的情况下更改默认密码3.2: Change default passwords where applicable

指南:对 Azure IoT 中心资源的访问管理通过 Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) 来控制。Guidance: Access management to Azure IoT Hub resources is controlled through Azure Active Directory (Azure AD). Azure AD 没有默认密码。Azure AD does not have the concept of default passwords.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.3:使用专用管理帐户3.3: Use dedicated administrative accounts

指南:围绕专用管理帐户的使用创建标准操作程序。Guidance: Create standard operating procedures around the use of dedicated administrative accounts.

还可以通过使用 Azure AD Privileged Identity Management 和 Azure 资源管理器来启用对管理帐户的即时访问。You can also enable just-in-time access to administrative accounts by using Azure AD Privileged Identity Management and Azure Resource Manager.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.4:将单一登录 (SSO) 与 Azure Active Directory 配合使用3.4: Use single sign-on (SSO) with Azure Active Directory

指南:对于访问 IoT 中心的用户,请使用 Azure Active Directory SSO。Guidance: For users accessing IoT Hub, use Azure Active Directory SSO. 请使用 Azure 安全中心标识和访问建议。Use Azure Security Center identity and access recommendations.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.5:对所有基于 Azure Active Directory 的访问使用多重身份验证3.5: Use multi-factor authentication for all Azure Active Directory based access

指南:启用 Azure AD MFA 来保护整个 Azure 租户,从而使所有服务受益。Guidance: Enable Azure AD MFA to protect your overall Azure tenant, benefiting all services. IoT 中心服务不支持 MFA。IoT Hub service doesn't have MFA support.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.6:对所有管理任务使用专用计算机(特权访问工作站)3.6: Use dedicated machines (Privileged Access Workstations) for all administrative tasks

指导:对于需要提升的权限的管理任务,请使用安全的 Azure 托管工作站(也称为特权访问工作站,简称 PAW)。Guidance: Use a secure, Azure-managed workstation (also known as a Privileged Access Workstation, or PAW) for administrative tasks that require elevated privileges.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.7:记录来自管理帐户的可疑活动并对其发出警报3.7: Log and alert on suspicious activities from administrative accounts

指导:使用 Azure Active Directory 安全报告和监视来检测环境中何时发生可疑活动或不安全的活动。Guidance: Use Azure Active Directory security reports and monitoring to detect when suspicious or unsafe activity occurs in the environment. 使用 Azure 安全中心监视标识和访问活动。Use Azure Security Center to monitor identity and access activity.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.8:仅从批准的位置管理 Azure 资源3.8: Manage Azure resources only from approved locations

指南:对于访问 IoT 中心的用户,不支持条件访问。Guidance: For users accessing IoT Hub, conditional access isn't supported. 若要缓解这种情况,请使用 Azure AD 命名位置仅允许从 IP 地址范围或国家/地区的特定逻辑分组访问整个 Azure 租户,从而使包括 IoT 中心在内的所有服务受益。To mitigate this, use Azure AD named locations to allow access only from specific logical groupings of IP address ranges or countries/regions for your overall Azure tenant, benefitting all services including IoT Hub.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.9:使用 Azure Active Directory3.9: Use Azure Active Directory

指南:对于访问 IoT 中心的用户,请使用 Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) 作为中心身份验证和授权系统。Guidance: For user access to IoT Hub, Use Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) as the central authentication and authorization system. Azure AD 通过对静态数据和传输中数据使用强加密来保护数据。Azure AD protects data by using strong encryption for data at rest and in transit. Azure AD 还会对用户凭据进行加盐、哈希处理和安全存储操作。Azure AD also salts, hashes, and securely stores user credentials.

对于设备和服务访问,IoT 中心使用安全令牌和共享访问签名 (SAS) 令牌对设备和服务进行身份验证,以避免在网络上发送密钥。For device and service access, IoT Hub uses security tokens and Shared Access Signature (SAS) tokens to authenticate devices and services to avoid sending keys on network.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.10:定期审查和协调用户访问3.10: Regularly review and reconcile user access

指南:Azure AD 提供日志来帮助发现过时的帐户。Guidance: Azure AD provides logs to help discover stale accounts. 此外,请使用 Azure AD 标识和访问评审来有效管理组成员身份、对企业应用程序的访问以及角色分配。In addition, use Azure AD identity and access reviews to efficiently manage group memberships, access to enterprise applications, and role assignments. 可以定期评审用户的访问权限,确保只有适当的用户才持续拥有访问权限。User access can be reviewed on a regular basis to make sure only the right users have continued access.

