使用 Azure 数据工厂在 Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 中复制和转换数据Copy and transform data in Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 using Azure Data Factory

适用于:是 Azure 数据工厂是 Azure Synapse Analytics(预览版)APPLIES TO: yesAzure Data Factory yesAzure Synapse Analytics (Preview)

Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 (ADLS Gen2) 是一组专用于大数据分析的功能,内置于 Azure Blob 存储中。Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 (ADLS Gen2) is a set of capabilities dedicated to big data analytics built into Azure Blob storage. 它可使用文件系统和对象存储范例与数据进行交互。You can use it to interface with your data by using both file system and object storage paradigms.

本文概述了如何使用 Azure 数据工厂中的复制活动从/向 Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 复制数据。This article outlines how to use Copy Activity in Azure Data Factory to copy data from and to Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2. 若要了解 Azure 数据工厂,请阅读介绍性文章To learn about Azure Data Factory, read the introductory article.

提示

对于数据湖或数据仓库迁移方案,请从使用 Azure 数据工厂将数据从数据湖或数据仓库迁移到 Azure 了解更多信息。For data lake or data warehouse migration scenario, learn more from Use Azure Data Factory to migrate data from your data lake or data warehouse to Azure.

支持的功能Supported capabilities

以下活动支持此 Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 连接器:This Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 connector is supported for the following activities:

对于复制活动,使用此连接器可以:For Copy activity, with this connector you can:

重要

如果在 Azure 存储防火墙设置上启用了“允许信任的 Microsoft 服务访问此存储帐户”选项,并且要使用 Azure 集成运行时连接到 Data Lake Storage Gen2,则必须对 ADLS Gen2 使用托管标识身份验证If you enable the Allow trusted Microsoft services to access this storage account option on Azure Storage firewall settings and want to use Azure integration runtime to connect to your Data Lake Storage Gen2, you must use managed identity authentication for ADLS Gen2.

入门Get started

提示

有关使用 Data Lake Storage Gen2 连接器的演练,请参阅将数据加载到 Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2For a walk-through of how to use the Data Lake Storage Gen2 connector, see Load data into Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2.

若要使用管道执行复制活动,可以使用以下工具或 SDK 之一:To perform the Copy activity with a pipeline, you can use one of the following tools or SDKs:

以下部分介绍了用于定义 Data Lake Storage Gen2 特定的数据工厂实体的属性。The following sections provide information about properties that are used to define Data Factory entities specific to Data Lake Storage Gen2.

链接服务属性Linked service properties

Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 连接器支持以下身份验证类型。The Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 connector supports the following authentication types. 请参阅相应部分的了解详细信息:See the corresponding sections for details:

备注

使用 PolyBase 将数据载入 SQL 数据仓库时,如果源 Data Lake Storage Gen2 中未配置虚拟网络终结点,则必须使用 PolyBase 所需的托管标识身份验证。When using PolyBase to load data into SQL Data Warehouse, if your source Data Lake Storage Gen2 is configured with Virtual Network endpoint, you must use managed identity authentication as required by PolyBase. 请参阅托管标识身份验证部分,其中提供了更多配置先决条件。See the managed identity authentication section with more configuration prerequisites.

帐户密钥身份验证Account key authentication

若要使用存储帐户密钥身份验证,需支持以下属性:To use storage account key authentication, the following properties are supported:

属性Property 说明Description 必须Required
typetype type 属性必须设置为 AzureBlobFS。The type property must be set to AzureBlobFS. Yes
urlurl Data Lake Storage Gen2 的终结点,其模式为 https://<accountname>.dfs.core.chinacloudapi.cnEndpoint for Data Lake Storage Gen2 with the pattern of https://<accountname>.dfs.core.chinacloudapi.cn. Yes
accountKeyaccountKey Data Lake Storage Gen2 的帐户密钥Account key for Data Lake Storage Gen2. 将此字段标记为 SecureString 以安全地将其存储在数据工厂中或引用存储在 Azure Key Vault 中的机密Mark this field as a SecureString to store it securely in Data Factory, or reference a secret stored in Azure Key Vault. Yes
connectViaconnectVia 用于连接到数据存储的集成运行时The integration runtime to be used to connect to the data store. 可使用 Azure Integration Runtime 或自承载集成运行时(如果数据存储位于专用网络)。You can use the Azure integration runtime or a self-hosted integration runtime if your data store is in a private network. 如果未指定此属性,则使用默认的 Azure Integration Runtime。If this property isn't specified, the default Azure integration runtime is used. No

备注

使用帐户密钥身份验证时,不支持辅助 ADLS 文件系统终结点。Secondary ADLS file system endpoint is not supported when using account key authentication. 可以使用其他身份验证类型。You can use other authentication types.

示例:Example:

{
    "name": "AzureDataLakeStorageGen2LinkedService",
    "properties": {
        "type": "AzureBlobFS",
        "typeProperties": {
            "url": "https://<accountname>.dfs.core.chinacloudapi.cn", 
            "accountkey": { 
                "type": "SecureString", 
                "value": "<accountkey>" 
            }
        },
        "connectVia": {
            "referenceName": "<name of Integration Runtime>",
            "type": "IntegrationRuntimeReference"
        }
    }
}

服务主体身份验证Service principal authentication

若要使用服务主体身份验证,请执行以下步骤。To use service principal authentication, follow these steps.

  1. 遵循将应用程序注册到 Azure AD 租户,在 Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) 中注册一个应用程序实体。Register an application entity in Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) by following the steps in Register your application with an Azure AD tenant. 记下下面的值,这些值用于定义链接服务:Make note of the following values, which you use to define the linked service:

    • 应用程序 IDApplication ID
    • 应用程序密钥Application key
    • 租户 IDTenant ID
  2. 向服务主体授予适当权限。Grant the service principal proper permission. 查看文件和目录上的访问控制列表中的一些示例,来了解 Data Lake Storage Gen2 中的权限的工作原理。See examples on how permission works in Data Lake Storage Gen2 from Access control lists on files and directories

    • 作为源:在存储资源管理器中,至少授予对所有上游文件夹和文件系统的“执行”权限,并授予对文件的“读取”权限以进行复制 。As source: In Storage Explorer, grant at least Execute permission for ALL upstream folders and the file system, along with Read permission for the files to copy. 或者,在访问控制 (IAM) 中,授予至少“存储 Blob 数据读取者”角色。Alternatively, in Access control (IAM), grant at least the Storage Blob Data Reader role.
    • 作为接收器:在存储资源管理器中,至少授予对所有上游文件夹和文件系统的“执行”权限,并授予对接收器文件夹的“写入”权限 。As sink: In Storage Explorer, grant at least Execute permission for ALL upstream folders and the file system, along with Write permission for the sink folder. 或者,在访问控制 (IAM) 中,授予至少“存储 Blob 数据参与者”角色。Alternatively, in Access control (IAM), grant at least the Storage Blob Data Contributor role.

