HAVING 子句HAVING clause

语法Syntax

``````HAVING boolean_expression
``````

参数Parameters

• boolean_expressionboolean_expression

计算得出 `boolean` 结果类型的任何表达式。Any expression that evaluates to a result type `boolean`. 使用逻辑运算符（`AND``OR`）可以将两个或多个表达式组合在一起。Two or more expressions may be combined together using the logical operators ( `AND`, `OR` ).

注意Note

`HAVING` 子句中指定的表达式只能引用以下内容：The expressions specified in the `HAVING` clause can only refer to:

1. 常量Constants
2. GROUP BY 中显示的表达式Expressions that appear in GROUP BY
3. 聚合函数Aggregate functions

示例Examples

``````CREATE TABLE dealer (id INT, city STRING, car_model STRING, quantity INT);
INSERT INTO dealer VALUES
(100, 'Fremont', 'Honda Civic', 10),
(100, 'Fremont', 'Honda Accord', 15),
(100, 'Fremont', 'Honda CRV', 7),
(200, 'Dublin', 'Honda Civic', 20),
(200, 'Dublin', 'Honda Accord', 10),
(200, 'Dublin', 'Honda CRV', 3),
(300, 'San Jose', 'Honda Civic', 5),
(300, 'San Jose', 'Honda Accord', 8);

-- `HAVING` clause referring to column in `GROUP BY`.
SELECT city, sum(quantity) AS sum FROM dealer GROUP BY city HAVING city = 'Fremont';
+-------+---+
|   city|sum|
+-------+---+
|Fremont| 32|
+-------+---+

-- `HAVING` clause referring to aggregate function.
SELECT city, sum(quantity) AS sum FROM dealer GROUP BY city HAVING sum(quantity) > 15;
+-------+---+
|   city|sum|
+-------+---+
| Dublin| 33|
|Fremont| 32|
+-------+---+

-- `HAVING` clause referring to aggregate function by its alias.
SELECT city, sum(quantity) AS sum FROM dealer GROUP BY city HAVING sum > 15;
+-------+---+
|   city|sum|
+-------+---+
| Dublin| 33|
|Fremont| 32|
+-------+---+

-- `HAVING` clause referring to a different aggregate function than what is present in
-- `SELECT` list.
SELECT city, sum(quantity) AS sum FROM dealer GROUP BY city HAVING max(quantity) > 15;
+------+---+
|  city|sum|
+------+---+
|Dublin| 33|
+------+---+

-- `HAVING` clause referring to constant expression.
SELECT city, sum(quantity) AS sum FROM dealer GROUP BY city HAVING 1 > 0 ORDER BY city;
+--------+---+
|    city|sum|
+--------+---+
|  Dublin| 33|
| Fremont| 32|
|San Jose| 13|
+--------+---+

-- `HAVING` clause without a `GROUP BY` clause.
SELECT sum(quantity) AS sum FROM dealer HAVING sum(quantity) > 10;
+---+
|sum|
+---+
| 78|
+---+
``````