使用 Azure AD Privileged Identity Management (PIM) 在环境中发生可疑或不安全的活动时生成日志和警报。Use Azure AD Privileged Identity Management (PIM) for generation of logs and alerts when suspicious or unsafe activity occurs in the environment.

Azure 安全中心监视:是Azure Security Center monitoring: Yes

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.11:监视尝试访问已停用凭据的行为3.11: Monitor attempts to access deactivated credentials

指导:你有权访问 Azure AD 登录活动、审核和风险事件日志源,因此可以与任何 SIEM/监视工具集成。Guidance: You have access to Azure AD sign-in activity, audit, and risk event log sources, which allow you to integrate with any SIEM/monitoring tool.

可以通过为 Azure AD 用户帐户创建诊断设置,并将审核日志和登录日志发送到 Log Analytics 工作区,来简化此过程。You can streamline this process by creating diagnostic settings for Azure AD user accounts and sending the audit logs and sign-in logs to a Log Analytics workspace. 你可以在 Log Analytics 工作区中配置所需的警报。You can configure desired alerts within Log Analytics workspace.

使用 Azure Monitor 诊断日志监视“连接”类别中未经授权的连接尝试。User Azure Monitor diagnostic logs to monitor unauthorized connection attempts in the Connections category.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.12:针对帐户登录行为偏差发出警报3.12: Alert on account login behavior deviation

指导:使用 Azure AD 标识保护功能来配置对检测到的与用户标识相关的可疑操作的自动响应。Guidance: Use Azure AD Identity Protection features to configure automated responses to detected suspicious actions related to user identities. 还可将数据引入 Azure Sentinel 以做进一步调查。You can also ingest data into Azure Sentinel for further investigation.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

3.13:在支持场合下为 Microsoft 提供对相关客户数据的访问权限3.13: Provide Microsoft with access to relevant customer data during support scenarios

指南:在 Microsoft 需要访问客户数据的支持场景中,Microsoft 将直接向客户请求数据。Guidance: In support scenarios where Microsoft needs to access customer data, it will be requested directly from the customer.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

数据保护Data protection

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 数据保护For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Data protection.

4.1:维护敏感信息的清单4.1: Maintain an inventory of sensitive Information

指导:使用标记可以帮助跟踪存储或处理敏感信息的 Azure 资源。Guidance: Use tags to assist in tracking Azure resources that store or process sensitive information.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

4.2:隔离存储或处理敏感信息的系统4.2: Isolate systems storing or processing sensitive information

指导:使用单独的订阅和管理组对各个安全域(如环境类型和数据敏感度级别)实现隔离。Guidance: Implement isolation using separate subscriptions and management groups for individual security domains such as environment type and data sensitivity level. 你可以限制对应用程序和企业环境所需 Azure 资源的访问级别。You can restrict the level of access to your Azure resources that your applications and enterprise environments demand. 可以通过 Azure RBAC 来控制对 Azure 资源的访问。You can control access to Azure resources via Azure RBAC.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

4.3:监视和阻止未经授权的敏感信息传输4.3: Monitor and block unauthorized transfer of sensitive information

指导:利用 Azure 市场中有关网络外围的第三方解决方案,监视并阻止敏感信息的未授权传输,同时提醒信息安全专业人员。Guidance: Use a third-party solution from Azure Marketplace in network perimeters to monitor for unauthorized transfer of sensitive information and block such transfers while alerting information security professionals.