备注

如果使用数据工厂 UI 进行创作,并且服务主体未在 IAM 中设置为“存储 Blob 数据读取者/参与者”角色,则在执行测试连接或在文件夹中浏览/导航时,请选择“测试到文件路径的连接”或“从指定路径浏览”,然后指定具有“读取 + 执行”权限的路径以继续。If you use Data Factory UI to author and the service principal is not set with "Storage Blob Data Reader/Contributor" role in IAM, when doing test connection or browsing/navigating folders, choose "Test connection to file path" or "Browse from specified path", and specify a path with Read + Execute permission to continue.

链接服务支持以下属性:These properties are supported for the linked service:

属性Property 说明Description 必须Required
typetype type 属性必须设置为 AzureBlobFS。The type property must be set to AzureBlobFS. Yes
urlurl Data Lake Storage Gen2 的终结点,其模式为 https://<accountname>.dfs.core.chinacloudapi.cnEndpoint for Data Lake Storage Gen2 with the pattern of https://<accountname>.dfs.core.chinacloudapi.cn. Yes
servicePrincipalIdservicePrincipalId 指定应用程序的客户端 ID。Specify the application's client ID. Yes
servicePrincipalKeyservicePrincipalKey 指定应用程序的密钥。Specify the application's key. 将此字段标记为 SecureString,以便安全地将其存储在数据工厂中。Mark this field as a SecureString to store it securely in Data Factory. 或者,可以引用 Azure Key Vault 中存储的机密Or, you can reference a secret stored in Azure Key Vault. Yes
tenanttenant 指定应用程序的租户信息(域名或租户 ID)。Specify the tenant information (domain name or tenant ID) under which your application resides. 将鼠标悬停在 Azure 门户右上角进行检索。Retrieve it by hovering the mouse in the upper-right corner of the Azure portal. Yes
connectViaconnectVia 用于连接到数据存储的集成运行时The integration runtime to be used to connect to the data store. 可使用 Azure Integration Runtime 或自承载集成运行时(如果数据存储位于专用网络)。You can use the Azure integration runtime or a self-hosted integration runtime if your data store is in a private network. 如果未指定,则使用默认 Azure Integration Runtime。If not specified, the default Azure integration runtime is used. No

示例:Example:

{
    "name": "AzureDataLakeStorageGen2LinkedService",
    "properties": {
        "type": "AzureBlobFS",
        "typeProperties": {
            "url": "https://<accountname>.dfs.core.chinacloudapi.cn", 
            "servicePrincipalId": "<service principal id>",
            "servicePrincipalKey": {
                "type": "SecureString",
                "value": "<service principal key>"
            },
            "tenant": "<tenant info, e.g. microsoft.partner.onmschina.cn>" 
        },
        "connectVia": {
            "referenceName": "<name of Integration Runtime>",
            "type": "IntegrationRuntimeReference"
        }
    }
}

Azure 资源的托管标识身份验证Managed identities for Azure resources authentication

可将数据工厂与代表此特定数据工厂的 Azure 资源托管标识相关联。A data factory can be associated with a managed identity for Azure resources, which represents this specific data factory. 可以像使用自己的服务主体一样,直接使用此托管标识进行 Data Lake Storage Gen2 身份验证。You can directly use this managed identity for Data Lake Storage Gen2 authentication, similar to using your own service principal. 此指定工厂可通过此方法访问以及向/从 Data Lake Storage Gen2 复制数据。It allows this designated factory to access and copy data to or from your Data Lake Storage Gen2.

若要使用 Azure 资源托管标识身份验证,请按照以下步骤操作。To use managed identities for Azure resource authentication, follow these steps.

  1. 通过复制与工厂一起生成的托管标识对象 ID 的值,检索数据工厂托管标识信息Retrieve the Data Factory managed identity information by copying the value of the managed identity object ID generated along with your factory.

  2. 向托管标识授予适当权限。Grant the managed identity proper permission. 查看文件和目录上的访问控制列表中的一些示例,来了解 Data Lake Storage Gen2 中的权限的工作原理。See examples on how permission works in Data Lake Storage Gen2 from Access control lists on files and directories.

    • 作为源:在存储资源管理器中,至少授予对所有上游文件夹和文件系统的“执行”权限,并授予对文件的“读取”权限以进行复制 。As source: In Storage Explorer, grant at least Execute permission for ALL upstream folders and the file system, along with Read permission for the files to copy. 或者,在访问控制 (IAM) 中,授予至少“存储 Blob 数据读取者”角色。Alternatively, in Access control (IAM), grant at least the Storage Blob Data Reader role.
    • 作为接收器:在存储资源管理器中,至少授予对所有上游文件夹和文件系统的“执行”权限,并授予对接收器文件夹的“写入”权限 。As sink: In Storage Explorer, grant at least Execute permission for ALL upstream folders and the file system, along with Write permission for the sink folder. 或者,在访问控制 (IAM) 中,授予至少“存储 Blob 数据参与者”角色。Alternatively, in Access control (IAM), grant at least the Storage Blob Data Contributor role.