对于由 Microsoft 管理的底层平台,Microsoft 会将所有客户内容都视为敏感信息,全方位防范客户数据丢失和泄露。For the underlying platform managed by Microsoft, Microsoft treats all customer content as sensitive and guards against customer data loss and exposure. 为了确保 Azure 中的客户数据保持安全,Microsoft 实施并维护了一套可靠的数据保护控制措施和功能。To ensure customer data within Azure remains secure, Microsoft has implemented and maintains a suite of robust data protection controls and capabilities.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

4.4:加密传输中的所有敏感信息4.4: Encrypt all sensitive information in transit

指南:IoT 中心使用传输层安全性 (TLS) 保护来自 IoT 设备和服务的连接。Guidance: IoT Hub uses Transport Layer Security (TLS) to secure connections from IoT devices and services. 目前支持三个版本的 TLS 协议,即版本 1.0、1.1 和 1.2。Three versions of the TLS protocol are currently supported, namely versions 1.0, 1.1, and 1.2. 在连接到 IoT 中心时,强烈建议使用 TLS 1.2 作为首选 TLS 版本。It is strongly recommended that you use TLS 1.2 as the preferred TLS version when connecting to IoT Hub.

请按照 Azure 安全中心的建议,了解静态加密和传输中的加密(如果适用)。Follow Azure Security Center recommendations for encryption at rest and encryption in transit, where applicable.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任:客户Responsibility: Customer

4.5:使用有效的发现工具识别敏感数据4.5: Use an active discovery tool to identify sensitive data

指南:数据标识、分类和丢失防护功能尚不适用于 Azure IoT 中心。Guidance: Data identification, classification, and loss prevention features are not yet available for Azure IoT Hub. 如果需要出于合规性目的使用这些功能,请实施第三方解决方案。Implement a third-party solution if required for compliance purposes.

对于由 Microsoft 管理的 Azure 底层平台,Microsoft 会将所有客户内容都视为敏感信息,竭尽全力防范客户数据丢失和泄露。For the underlying Azure platform managed by Microsoft, Microsoft treats all customer content as sensitive and goes to great lengths to guard against customer data loss and exposure. 为了确保 Azure 中的客户数据保持安全,Microsoft 实施并维护了一套可靠的数据保护控制措施和功能。To ensure customer data within Azure remains secure, Microsoft has implemented and maintains a suite of robust data protection controls and capabilities.

Azure 安全中心监视:不适用Azure Security Center monitoring: Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

4.6:使用 Azure RBAC 管理对资源的访问4.6: Use Azure RBAC to manage access to resources

指南 :对于访问 IoT 中心的控制平面用户,请使用 Azure RBAC 来控制访问。Guidance : For control plane user access to IoT Hub, use Azure RBAC to control access. 对于访问 IoT 中心的数据平面,请使用 IoT 中心的共享访问策略。For data plane access to IoT Hub, use shared access policies for IoT Hub.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

4.7:使用基于主机的数据丢失防护来强制实施访问控制4.7: Use host-based data loss prevention to enforce access control

指导 :不适用;此项指导适用于计算资源。Guidance : Not applicable; this guideline is intended for compute resources.

Microsoft 管理 Azure IoT 中心的底层基础结构,并实施了严格的控制措施来防止客户数据丢失或泄露。Microsoft manages the underlying infrastructure for Azure IoT Hub and has implemented strict controls to prevent the loss or exposure of customer data.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :MicrosoftResponsibility : Microsoft

4.8:静态加密敏感信息4.8: Encrypt sensitive information at rest

指南 :IoT 中心支持使用客户托管的密钥 (CMK) 对静态数据进行加密,该密钥也称为“自带密钥”(BYOK)。Guidance : IoT Hub supports encryption of data at rest with customer-managed keys (CMK), also known as "bring your own key" (BYOK).

Azure IoT 中心对写入数据中心的静态数据和传输中的数据进行加密,并在你访问数据时解密。Azure IoT Hub provides encryption of data at rest and in-transit as it is written in our datacenters and decrypts it for you as you access it. 默认情况下,IoT 中心使用 Microsoft 托管的密钥来加密静态数据。By default, IoT Hub uses Microsoft-managed keys to encrypt the data at rest.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :MicrosoftResponsibility : Microsoft

4.9:记录对关键 Azure 资源的更改并对此类更改发出警报4.9: Log and alert on changes to critical Azure resources

指南 :将 Azure Monitor 与 Azure 活动日志结合使用,以创建在 Azure IoT 中心的生产实例和其他关键或相关资源发生更改时发出的警报。Guidance : Use Azure Monitor with the Azure Activity log to create alerts for when changes take place to production instances of Azure IoT Hub and other critical or related resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

漏洞管理Vulnerability management

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 漏洞管理For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Vulnerability management.