备注

如果使用数据工厂 UI 进行创作,并且托管标识未在 IAM 中设置为“存储 Blob 数据读取者/参与者”角色,则在执行测试连接或在文件夹中浏览/导航时,请选择“测试到文件路径的连接”或“从指定路径浏览”,然后指定具有“读取 + 执行”权限的路径以继续。If you use Data Factory UI to author and the managed identity is not set with "Storage Blob Data Reader/Contributor" role in IAM, when doing test connection or browsing/navigating folders, choose "Test connection to file path" or "Browse from specified path", and specify a path with Read + Execute permission to continue.

重要

如果在使用 Data Lake Storage Gen2 托管标识身份验证时使用 PolyBase 将 Data Lake Storage Gen2 中的数据载入 SQL 数据仓库,请确保同时遵循此指南中的步骤 1 和 2,以便:1) 向 Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) 注册;2) 将存储 Blob 数据参与者角色分配到服务器。剩余的任务将由数据工厂处理。If you use PolyBase to load data from Data Lake Storage Gen2 into SQL Data Warehouse, when using managed identity authentication for Data Lake Storage Gen2, make sure you also follow steps 1 and 2 in this guidance to 1) register your with Azure Active Directory (Azure AD) and 2) assign the Storage Blob Data Contributor role to your server; the rest are handled by Data Factory. 如果源 Data Lake Storage Gen2 中已配置 Azure 虚拟网络终结点,若要使用 PolyBase 从中加载数据,必须使用 PolyBase 所需的托管标识身份验证。If your Data Lake Storage Gen2 is configured with an Azure Virtual Network endpoint, to use PolyBase to load data from it, you must use managed identity authentication as required by PolyBase.

链接服务支持以下属性:These properties are supported for the linked service:

属性Property 说明Description 必须Required
typetype type 属性必须设置为 AzureBlobFS。The type property must be set to AzureBlobFS. Yes
urlurl Data Lake Storage Gen2 的终结点,其模式为 https://<accountname>.dfs.core.chinacloudapi.cnEndpoint for Data Lake Storage Gen2 with the pattern of https://<accountname>.dfs.core.chinacloudapi.cn. Yes
connectViaconnectVia 用于连接到数据存储的集成运行时The integration runtime to be used to connect to the data store. 可使用 Azure Integration Runtime 或自承载集成运行时(如果数据存储位于专用网络)。You can use the Azure integration runtime or a self-hosted integration runtime if your data store is in a private network. 如果未指定,则使用默认 Azure Integration Runtime。If not specified, the default Azure integration runtime is used. No

示例:Example:

{
    "name": "AzureDataLakeStorageGen2LinkedService",
    "properties": {
        "type": "AzureBlobFS",
        "typeProperties": {
            "url": "https://<accountname>.dfs.core.chinacloudapi.cn", 
        },
        "connectVia": {
            "referenceName": "<name of Integration Runtime>",
            "type": "IntegrationRuntimeReference"
        }
    }
}

数据集属性Dataset properties

有关可用于定义数据集的各个部分和属性的完整列表,请参阅数据集For a full list of sections and properties available for defining datasets, see Datasets.

Azure 数据工厂支持以下文件格式。Azure Data Factory supports the following file formats. 请参阅每一篇介绍基于格式的设置的文章。Refer to each article for format-based settings.

在基于格式的数据集中的 location 设置下,Data Lake Storage Gen2 支持以下属性:The following properties are supported for Data Lake Storage Gen2 under location settings in the format-based dataset:

属性Property 说明Description 必须Required
typetype 数据集中 location 下的 type 属性必须设置为 AzureBlobFSLocationThe type property under location in the dataset must be set to AzureBlobFSLocation. Yes
fileSystemfileSystem Data Lake Storage Gen2 文件系统名称。The Data Lake Storage Gen2 file system name. No
folderPathfolderPath 给定文件系统下的文件夹路径。The path to a folder under the given file system. 如果要使用通配符筛选文件夹,请跳过此设置并在活动源设置中指定。If you want to use a wildcard to filter folders, skip this setting and specify it in activity source settings. No
fileNamefileName 给定 fileSystem + folderPath 下的文件名。The file name under the given fileSystem + folderPath. 如果要使用通配符筛选文件,请跳过此设置并在活动源设置中指定。If you want to use a wildcard to filter files, skip this setting and specify it in activity source settings. No

示例:Example:

{
    "name": "DelimitedTextDataset",
    "properties": {
        "type": "DelimitedText",
        "linkedServiceName": {
            "referenceName": "<Data Lake Storage Gen2 linked service name>",
            "type": "LinkedServiceReference"
        },
        "schema": [ < physical schema, optional, auto retrieved during authoring > ],
        "typeProperties": {
            "location": {
                "type": "AzureBlobFSLocation",
                "fileSystem": "filesystemname",
                "folderPath": "folder/subfolder"
            },
            "columnDelimiter": ",",
            "quoteChar": "\"",
            "firstRowAsHeader": true,
            "compressionCodec": "gzip"
        }
    }
}

复制活动属性Copy activity properties

要完整了解可供活动定义使用的各个部分和属性,请参阅复制活动配置管道和活动For a full list of sections and properties available for defining activities, see Copy activity configurations and Pipelines and activities. 本部分列出了 Data Lake Storage Gen2 源和接收器支持的属性。This section provides a list of properties supported by the Data Lake Storage Gen2 source and sink.

Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 作为源类型Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 as a source type

Azure 数据工厂支持以下文件格式。Azure Data Factory supports the following file formats. 请参阅每一篇介绍基于格式的设置的文章。Refer to each article for format-based settings.

从 ADLS Gen2 复制数据的方式有多种:You have several options to copy data from ADLS Gen2:

  • 从数据集中指定的给定路径复制。Copy from the given path specified in the dataset.
  • 有关针对文件夹路径或文件名的通配符筛选器,请参阅 wildcardFolderPathwildcardFileNameWildcard filter against folder path or file name, see wildcardFolderPath and wildcardFileName.
  • 将给定文本文件中定义的文件复制为文件集(请参阅 fileListPath)。Copy the files defined in a given text file as file set, see fileListPath.

在基于格式的复制源中的 storeSettings 设置下,Data Lake Storage Gen2 支持以下属性:The following properties are supported for Data Lake Storage Gen2 under storeSettings settings in format-based copy source:

属性Property 说明Description 必须Required
typetype storeSettings 下的 type 属性必须设置为 AzureBlobFSReadSettingsThe type property under storeSettings must be set to AzureBlobFSReadSettings. Yes
找到要复制的文件:Locate the files to copy:
选项 1:静态路径OPTION 1: static path
从数据集中指定的给定文件系统或文件夹/文件路径复制。Copy from the given file system or folder/file path specified in the dataset. 若要复制文件系统/文件夹中的所有文件,请另外将 wildcardFileName 指定为 *If you want to copy all files from a file system/folder, additionally specify wildcardFileName as *.
选项 2:通配符OPTION 2: wildcard
- wildcardFolderPath- wildcardFolderPath
数据集中配置的给定文件系统下带有通配符的文件夹路径,用于筛选源文件夹。The folder path with wildcard characters under the given file system configured in dataset to filter source folders.
允许的通配符为:*(匹配零个或更多个字符)和 ?(匹配零个或单个字符);如果实际文件夹名称中包含通配符或此转义字符,请使用 ^ 进行转义。Allowed wildcards are: * (matches zero or more characters) and ? (matches zero or single character); use ^ to escape if your actual folder name has wildcard or this escape char inside.
请参阅文件夹和文件筛选器示例中的更多示例。See more examples in Folder and file filter examples.
No
选项 2:通配符OPTION 2: wildcard
- wildcardFileName- wildcardFileName
给定文件系统 + folderPath/wildcardFolderPath 下带有通配符的文件名,用于筛选源文件。The file name with wildcard characters under the given file system + folderPath/wildcardFolderPath to filter source files.
允许的通配符为:*(匹配零个或更多个字符)和 ?(匹配零个或单个字符);如果实际文件夹名称中包含通配符或此转义字符,请使用 ^ 进行转义。Allowed wildcards are: * (matches zero or more characters) and ? (matches zero or single character); use ^ to escape if your actual folder name has wildcard or this escape char inside. 请参阅文件夹和文件筛选器示例中的更多示例。See more examples in Folder and file filter examples.
Yes
选项 3:文件列表OPTION 3: a list of files
- fileListPath- fileListPath
指明复制给定文件集。Indicates to copy a given file set. 指向包含要复制的文件列表的文本文件,每行一个文件(即数据集中所配置路径的相对路径)。Point to a text file that includes a list of files you want to copy, one file per line, which is the relative path to the path configured in the dataset.
使用此选项时,请不要在数据集中指定文件名。When using this option, do not specify file name in dataset. 请参阅文件列表示例中的更多示例。See more examples in File list examples.
No
其他设置:Additional settings:
recursiverecursive 指示是要从子文件夹中以递归方式读取数据,还是只从指定的文件夹中读取数据。Indicates whether the data is read recursively from the subfolders or only from the specified folder. 请注意,当 recursive 设置为 true 且接收器是基于文件的存储时,将不会在接收器上复制或创建空的文件夹或子文件夹。Note that when recursive is set to true and the sink is a file-based store, an empty folder or subfolder isn't copied or created at the sink.
允许的值为 true(默认值)和 falseAllowed values are true (default) and false.
如果配置 fileListPath,则此属性不适用。This property doesn't apply when you configure fileListPath.
No
deleteFilesAfterCompletiondeleteFilesAfterCompletion 指示是否会在二进制文件成功移到目标存储后将其从源存储中删除。Indicates whether the binary files will be deleted from source store after successfully moving to the destination store. 文件删除按文件进行。因此,当复制活动失败时,你会看到一些文件已经复制到目标并从源中删除,而另一些文件仍保留在源存储中。The file deletion is per file, so when copy activity fails, you will see some files have already been copied to the destination and deleted from source, while others are still remaining on source store.
此属性仅在二进制复制方案中有效,该方案中的数据源存储为 Blob、ADLS Gen2、S3、Google 云存储、文件、Azure 文件存储、SFTP 或 FTP。This property is only valid in binary copy scenario, where data source stores are Blob, ADLS Gen2, S3, Google Cloud Storage, File, Azure File, SFTP, or FTP. 默认值:false。The default value: false.
No
modifiedDatetimeStartmodifiedDatetimeStart 基于属性“上次修改时间”的文件筛选器。Files filter based on the attribute: Last Modified.
如果文件的上次修改时间在 modifiedDatetimeStartmodifiedDatetimeEnd 之间的时间范围内,则将选中这些文件。The files will be selected if their last modified time is within the time range between modifiedDatetimeStart and modifiedDatetimeEnd. 该时间应用于 UTC 时区,格式为“2018-12-01T05:00:00Z”。The time is applied to UTC time zone in the format of "2018-12-01T05:00:00Z".
属性可以为 NULL,这意味着不向数据集应用任何文件属性筛选器。The properties can be NULL, which means no file attribute filter will be applied to the dataset. 如果 modifiedDatetimeStart 具有日期/时间值,但 modifiedDatetimeEnd 为 NULL,则意味着将选中“上次修改时间”属性大于或等于该日期/时间值的文件。When modifiedDatetimeStart has datetime value but modifiedDatetimeEnd is NULL, it means the files whose last modified attribute is greater than or equal with the datetime value will be selected. 如果 modifiedDatetimeEnd 具有日期/时间值,但 modifiedDatetimeStart 为 NULL,则意味着将选中“上次修改时间”属性小于该日期/时间值的文件。When modifiedDatetimeEnd has datetime value but modifiedDatetimeStart is NULL, it means the files whose last modified attribute is less than the datetime value will be selected.
如果配置 fileListPath,则此属性不适用。This property doesn't apply when you configure fileListPath.
No
modifiedDatetimeEndmodifiedDatetimeEnd 同上。Same as above. No
maxConcurrentConnectionsmaxConcurrentConnections 可以同时连接到存储库的连接数。The number of connections to connect to storage store concurrently. 仅当要限制连接到数据存储的并发连接时,才指定此属性。Specify only when you want to limit the concurrent connection to the data store. No

示例:Example:

"activities":[
    {
        "name": "CopyFromADLSGen2",
        "type": "Copy",
        "inputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<Delimited text input dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "outputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<output dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "typeProperties": {
            "source": {
                "type": "DelimitedTextSource",
                "formatSettings":{
                    "type": "DelimitedTextReadSettings",
                    "skipLineCount": 10
                },
                "storeSettings":{
                    "type": "AzureBlobFSReadSettings",
                    "recursive": true,
                    "wildcardFolderPath": "myfolder*A",
                    "wildcardFileName": "*.csv"
                }
            },
            "sink": {
                "type": "<sink type>"
            }
        }
    }
]

Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 作为接收器类型Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 as a sink type

Azure 数据工厂支持以下文件格式。Azure Data Factory supports the following file formats. 请参阅每一篇介绍基于格式的设置的文章。Refer to each article for format-based settings.