5.1:运行自动漏洞扫描工具5.1: Run automated vulnerability scanning tools

指南 :不适用;Microsoft 对支持 Azure IoT 中心的底层系统执行漏洞管理。Guidance : Not applicable; Microsoft performs vulnerability management on the underlying systems that support Azure IoT Hub.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :MicrosoftResponsibility : Microsoft

5.2:部署自动操作系统修补管理解决方案5.2: Deploy automated operating system patch management solution

指南 :不适用;Microsoft 对支持 Azure IoT 中心的底层系统执行修补程序管理。Guidance : Not applicable; Microsoft performs patch management on the underlying systems that support Azure IoT Hub.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :MicrosoftResponsibility : Microsoft

5.3:为第三方软件部署自动化补丁管理解决方案5.3: Deploy an automated patch management solution for third-party software titles

指导 :不适用;此项指导适用于计算资源。Guidance : Not applicable; this guideline is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :不适用Responsibility : Not Applicable

5.4:比较连续进行的漏洞扫描5.4: Compare back-to-back vulnerability scans

指导 :不适用;此项指导适用于计算资源。Guidance : Not applicable; this guideline is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :不适用Responsibility : Not Applicable

5.5:使用风险评级过程来确定已发现漏洞的修正措施的优先级5.5: Use a risk-rating process to prioritize the remediation of discovered vulnerabilities

指导 :不适用;此项指导适用于计算资源。Guidance : Not applicable; this guideline is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :不适用Responsibility : Not Applicable

库存和资产管理Inventory and asset management

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 清单和资产管理For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Inventory and asset management.

6.1:使用自动化资产发现解决方案6.1: Use automated asset discovery solution

指导 :不适用;此项指导适用于计算资源。Guidance : Not applicable; this guideline is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :不适用Responsibility : Not Applicable

6.2:维护资产元数据6.2: Maintain asset metadata

指南 :向 Azure 资源应用标记(并非所有资源都支持标记,但大多数资源都支持),以便按逻辑将这些资源组织成某种分类。Guidance : Apply tags to Azure resources (not all resources support tags, but most do) to logically organize them into a taxonomy.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

6.3:删除未经授权的 Azure 资源6.3: Delete unauthorized Azure resources

指导 :在适用的情况下,请使用标记、管理组和单独的订阅来组织和跟踪资产。Guidance : Use tagging, management groups, and separate subscriptions where appropriate, to organize and track assets. 定期核对清单,确保及时地从订阅中删除未经授权的资源。Reconcile inventory on a regular basis and ensure unauthorized resources are deleted from the subscription in a timely manner.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

6.4:定义并维护已批准 Azure 资源的清单6.4: Define and maintain an inventory of approved Azure resources

指导 :根据组织需求,创建已获批 Azure 资源以及已获批用于计算资源的软件的清单。Guidance : Create an inventory of approved Azure resources and approved software for compute resources as per your organizational needs.

每个 IoT 中心都有一个标识注册表,可用于在服务中创建各设备的资源。Each IoT Hub has an identity registry that can be used to create per-device resources in the service. 可将单个或一组设备标识添加到允许列表或方块列表,以便完全控制设备访问。Individual or groups of device identities can be added to an allow list, or a block list, enabling complete control over device access.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

6.5:监视未批准的 Azure 资源6.5: Monitor for unapproved Azure resources

指导 :使用 Azure Policy 对可以在订阅中创建的资源类型施加限制。Guidance : Use Azure Policy to put restrictions on the type of resources that can be created in your subscriptions.

使用 Azure Resource Graph 查询和发现订阅中的资源。Use Azure Resource Graph to query for and discover resources within their subscriptions. 确保环境中的所有 Azure 资源均已获得批准。Ensure that all Azure resources present in the environment are approved.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

6.6:监视计算资源中未批准的软件应用程序6.6: Monitor for unapproved software applications within compute resources

指导 :不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance : Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :不适用Responsibility : Not Applicable

6.7:删除未批准的 Azure 资源和软件应用程序6.7: Remove unapproved Azure resources and software applications

指导 :不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance : Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :不适用Responsibility : Not Applicable

6.8:仅使用已批准的应用程序6.8: Use only approved applications

指导 :不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance : Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :不适用Responsibility : Not Applicable

6.9:仅使用已批准的 Azure 服务6.9: Use only approved Azure services

指导 :在 Azure Policy 中使用以下内置策略定义,对可以在客户订阅中创建的资源类型施加限制:Guidance : Use Azure Policy to put restrictions on the type of resources that can be created in customer subscriptions using the following built-in policy definitions:

  • 不允许的资源类型Not allowed resource types
  • 允许的资源类型Allowed resource types

此外,请使用 Azure Resource Graph 来查询/发现订阅中的资源。In addition, use the Azure Resource Graph to query/discover resources within the subscriptions.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

6.10:维护已获批软件的清单6.10: Maintain an inventory of approved software titles

指导 :不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance : Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :不适用Responsibility : Not Applicable

6.11:限制用户与 Azure 资源管理器进行交互的能力6.11: Limit users' ability to interact with Azure Resource Manager

指南 :通过为“Microsoft Azure 管理”应用配置“阻止访问”,使用 Azure AD 条件访问来限制用户与 Azure 资源管理器交互的能力。Guidance : Use Azure AD Conditional Access to limit users' ability to interact with Azure Resource Manager by configuring "Block access" for the "Microsoft Azure Management" App.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

6.12:限制用户在计算资源中执行脚本的能力6.12: Limit users' ability to execute scripts in compute resources

指导 :不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance : Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :不适用Responsibility : Not Applicable

6.13:以物理或逻辑方式隔离高风险应用程序6.13: Physically or logically segregate high risk applications

指导 :不适用;此建议适用于 Azure 应用服务或计算资源上运行的 Web 应用程序。Guidance : Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for web applications running on Azure App Service or compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :不适用Responsibility : Not Applicable

安全配置Secure configuration

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 安全配置For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Secure configuration.

7.1:为所有 Azure 资源建立安全配置7.1: Establish secure configurations for all Azure resources

指南 :通过 Azure Policy 为 Azure IoT 中心服务定义和实现标准安全配置。Guidance : Define and implement standard security configurations for your Azure Iot Hub service with Azure Policy. 使用“Microsoft.Devices”命名空间中的 Azure Policy 别名创建自定义策略,以审核或强制实施 Azure IoT 中心服务的配置。Use Azure Policy aliases in the "Microsoft.Devices" namespace to create custom policies to audit or enforce the configuration of your Azure IoT Hub services.

Azure 资源管理器能够以 JavaScript 对象表示法 (JSON) 导出模板,应该对其进行检查,以确保配置满足组织的安全要求。Azure Resource Manager has the ability to export the template in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON), which should be reviewed to ensure that the configurations meet the security requirements for your organization.

还可以使用来自 Azure 安全中心的建议作为 Azure 资源的安全配置基线。You can also use the recommendations from Azure Security Center as a secure configuration baseline for your Azure resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

7.2:建立安全的操作系统配置7.2: Establish secure operating system configurations

指导 :不适用;此项指导适用于计算资源。Guidance : Not applicable; this guideline is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :不适用Responsibility : Not Applicable

7.3:维护安全的 Azure 资源配置7.3: Maintain secure Azure resource configurations

指南 :使用 Azure Policy“[拒绝]”和“[不存在则部署]”对不同的 Azure 资源强制实施安全设置。Guidance : Use Azure Policy [deny] and [deploy if not exist] to enforce secure settings across your Azure resources. 此外,你可以使用 Azure 资源管理器模板维护组织所需的 Azure 资源的安全配置。In addition, you can use Azure Resource Manager templates to maintain the security configuration of your Azure resources required by your organization.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

7.4:维护安全的操作系统配置7.4: Maintain secure operating system configurations

指导 :不适用;此项指导适用于计算资源。Guidance : Not applicable; this guideline is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :不适用Responsibility : Not Applicable

7.5:安全存储 Azure 资源的配置7.5: Securely store configuration of Azure resources

指南 :如果对 Azure IoT 中心或相关资源使用自定义 Azure Policy 定义,请使用 Azure Repos 安全地存储和管理代码。Guidance : If using custom Azure Policy definitions for your Azure IoT Hub or related resources, use Azure Repos to securely store and manage your code.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