在基于格式的复制接收器中的 storeSettings 设置下,Data Lake Storage Gen2 支持以下属性:The following properties are supported for Data Lake Storage Gen2 under storeSettings settings in format-based copy sink:

属性Property 说明Description 必须Required
typetype storeSettings 下的 type 属性必须设置为 AzureBlobFSWriteSettingsThe type property under storeSettings must be set to AzureBlobFSWriteSettings. Yes
copyBehaviorcopyBehavior 定义以基于文件的数据存储中的文件为源时的复制行为。Defines the copy behavior when the source is files from a file-based data store.

允许值包括:Allowed values are:
- PreserveHierarchy(默认):将文件层次结构保留到目标文件夹中。- PreserveHierarchy (default): Preserves the file hierarchy in the target folder. 指向源文件夹的源文件相对路径与指向目标文件夹的目标文件相对路径相同。The relative path of the source file to the source folder is identical to the relative path of the target file to the target folder.
- FlattenHierarchy:源文件夹中的所有文件都位于目标文件夹的第一级中。- FlattenHierarchy: All files from the source folder are in the first level of the target folder. 目标文件具有自动生成的名称。The target files have autogenerated names.
- MergeFiles:将源文件夹中的所有文件合并到一个文件中。- MergeFiles: Merges all files from the source folder to one file. 如果指定了文件名,则合并文件的名称为指定名称。If the file name is specified, the merged file name is the specified name. 否则,它是自动生成的文件名。Otherwise, it's an autogenerated file name.
No
blockSizeInMBblockSizeInMB 指定用于将数据写入 ADLS Gen2 的块大小(以 MB 为单位)。Specify the block size in MB used to write data to ADLS Gen2. 详细了解块 BlobLearn more about Block Blobs.
允许的值介于 4 MB 到 100 MB 之间。Allowed value is between 4 MB and 100 MB.
默认情况下,ADF 会根据源存储类型和数据自动确定块大小。By default, ADF automatically determines the block size based on your source store type and data. 以非二进制格式复制到 ADLS Gen2 时,默认块大小为 100 MB,这样最多能容纳 4.95 TB 数据。For non-binary copy into ADLS Gen2, the default block size is 100 MB so as to fit in at most 4.95-TB data. 当数据不大时,它可能并非最优,特别是当你在网络状况不佳的情况下使用自承载集成运行时的时候,这会导致操作超时或性能问题。It may be not optimal when your data is not large, especially when you use Self-hosted Integration Runtime with poor network resulting in operation timeout or performance issue. 可以显式指定块大小,同时确保 blockSizeInMB*50000 足以存储数据,否则复制活动运行将失败。You can explicitly specify a block size, while ensure blockSizeInMB*50000 is big enough to store the data, otherwise copy activity run will fail.
No
maxConcurrentConnectionsmaxConcurrentConnections 可以同时连接到数据存储的连接数。The number of connections to connect to the data store concurrently. 仅当要限制连接到数据存储的并发连接时,才指定此属性。Specify only when you want to limit the concurrent connection to the data store. No

示例:Example:

"activities":[
    {
        "name": "CopyToADLSGen2",
        "type": "Copy",
        "inputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<input dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "outputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<Parquet output dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "typeProperties": {
            "source": {
                "type": "<source type>"
            },
            "sink": {
                "type": "ParquetSink",
                "storeSettings":{
                    "type": "AzureBlobFSWriteSettings",
                    "copyBehavior": "PreserveHierarchy"
                }
            }
        }
    }
]

文件夹和文件筛选器示例Folder and file filter examples

本部分介绍使用通配符筛选器生成文件夹路径和文件名的行为。This section describes the resulting behavior of the folder path and file name with wildcard filters.

folderPathfolderPath fileNamefileName recursiverecursive 源文件夹结构和筛选器结果(用粗体表示的文件已检索)Source folder structure and filter result (files in bold are retrieved)
Folder* (为空,使用默认值)(Empty, use default) falsefalse FolderAFolderA
    File1.csv    File1.csv
    File2.json    File2.json
    Subfolder1    Subfolder1
        File3.csv        File3.csv
        File4.json        File4.json
        File5.csv        File5.csv
AnotherFolderBAnotherFolderB
    File6.csv    File6.csv
Folder* (为空,使用默认值)(Empty, use default) true FolderAFolderA
    File1.csv    File1.csv
    File2.json    File2.json
    Subfolder1    Subfolder1
        File3.csv        File3.csv
        File4.json        File4.json
        File5.csv        File5.csv
AnotherFolderBAnotherFolderB
    File6.csv    File6.csv
Folder* *.csv falsefalse FolderAFolderA
    File1.csv    File1.csv
    File2.json    File2.json
    Subfolder1    Subfolder1
        File3.csv        File3.csv
        File4.json        File4.json
        File5.csv        File5.csv
AnotherFolderBAnotherFolderB
    File6.csv    File6.csv
Folder* *.csv true FolderAFolderA
    File1.csv    File1.csv
    File2.json    File2.json
    Subfolder1    Subfolder1
        File3.csv        File3.csv
        File4.json        File4.json
        File5.csv        File5.csv
AnotherFolderBAnotherFolderB
    File6.csv    File6.csv

文件列表示例File list examples

本部分介绍了在复制活动源中使用文件列表路径时的结果行为。This section describes the resulting behavior of using file list path in copy activity source.