7.6:安全存储自定义操作系统映像7.6: Securely store custom operating system images

指导 :不适用;此项指导适用于计算资源。Guidance : Not applicable; this guideline is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :不适用Responsibility : Not Applicable

7.7:部署 Azure 资源的配置管理工具7.7: Deploy configuration management tools for Azure resources

指南 :在“Microsoft.Devices”命名空间中使用 Azure Policy 别名创建自定义策略,以审核、强制实施系统配置并对其发出警报。Guidance : Use Azure Policy aliases in the "Microsoft.Devices" namespace to create custom policies to alert, audit, and enforce system configurations. 另外,开发一个用于管理策略例外的流程和管道。Additionally, develop a process and pipeline for managing policy exceptions.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

7.8:部署操作系统的配置管理工具7.8: Deploy configuration management tools for operating systems

指导 :不适用;此项指导适用于计算资源。Guidance : Not applicable; this guideline is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :不适用Responsibility : Not Applicable

7.9:为 Azure 资源实施自动配置监视7.9: Implement automated configuration monitoring for Azure resources

指导 :使用 Azure 安全中心对 Azure 资源执行基线扫描。Guidance : Use Azure Security Center to perform baseline scans for your Azure Resources. 此外,使用 Azure Policy 警告和审核 Azure 资源配置。Additionally, use Azure Policy to alert and audit Azure resource configurations.

Azure 安全中心监视 :是Azure Security Center monitoring : Yes

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

7.10:为操作系统实施自动配置监视7.10: Implement automated configuration monitoring for operating systems

指导 :不适用;此项指导适用于计算资源。Guidance : Not applicable; this guideline is intended for compute resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :不适用Responsibility : Not Applicable

7.11:安全管理 Azure 机密7.11: Manage Azure secrets securely

指南 :IoT 中心使用安全令牌和共享访问签名 (SAS) 令牌对设备和服务进行身份验证,以避免在网络上发送密钥。Guidance : IoT Hub uses security tokens and Shared Access Signature (SAS) tokens to authenticate devices and services to avoid sending keys on network.

将托管标识与 Azure Key Vault 结合使用,以简化云应用程序的机密管理。Use managed identities in conjunction with Azure Key Vault to simplify secret management for your cloud applications.

Azure 安全中心监视 :是Azure Security Center monitoring : Yes

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

7.12:安全自动管理标识7.12: Manage identities securely and automatically

指南 :IoT 中心使用安全令牌和共享访问签名 (SAS) 令牌对设备和服务进行身份验证,以避免在网络上发送密钥。Guidance : IoT Hub uses security tokens and Shared Access Signature (SAS) tokens to authenticate devices and services to avoid sending keys on the network.

使用托管标识在 Azure AD 中为 Azure 服务提供自动托管标识。Use managed identities to provide Azure services with an automatically managed identity in Azure AD. 使用托管标识可以向支持 Azure AD 身份验证的任何服务(包括 Key Vault)进行身份验证,无需在代码中放入任何凭据。Managed identities allow you to authenticate to any service that supports Azure AD authentication, including Key Vault, without any credentials in your code.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

7.13:消除意外的凭据透露7.13: Eliminate unintended credential exposure

指南 :实施凭据扫描程序来识别代码中的凭据。Guidance : Implement Credential Scanner to identify credentials within code. 凭据扫描程序还会建议将发现的凭据转移到更安全的位置,例如 Azure Key Vault。Credential Scanner will also encourage moving discovered credentials to more secure locations such as Azure Key Vault.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

恶意软件防护Malware defense

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 恶意软件防护For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Malware defense.

8.1:使用集中管理的反恶意软件8.1: Use centrally managed antimalware software

指南 :不适用;此建议适用于计算资源。Guidance : Not applicable; this recommendation is intended for compute resources.

Microsoft 反恶意软件会在支持 Azure 服务(例如,Azure 应用服务)的基础主机上启用,但不会对客户内容运行。Microsoft anti-malware is enabled on the underlying host that supports Azure services (for example, Azure App Service), however it does not run on customer content.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :MicrosoftResponsibility : Microsoft

8.2:预扫描要上传到非计算 Azure 资源的文件8.2: Pre-scan files to be uploaded to non-compute Azure resources

指南 :Microsoft 反恶意软件已在支持 Azure 服务(例如,Azure IoT 中心)的基础主机上启用,但它不会针对客户内容运行。Guidance : Microsoft Anti-malware is enabled on the underlying host that supports Azure services (for example, Azure IoT Hub), however it does not run on customer content.

你需要负责预先扫描要上传到非计算 Azure 资源的任何内容。It is your responsibility to pre-scan any content being uploaded to non-compute Azure resources. Microsoft 无法访问客户数据,因此无法代表你对客户内容执行反恶意软件扫描。Microsoft cannot access customer data, and therefore cannot conduct anti-malware scans of customer content on your behalf.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

步骤 8.3:确保反恶意软件和签名已更新8.3: Ensure antimalware software and signatures are updated

指南 :不适用;此基准适用于计算资源。Guidance : Not applicable; this benchmark is intended for compute resources. 在支持 Azure 服务的底层主机上已启用 Microsoft Antimalware,但是,该软件不会针对客户内容运行。Microsoft Antimalware is enabled on the underlying host that supports Azure services, however it does not run on customer content.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :MicrosoftResponsibility : Microsoft

数据恢复Data recovery

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 数据恢复For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Data recovery.

9.1:确保定期执行自动备份9.1: Ensure regular automated back ups

指南 :Azure IoT 中心服务提供的方法和框架可使 IoT 中心服务高度可用,并可根据特定的业务目标从灾难中恢复。Guidance : Azure IoT Hub service provides methods and framework to make your IoT Hub services highly available and recoverable from disasters based on specific business objectives.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

9.2:执行完整系统备份,并备份客户管理的所有密钥9.2: Perform complete system backups and backup any customer-managed keys

指南 :Azure IoT 中心建议辅助 IoT 中心必须包含所有可连接到解决方案的设备标识。Guidance : Azure IoT Hub recommends the secondary IoT hub must contain all device identities that can connect to the solution. 解决方案应该保留设备标识的异地复制备份,并在切换设备的活动终结点之前将其上传到辅助 IoT 中心。The solution should keep geo-replicated backups of device identities, and upload them to the secondary IoT hub before switching the active endpoint for the devices. IoT 中心的设备标识导出功能在此情景中很有用。The device identity export functionality of IoT Hub is useful in this context.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

9.3:验证所有备份,包括客户管理的密钥9.3: Validate all backups including customer-managed keys

指南 :Azure IoT 中心建议辅助 IoT 中心必须包含所有可连接到解决方案的设备标识。Guidance : Azure IoT Hub recommends the secondary IoT hub must contain all device identities that can connect to the solution. 解决方案应该保留设备标识的异地复制备份,并在切换设备的活动终结点之前将其上传到辅助 IoT 中心。The solution should keep geo-replicated backups of device identities, and upload them to the secondary IoT hub before switching the active endpoint for the devices. IoT 中心的设备标识导出功能在此情景中很有用。The device identity export functionality of IoT Hub is useful in this context.

请定期在备份中执行内容数据还原。Periodically perform data restoration of content in backup. 请确保可以还原已备份的客户管理的密钥。Ensure that you can restore backed-up customer-managed keys.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

9.4:确保保护备份和客户管理的密钥9.4: Ensure protection of backups and customer-managed keys

指南 :在 Key Vault 中启用软删除和清除保护,以防止意外删除或恶意删除密钥。Guidance : Enable soft delete and purge protection in Key Vault to protect keys against accidental or malicious deletion. 如果将 Azure 存储用于存储备份,请启用软删除以在 blob 或 blob 快照被删除时保存和恢复数据。If Azure Storage is used to store backups, enable soft delete to save and recover your data when blobs or blob snapshots are deleted.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

事件响应Incident response

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 事件响应For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Incident response.