假设有以下源文件夹结构,并且要复制加粗显示的文件:Assuming you have the following source folder structure and want to copy the files in bold:

示例源结构Sample source structure FileListToCopy.txt 中的内容Content in FileListToCopy.txt ADF 配置ADF configuration
filesystemfilesystem
    FolderA    FolderA
        File1.csv        File1.csv
        File2.json        File2.json
        Subfolder1        Subfolder1
            File3.csv            File3.csv
            File4.json            File4.json
            File5.csv            File5.csv
    元数据    Metadata
        FileListToCopy.txt        FileListToCopy.txt
File1.csvFile1.csv
Subfolder1/File3.csvSubfolder1/File3.csv
Subfolder1/File5.csvSubfolder1/File5.csv
在数据集中:In dataset:
- 文件系统:filesystem- File system: filesystem
- 文件夹路径:FolderA- Folder path: FolderA

在复制活动源中:In copy activity source:
- 文件列表路径:filesystem/Metadata/FileListToCopy.txt- File list path: filesystem/Metadata/FileListToCopy.txt

文件列表路径指向同一数据存储中的文本文件,其中包含要复制的文件列表,每行一个文件,以及在数据集中配置的路径的相对路径。The file list path points to a text file in the same data store that includes a list of files you want to copy, one file per line with the relative path to the path configured in the dataset.

一些 recursive 和 copyBehavior 示例Some recursive and copyBehavior examples

本节介绍了将 recursive 和 copyBehavior 值进行不同组合所产生的复制操作行为。This section describes the resulting behavior of the copy operation for different combinations of recursive and copyBehavior values.

recursiverecursive copyBehaviorcopyBehavior 源文件夹结构Source folder structure 生成目标Resulting target
true preserveHierarchypreserveHierarchy Folder1Folder1
    File1    File1
    File2    File2
    Subfolder1    Subfolder1
        File3        File3
        File4        File4
        File5        File5
使用与源相同的结构创建目标 Folder1:The target Folder1 is created with the same structure as the source:

Folder1Folder1
    File1    File1
    File2    File2
    Subfolder1    Subfolder1
        File3        File3
        File4        File4
        File5        File5
true flattenHierarchyflattenHierarchy Folder1Folder1
    File1    File1
    File2    File2
    Subfolder1    Subfolder1
        File3        File3
        File4        File4
        File5        File5
使用以下结构创建目标 Folder1:The target Folder1 is created with the following structure:

Folder1Folder1
    File1 的自动生成的名称    autogenerated name for File1
    File2 的自动生成的名称    autogenerated name for File2
    File3 的自动生成的名称    autogenerated name for File3
    File4 的自动生成的名称    autogenerated name for File4
    File5 的自动生成的名称    autogenerated name for File5
true mergeFilesmergeFiles Folder1Folder1
    File1    File1
    File2    File2
    Subfolder1    Subfolder1
        File3        File3
        File4        File4
        File5        File5
使用以下结构创建目标 Folder1:The target Folder1 is created with the following structure:

Folder1Folder1
    File1 + File2 + File3 + File4 + File5 的内容将合并到一个文件中,且自动生成文件名。    File1 + File2 + File3 + File4 + File5 contents are merged into one file with an autogenerated file name.
falsefalse preserveHierarchypreserveHierarchy Folder1Folder1
    File1    File1
    File2    File2
    Subfolder1    Subfolder1
        File3        File3
        File4        File4
        File5        File5
使用以下结构创建目标 Folder1:The target Folder1 is created with the following structure:

Folder1Folder1
    File1    File1
    File2    File2

不会选取带有 File3、File4 和 File5 的 Subfolder1。Subfolder1 with File3, File4, and File5 isn't picked up.
falsefalse flattenHierarchyflattenHierarchy Folder1Folder1
    File1    File1
    File2    File2
    Subfolder1    Subfolder1
        File3        File3
        File4        File4
        File5        File5
使用以下结构创建目标 Folder1:The target Folder1 is created with the following structure:

Folder1Folder1
    File1 的自动生成的名称    autogenerated name for File1
    File2 的自动生成的名称    autogenerated name for File2

不会选取带有 File3、File4 和 File5 的 Subfolder1。Subfolder1 with File3, File4, and File5 isn't picked up.
falsefalse mergeFilesmergeFiles Folder1Folder1
    File1    File1
    File2    File2
    Subfolder1    Subfolder1
        File3        File3
        File4        File4
        File5        File5
使用以下结构创建目标 Folder1:The target Folder1 is created with the following structure:

Folder1Folder1
    File1 + File2 的内容将合并到一个文件中,且自动生成文件名。    File1 + File2 contents are merged into one file with an autogenerated file name. File1 的自动生成的名称autogenerated name for File1

没有选取包含 File3、File4 和 File5 的 Subfolder1。Subfolder1 with File3, File4, and File5 isn't picked up.

在复制期间保留元数据Preserve metadata during copy

将文件从 Amazon S3/Azure Blob/Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 复制到 Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2/Azure Blob 时,可以选择保留文件元数据和数据。When you copy files from Amazon S3/Azure Blob/Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 to Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2/Azure Blob, you can choose to preserve the file metadata along with data. 保留元数据中了解更多信息。Learn more from Preserve metadata.

Lookup 活动属性Lookup activity properties

若要了解有关属性的详细信息,请查看 Lookup 活动To learn details about the properties, check Lookup activity.

GetMetadata 活动属性GetMetadata activity properties

若要了解有关属性的详细信息,请查看 GetMetadata 活动To learn details about the properties, check GetMetadata activity

Delete 活动属性Delete activity properties

若要详细了解这些属性,请查看 Delete 活动To learn details about the properties, check Delete activity

旧模型Legacy models

备注

仍按原样支持以下模型,以实现向后兼容性。The following models are still supported as-is for backward compatibility. 建议你以后使用前面部分中提到的新模型,ADF 创作 UI 已经切换到生成新模型。You are suggested to use the new model mentioned in above sections going forward, and the ADF authoring UI has switched to generating the new model.