10.1:创建事件响应指导10.1: Create an incident response guide

指导 :为组织制定事件响应指南。Guidance : Develop an incident response guide for your organization. 确保在书面的事件响应计划中定义人员职责,以及事件处理和管理从检测到事件后审查的各个阶段。Ensure there are written incident response plans that define all the roles of personnel as well as the phases of incident handling and management from detection to post-incident review.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

10.2:创建事件评分和优先级设定过程10.2: Create an incident scoring and prioritization procedure

指导 :Azure 安全中心为每条警报分配严重性,方便你根据优先级来确定应该最先调查的警报。Guidance : Azure Security Center assigns a severity to each alert to help you prioritize which alerts should be investigated first. 严重性取决于安全中心在发出警报时所依据的检测结果或分析结果的置信度,以及导致发出警报的活动的恶意企图的置信度。The severity is based on how confident Security Center is in the finding or the analytically used to issue the alert as well as the confidence level that there was malicious intent behind the activity that led to the alert.

此外,使用标记来标记订阅,并创建命名系统来对 Azure 资源进行标识和分类,特别是处理敏感数据的资源。Additionally, mark subscriptions using tags and create a naming system to identify and categorize Azure resources, especially those processing sensitive data. 你的责任是根据发生事件的 Azure 资源和环境的关键性确定修正警报的优先级。It's your responsibility to prioritize the remediation of alerts based on the criticality of the Azure resources and environment where the incident occurred.

Azure 安全中心监视 :是Azure Security Center monitoring : Yes

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

10.3:测试安全响应过程10.3: Test security response procedures

指导 :定期执行演练来测试系统的事件响应功能,以帮助保护 Azure 资源。Guidance : Conduct exercises to test your systems' incident response capabilities on a regular cadence to help protect your Azure resources. 查明弱点和差距,并根据需要修改你的响应计划。Identify weak points and gaps and then revise your response plan as needed.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

10.4:提供安全事件联系人详细信息,并针对安全事件配置警报通知10.4: Provide security incident contact details and configure alert notifications for security incidents

指导 :如果 Microsoft 安全响应中心 (MSRC) 发现数据被某方非法访问或未经授权访问,Microsoft 会使用安全事件联系信息联系用户。Guidance : Security incident contact information will be used by Microsoft to contact you if the Microsoft Security Response Center (MSRC) discovers that your data has been accessed by an unlawful or unauthorized party. 事后审查事件,确保问题得到解决。Review incidents after the fact to ensure that issues are resolved.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

10.5:将安全警报整合到事件响应系统中10.5: Incorporate security alerts into your incident response system

指导 :使用连续导出功能导出 Azure 安全中心警报和建议,以便确定 Azure 资源的风险。Guidance : Export your Azure Security Center alerts and recommendations using the continuous export feature to help identify risks to Azure resources. 使用连续导出可以手动导出或者持续导出警报和建议。Continuous export allows you to export alerts and recommendations either manually or in an ongoing, continuous fashion. 可以使用 Azure 安全中心数据连接器将警报流式传输到 Azure Sentinel。You can use the Azure Security Center data connector to stream the alerts to Azure Sentinel.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

10.6:自动响应安全警报10.6: Automate the response to security alerts

指导 :使用 Azure 安全中心的工作流自动化功能,针对安全警报和建议自动触发响应,以保护 Azure 资源。Guidance : Use workflow automation feature Azure Security Center to automatically trigger responses to security alerts and recommendations to protect your Azure resources.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :客户Responsibility : Customer

渗透测试和红队练习Penetration tests and red team exercises

有关详细信息,请参阅 Azure 安全基线: 渗透测试和红队演练For more information, see the Azure Security Benchmark: Penetration tests and red team exercises.

11.1:定期对 Azure 资源执行渗透测试,确保修正所有发现的关键安全问题11.1: Conduct regular penetration testing of your Azure resources and ensure remediation of all critical security findings

指导 :请遵循 Microsoft 云渗透测试互动规则,确保你的渗透测试不违反 Microsoft 政策。Guidance : Follow the Microsoft Cloud Penetration Testing Rules of Engagement to ensure your penetration tests are not in violation of Microsoft policies. 使用 Microsoft 红队演练策略和执行,以及针对 Microsoft 托管云基础结构、服务和应用程序执行现场渗透测试。Use Microsoft's strategy and execution of Red Teaming and live site penetration testing against Microsoft-managed cloud infrastructure, services, and applications.

Azure 安全中心监视 :不适用Azure Security Center monitoring : Not Applicable

责任 :共享Responsibility : Shared

后续步骤Next steps