旧数据集模型Legacy dataset model

属性Property 说明Description 必须Required
typetype 数据集的 type 属性必须设置为 AzureBlobFSFile。The type property of the dataset must be set to AzureBlobFSFile. Yes
folderPathfolderPath Data Lake Storage Gen2 中的文件夹的路径。Path to the folder in Data Lake Storage Gen2. 如果未指定,它指向根目录。If not specified, it points to the root.

支持通配符筛选器。Wildcard filter is supported. 允许的通配符为:*(匹配零个或更多字符)和 ?(匹配零个或单个字符)。Allowed wildcards are * (matches zero or more characters) and ? (matches zero or single character). 如果实际文件夹名内具有通配符或此转义符,请使用 ^ 进行转义。Use ^ to escape if your actual folder name has a wildcard or this escape char is inside.

示例:filesystem/folder/。Examples: filesystem/folder/. 请参阅文件夹和文件筛选器示例中的更多示例。See more examples in Folder and file filter examples.
No
fileNamefileName 指定“folderPath”下的文件的“名称或通配符筛选器”。Name or wildcard filter for the files under the specified "folderPath". 如果没有为此属性指定任何值,则数据集会指向文件夹中的所有文件。If you don't specify a value for this property, the dataset points to all files in the folder.

对于筛选器,允许的通配符为:*(匹配零个或更多字符)和 ?(匹配零个或单个字符)。For filter, the wildcards allowed are * (matches zero or more characters) and ? (matches zero or single character).
- 示例 1:"fileName": "*.csv"- Example 1: "fileName": "*.csv"
- 示例 2:"fileName": "???20180427.txt"- Example 2: "fileName": "???20180427.txt"
如果实际文件名内具有通配符或此转义符,请使用 ^ 进行转义。Use ^ to escape if your actual file name has a wildcard or this escape char is inside.

如果没有为输出数据集指定 fileName,并且没有在活动接收器中指定 preserveHierarchy,则复制活动会自动生成采用以下模式的文件名称:“Data.[activity run ID GUID].[GUID if FlattenHierarchy].[format if configured].[compression if configured] ”,例如“Data.0a405f8a-93ff-4c6f-b3be-f69616f1df7a.txt.gz”。When fileName isn't specified for an output dataset and preserveHierarchy isn't specified in the activity sink, the copy activity automatically generates the file name with the following pattern: "Data.[activity run ID GUID].[GUID if FlattenHierarchy].[format if configured].[compression if configured]", for example, "Data.0a405f8a-93ff-4c6f-b3be-f69616f1df7a.txt.gz". 如果使用表名称而不是查询从表格源进行复制,则名称模式为“[table name].[format].[compression if configured]”,例如“MyTable.csv”。If you copy from a tabular source using a table name instead of a query, the name pattern is "[table name].[format].[compression if configured]", for example, "MyTable.csv".
No
modifiedDatetimeStartmodifiedDatetimeStart 基于属性“上次修改时间”的文件筛选器。Files filter based on the attribute Last Modified. 如果文件的上次修改时间在 modifiedDatetimeStartmodifiedDatetimeEnd 之间的时间范围内,则将选中这些文件。The files are selected if their last modified time is within the time range between modifiedDatetimeStart and modifiedDatetimeEnd. 该时间应用于 UTC 时区,格式为“2018-12-01T05:00:00Z”。The time is applied to the UTC time zone in the format of "2018-12-01T05:00:00Z".

当你要从大量文件中进行文件筛选时,启用此设置将影响数据移动的整体性能。The overall performance of data movement is affected by enabling this setting when you want to do file filter with huge amounts of files.

属性可以为 NULL,这意味着不向数据集应用任何文件特性筛选器。The properties can be NULL, which means no file attribute filter is applied to the dataset. 如果 modifiedDatetimeStart 具有日期/时间值,但 modifiedDatetimeEnd 为 NULL,则意味着将选中“上次修改时间”属性大于或等于该日期/时间值的文件。When modifiedDatetimeStart has a datetime value but modifiedDatetimeEnd is NULL, it means the files whose last modified attribute is greater than or equal to the datetime value are selected. 如果 modifiedDatetimeEnd 具有日期/时间值,但 modifiedDatetimeStart 为 NULL,则意味着将选中“上次修改时间”属性小于该日期/时间值的文件。When modifiedDatetimeEnd has a datetime value but modifiedDatetimeStart is NULL, it means the files whose last modified attribute is less than the datetime value are selected.
No
modifiedDatetimeEndmodifiedDatetimeEnd 基于属性“上次修改时间”的文件筛选器。Files filter based on the attribute Last Modified. 如果文件的上次修改时间在 modifiedDatetimeStartmodifiedDatetimeEnd 之间的时间范围内,则将选中这些文件。The files are selected if their last modified time is within the time range between modifiedDatetimeStart and modifiedDatetimeEnd. 该时间应用于 UTC 时区,格式为“2018-12-01T05:00:00Z”。The time is applied to the UTC time zone in the format of "2018-12-01T05:00:00Z".

当你要从大量文件中进行文件筛选时,启用此设置将影响数据移动的整体性能。The overall performance of data movement is affected by enabling this setting when you want to do file filter with huge amounts of files.

属性可以为 NULL,这意味着不向数据集应用任何文件特性筛选器。The properties can be NULL, which means no file attribute filter is applied to the dataset. 如果 modifiedDatetimeStart 具有日期/时间值,但 modifiedDatetimeEnd 为 NULL,则意味着将选中“上次修改时间”属性大于或等于该日期/时间值的文件。When modifiedDatetimeStart has a datetime value but modifiedDatetimeEnd is NULL, it means the files whose last modified attribute is greater than or equal to the datetime value are selected. 如果 modifiedDatetimeEnd 具有日期/时间值,但 modifiedDatetimeStart 为 NULL,则意味着将选中“上次修改时间”属性小于该日期/时间值的文件。When modifiedDatetimeEnd has a datetime value but modifiedDatetimeStart is NULL, it means the files whose last modified attribute is less than the datetime value are selected.
No
formatformat 若要在基于文件的存储之间按原样复制文件(二进制副本),可以在输入和输出数据集定义中跳过格式节。If you want to copy files as is between file-based stores (binary copy), skip the format section in both the input and output dataset definitions.

若要分析或生成具有特定格式的文件,以下是受支持的文件格式类型:TextFormat、JsonFormat、AvroFormat、OrcFormat 和 ParquetFormat 。If you want to parse or generate files with a specific format, the following file format types are supported: TextFormat, JsonFormat, AvroFormat, OrcFormat, and ParquetFormat. 请将 format 中的 type 属性设置为上述值之一。Set the type property under format to one of these values. 有关详细信息,请参阅文本格式JSON 格式Avro 格式ORC 格式Parquet 格式部分。For more information, see the Text format, JSON format, Avro format, ORC format, and Parquet format sections.
否(仅适用于二进制复制方案)No (only for binary copy scenario)
compressioncompression 指定数据的压缩类型和级别。Specify the type and level of compression for the data. 有关详细信息,请参阅受支持的文件格式和压缩编解码器For more information, see Supported file formats and compression codecs.
支持的类型为 GZipDeflateBZip2ZipDeflateSupported types are GZip, Deflate, BZip2, and ZipDeflate.
支持的级别为“最佳”和“最快”。Supported levels are Optimal and Fastest.
No

提示

如需复制文件夹下的所有文件,请仅指定 folderPathTo copy all files under a folder, specify folderPath only.
如需复制具有给定名称的单个文件,请使用文件夹部分指定 folderPath 并使用文件名指定 fileNameTo copy a single file with a given name, specify folderPath with a folder part and fileName with a file name.
如需复制文件夹下的文件子集,请使用文件夹部分指定 folderPath 并使用通配符筛选器指定 fileNameTo copy a subset of files under a folder, specify folderPath with a folder part and fileName with a wildcard filter.

示例:Example:

{
    "name": "ADLSGen2Dataset",
    "properties": {
        "type": "AzureBlobFSFile",
        "linkedServiceName": {
            "referenceName": "<Azure Data Lake Storage Gen2 linked service name>",
            "type": "LinkedServiceReference"
        },
        "typeProperties": {
            "folderPath": "myfilesystem/myfolder",
            "fileName": "*",
            "modifiedDatetimeStart": "2018-12-01T05:00:00Z",
            "modifiedDatetimeEnd": "2018-12-01T06:00:00Z",
            "format": {
                "type": "TextFormat",
                "columnDelimiter": ",",
                "rowDelimiter": "\n"
            },
            "compression": {
                "type": "GZip",
                "level": "Optimal"
            }
        }
    }
}

旧复制活动源模型Legacy copy activity source model

属性Property 说明Description 必须Required
typetype 复制活动源的 type 属性必须设置为 AzureBlobFSSource。The type property of the copy activity source must be set to AzureBlobFSSource. Yes
recursiverecursive 指示是要从子文件夹中以递归方式读取数据,还是只从指定的文件夹中读取数据。Indicates whether the data is read recursively from the subfolders or only from the specified folder. 当 recursive 设置为 true 且接收器是基于文件的存储时,将不会在接收器上复制或创建空的文件夹或子文件夹。When recursive is set to true and the sink is a file-based store, an empty folder or subfolder isn't copied or created at the sink.
允许的值为 true(默认值)和 falseAllowed values are true (default) and false.
No
maxConcurrentConnectionsmaxConcurrentConnections 可以同时连接到数据存储的连接数。The number of connections to connect to the data store concurrently. 仅当要限制连接到数据存储的并发连接时,才指定此属性。Specify only when you want to limit the concurrent connection to the data store. No

示例:Example:

"activities":[
    {
        "name": "CopyFromADLSGen2",
        "type": "Copy",
        "inputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<ADLS Gen2 input dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "outputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<output dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "typeProperties": {
            "source": {
                "type": "AzureBlobFSSource",
                "recursive": true
            },
            "sink": {
                "type": "<sink type>"
            }
        }
    }
]

旧复制活动接收器模型Legacy copy activity sink model

属性Property 说明Description 必须Required
typetype 复制活动接收器的 type 属性必须设置为 AzureBlobFSSink。The type property of the copy activity sink must be set to AzureBlobFSSink. Yes
copyBehaviorcopyBehavior 定义以基于文件的数据存储中的文件为源时的复制行为。Defines the copy behavior when the source is files from a file-based data store.

允许值包括:Allowed values are:
- PreserveHierarchy(默认):将文件层次结构保留到目标文件夹中。- PreserveHierarchy (default): Preserves the file hierarchy in the target folder. 指向源文件夹的源文件相对路径与指向目标文件夹的目标文件相对路径相同。The relative path of the source file to the source folder is identical to the relative path of the target file to the target folder.
- FlattenHierarchy:源文件夹中的所有文件都位于目标文件夹的第一级中。- FlattenHierarchy: All files from the source folder are in the first level of the target folder. 目标文件具有自动生成的名称。The target files have autogenerated names.
- MergeFiles:将源文件夹中的所有文件合并到一个文件中。- MergeFiles: Merges all files from the source folder to one file. 如果指定了文件名,则合并文件的名称为指定名称。If the file name is specified, the merged file name is the specified name. 否则,它是自动生成的文件名。Otherwise, it's an autogenerated file name.
No
maxConcurrentConnectionsmaxConcurrentConnections 可以同时连接到数据存储的连接数。The number of connections to connect to the data store concurrently. 仅当要限制连接到数据存储的并发连接时,才指定此属性。Specify only when you want to limit the concurrent connection to the data store. No

示例:Example:

"activities":[
    {
        "name": "CopyToADLSGen2",
        "type": "Copy",
        "inputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<input dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "outputs": [
            {
                "referenceName": "<ADLS Gen2 output dataset name>",
                "type": "DatasetReference"
            }
        ],
        "typeProperties": {
            "source": {
                "type": "<source type>"
            },
            "sink": {
                "type": "AzureBlobFSSink",
                "copyBehavior": "PreserveHierarchy"
            }
        }
    }
]

后续步骤Next steps

有关数据工厂中复制活动支持作为源和接收器的数据存储的列表,请参阅支持的数据存储For a list of data stores supported as sources and sinks by the copy activity in Data Factory, see Supported data stores.